Electrical  installation guide According to IEC international standards Electrica l insta lla tion guide 2016 01/2016 As standards, specifications and designs change from time to time, please ask for confirmation of  the information given in this pubication. This document has beenprinted on ecological paper ™ EIGED306001EN ART.822690 35, rue Joseph Monier CS30323 F-92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex RCS Nanterre 954 503 439 Capital social 928 298 512 €  www.schneider-electric.com Schneider Electric Industries SAS ™

This technical guide is the result of a collective  effort. Responsible for the coordination of this  edition: Laurent MISCHLER Edition: 2016Price: 60 €  ISBN: 978.2.9531643.3.6  N° dépôt légal: 1er semestre 2008  © Schneider Electric  All rights reserved in all countries The Electrical Installation Guide is a single document covering the  techniques and standards related to low-voltage electrical installations.  It is intended for electrical professionals in companies, design offices,  inspection organisations, etc. This Technical Guide is aimed at professional users and is only intended  to provide them guidelines for the definition of an industrial, tertiary or  domestic electrical installation. Information and guidelines contained in this  Guide are provided AS IS. Schneider Electric makes no warranty of any  kind, whether express or implied, such as but not limited to the warranties  of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, nor assumes any  legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness  of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this Guide,  nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.  The purpose of this guide is to facilitate the implementation of International  installation standards for designers & contractors, but in all cases the  original text of International or local standards in force shall prevail. This new edition has been published to take into account changes in  techniques, standards and regulations, in particular electrical installation  standard IEC 60364 series. We thank all the readers of the previous edition of this guide for their  comments that have helped improve the current edition.  We also thank the many people and organisations, too numerous to name  here, who have contributed in one way or another to the preparation of this  guide. This guide has been written for electrical Engineers who have to design,  select electrical equipment, install these equipment and, inspect or  maintain low-voltage electrical installations in compliance with international  Standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). “Which technical solution will guarantee that all relevant safety rules are  met?” This question has been a permanent guideline for the elaboration of  this document. An international Standard such as the IEC 60364 series “Low voltage  Electrical Installations” specifies extensively the rules to comply with to  ensure safety and correct operational functioning of all types of electrical  installations. As the Standard must be extensive, and has to be applicable  to all types of equipment and the technical solutions in use worldwide, the  text of the IEC rules is complex, and not presented in a ready-to-use order.  The Standard cannot therefore be considered as a working handbook, but  only as a reference document. The aim of the present guide is to provide a clear, practical and step- by-step explanation for the complete study of an electrical installation,  according to IEC 60364 series and other relevant IEC Standards. The first  chapter (A) presents the methodology to be used, and refers to all chapters  of the guide according to the different steps of the study.  We all hope that you, the reader, will find this handbook genuinely helpful. Schneider Electric S.A.

Acknowlegements This guide has been realized by a team of experienced international experts, on the base of IEC 60364 series of standard, and include the latest developments in electrical standardization. We shall mention particularly the following experts and their area of expertise: Chapter Christian  Collombet D, G Bernard Jover R Jacques Schonek D, G, L, M, N Didier Fulchiron B Jean-Marc Biasse B Didier Mignardot J, P Eric Bettega E Pascal Lepretre  E Emmanuel Genevray E, P Eric Breuillé F Didier Segura F Fleur Janet K Franck  Mégret G Geoffroy  De-Labrouhe K Jean Marc Lupin L, M Daniel Barstz N Hervé Lambert N, A Jérome  Lecomte H Matthieu Guillot F, H, P Jean-François Rey F Thierry Corménier B Franck Gruffaz K, S

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 Electrical installation Wiki The Electrical Installation Guide is also available on-line as a wiki   in 4 languages:   in English   in Russian   in Chinese   in German Our experts constantly contribute to its evolution. Industry and academic   professionals can collaborate too! Tools for more efficiency in electrical installation design Power Management Blog In the Schneider Electric blog, you will find the best tips about standards, tools,  software, safety and latest technical news shared by our experts. You will find  even more information about innovations and business opportunities. This is  your place to leave us your comments and to engage discussion about your  expertise. You might want to share with your Twitter or LinkedIn followers. English Russian Chinese German en.electrical-installation.org ru.electrical-installation.org de.electrical-installation.org cn.electrical-installation.org blog.schneider-electric.com/power-management-metering-monitoring-power-quality

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 Ecodial Advanced Calculation 4 The new Ecodial Advanced Calculation 4  software is dedicated to electrical  installation calculation in accordance with IEC60364 international standard or  national standards. This 4 th  generation offers new features like:   p  management of operating mode (parallel transformers, back-up generators…)   p  discrimination analysis associating curves checking and discrimination tables,  direct access to protection settings Online tools Online Electrical calculation Tools A set of tools designed to help you:   p display on one chart the time-current curves of different circuit-breakers or fuses   p check the discrimination between two circuit-breakers or fuses, or two Residual  Current devices (RCD), search all the circuit-breakers or fuses that can be  selective/cascading with a defined circuit-breaker or fuse   p calculate the Cross Section Area of cables and build a cable schedule   p calculate the voltage drop of a defined cable and check the maximum length hto.power.schneider-electric.com/int/en

Foreword Etienne TISON, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC64 Chairman. The task of the IEC Technical Committee 64 is to develop and keep up-to-date requirements - for the protection of persons against electrical shock, and- for the design, verification and implementation of low voltage electrical installations. Series of standard such as IEC 60364 developed by IEC TC64 is considered by the international community as the basis of the majority of national low-voltage wiring rules. IEC 60364 series is mainly focussed on safety due the use of electricity by people who may not be aware of risk resulting from the use of electricity. But modern electrical installations are increasingly complex, due to external input such as- electromagnetic disturbances- energy efficiency- ... Consequently, designers, installers and consumers need guidance on the selection and installation of electrical equipment. Schneider Electric has developed this Electrical Installation Guide dedicated to low voltage electrical installations. It is based on IEC TC64 standards such as IEC 60364 series and provides additional information in order to help designers, contractors and controllers for implementing correct low-voltage electrical installations. As TC64 Chairman, it is my great pleasure and honour to introduce this guide. I am sure it will be used fruitfully by all persons involved in the implementation of all low-voltage electrical installations.   Etienne TISON Etienne TISON  has been working with Schneider Electric since 1978. He has been always involved is various activities in low voltage field.In 2008, Etienne TISON has been appointed Chairman of IEC TC64 as well as Chairman of CENELEC TC64. Electrical installation guide 2016

General rules of electrical  installation design A B C D E F G H J K L M N Connection to the MV utility   distribution network Connection to the LV utility  distribution network MV & LV architecture selection  guide for buildings LV Distribution Protection against electric  shocks and electric fires Sizing and protection of  conductors LV switchgear: functions &  selection  Overvoltage protection Energy efficiency in electrical  distribution Power Factor Correction Harmonic management Characteristics of particular   sources and loads P Photovoltaic installations Q Residential and other special   locations R EMC guidelines S Measurement



This technical guide is the result of a collective  effort. Responsible for the coordination of this  edition: Laurent MISCHLER Edition: 2015Price: 60 €  ISBN: 978.2.9531643.3.6 N° dépôt légal: 1er semestre 2008  © Schneider Electric  All rights reserved in all countries The Electrical Installation Guide is a single document covering the  techniques and standards related to low-voltage electrical installations.  It is intended for electrical professionals in companies, design offices,  inspection organisations, etc. This Technical Guide is aimed at professional users and is only intended  to provide them guidelines for the definition of an industrial, tertiary or  domestic electrical installation. Information and guidelines contained in this  Guide are provided AS IS. Schneider Electric makes no warranty of any  kind, whether express or implied, such as but not limited to the warranties  of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, nor assumes any  legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness  of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this Guide,  nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.  The purpose of this guide is to facilitate the implementation of International  installation standards for designers & contractors, but in all cases the  original text of International or local standards in force shall prevail. This new edition has been published to take into account changes in  techniques, standards and regulations, in particular electrical installation  standard IEC 60364 series. We thank all the readers of the previous edition of this guide for their  comments that have helped improve the current edition.  We also thank the many people and organisations, too numerous to name  here, who have contributed in one way or another to the preparation of this  guide. This guide has been written for electrical Engineers who have to design,  select electrical equipment, install these equipment and, inspect or  maintain low-voltage electrical installations in compliance with international  Standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). “Which technical solution will guarantee that all relevant safety rules are  met?” This question has been a permanent guideline for the elaboration of  this document. An international Standard such as the IEC 60364 series “Low voltage  Electrical Installations” specifies extensively the rules to comply with to  ensure safety and correct operational functioning of all types of electrical  installations. As the Standard must be extensive, and has to be applicable  to all types of equipment and the technical solutions in use worldwide, the  text of the IEC rules is complex, and not presented in a ready-to-use order.  The Standard cannot therefore be considered as a working handbook, but  only as a reference document. The aim of the present guide is to provide a clear, practical and step- by-step explanation for the complete study of an electrical installation,  according to IEC 60364 series and other relevant IEC Standards. The first  chapter (A) presents the methodology to be used, and refers to all chapters  of the guide according to the different steps of the study.  We all hope that you, the reader, will find this handbook genuinely helpful. Schneider Electric S.A.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016   General rules of electrical installation design   1  Methodology  A2   2  Rules and statutory regulations  A5   3  Installed power loads - Characteristics  A11   4  Power loading of an installation  A17   Connection to the MV utility distribution network   1  Power supply at medium voltage  B2   2  Procedure for the establishment of a new substation  B10   3  Protection against electrical hazards, faults and mis-operations     in electrical installations  B12   4  The consumer substation with LV meteriang  B23   5  The consumer substation with MV metering  B26   6  Choice and use of MV equipment and MV/LV transformer   B29   7  Substation including generators and parallel operation of transformers B37   8  Types and constitution of MV/LV distribution substations  B40     Connection to the LV utility distribution network   1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks   C2   2  Tariffs and metering  C16   MV & LV architecture selection guide for buildings   1  Stakes of architecture design  D3 2 Simplified architecture design process D4   3  Electrical installation characteristics  D7   4  Technological characteristics  D11   5  Architecture assessment criteria  D12   6  Choice of architecture fundamentals  D14   7  Choice of architecture details  D18   8  Choice of equipment  D25   9  Recommendations for architecture optimization  D26   10 Glossary  D30    11 Example: electrical installation in a printworks  D31   LV Distribution   1  Earthing schemes  E2   2  The installation system  E15 3 External influences E34 Protection against electric shocks and electric fire   1  General  F2   2  Protection against direct contact  F4   3  Protection against indirect contact  F6   4  Protection of goods in case of insulation fault  F17   5  Implementation of the TT system  F19   6  Implementation of the TN system  F23   7  Implementation of the IT system  F29   8  Residual current devices (RCDs)  F36   9  Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD)   F43   Sizing and protection of conductors   1  General  G2   2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable  G7    cross-sectional area of circuit conductors   3  Determination of voltage drop  G19   4  Short-circuit current  G23   5  Particular cases of short-circuit current  G29   6  Protective earthing conductor (PE)  G36   7  The neutral conductor  G41   8  Worked example of cable calculation  G45    A B C D EF General contents G

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016   LV switchgear: functions & selection   1  The basic functions of LV switchgear  H2   2  The switchgear  H5   3  Choice of switchgear  H10   4  Circuit breaker  H11   5  Maintenance of low voltage switchgear  H32   Overvoltage protection   1  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin   J2   2  Principle of lightning protection   J7  3  Design of the electrical installation protection system   J13  4  Installation of SPDs   J24  5  Application   J28  6  Technical supplements   J32   Energy Efficiency in electrical distributi on 1 Energy Efficiency in brief K2 2 Energy efficiency and electricity K3 3 Diagnostics through electrical measurement K10 4 Energy saving opportunities K13 5 How to evaluate energy savings K29   Power Factor Correction   1  Power factor and Reactive power   L2   2  Why to improve the power factor?  L6   3  How to improve the power factor?  L8   4  Where to install power factor correction capacitors?  L11   5  How to determine the optimum level of compensation?  L13   6  Compensation at the terminals of a transformer  L16   7  Power factor correction of induction motors  L19   8  Example of an installation before and after power-factor correction L21   9  The effects of harmonics  L22   10  Implementation of capacitor banks  L26     Harmonic management   1  The problem: why is it necessary to manage harmonics?  M2 2 Definition and origin of harmonics M3   3  Essential indicators of harmonic distortion    and measurement principles  M7   4  Harmonic measurement in electrical networks  M10   5  Main effects of harmonics in electrical installations  M13   6  Standards  M20   7  Solutions to mitigate harmonics  M21   Characteristics of particular sources and loads   1  Protection of a LV generator set and the downstream circuits  N2   2  Uninterruptible Power Supply units (UPS)  N11   3  Protection of LV/LV transformers  N24   4  Lighting circuits  N27   5  Asynchronous motors  N55   Photovoltaic installations   1 Benefits of photovoltaic energy P2   2  Background and technology  P3   3  PV System and Installation Rules  P10   4  PV installation architectures  P16   5  Monitoring  P29 General contents J K L M N H P

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016   Residential and other special locations   1  Residential and similar premises  Q2   2  Bathrooms and showers  Q8   3  Recommendations applicable to special installations and locations  Q12     EMC guidelines   1  Electrical distribution  R2   2  Earthing principles and structures  R3   3  Implementation  R5   4  Coupling mechanisms and counter-measures  R20   5  Wiring recommendations  R26  Measurement   1  Measurement applications  S2   2  Description of applications  S3   3  Focus on IEC 61557-12 standard  S7 Q R General contents S

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Contents   Methodology   A2   Rules and statutory regulations   A5   2.1  Definition of voltage ranges  A5   2.2  Regulations  A6   2.3  Standards  A6   2.4  Quality and safety of an electrical installation  A7   2.5  Initial testing of an installation  A8   2.6  Put in out of danger the existing electrical installations  A8   2.7  Periodic check-testing of an installation  A9   2.8  Conformity assessement (with standards and specifications)       of equipment used in the installation  A9   2.9  Environment  A10   Installed power loads - Characteristics   A11   3.1  Induction motors  A11   3.2  Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps     (conventional or halogen)  A13   3.3  Fluorescent lamps   A14   3.4  Discharge lamps  A15   3.5  LED lamps & fixtures  A16   Power loading of an installation   A17   4.1  Installed power (kW)  A17   4.2  Installed apparent power (kVA)  A17   4.3  Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand  A18   4.4  Example of application of factors ku and ks  A21   4.5  Choice of transformer rating  A22   4.6  Choice of power-supply sources  A23 Chapter A General rules of electrical installation design 1    2 3    4   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved For the best results in electrical installation design it is recommended to read    and to use all the chapters of this guide in the order in which they are presented. Rules and statutory regulations Range of low-voltage extends from 0 V to 1000 V in a.c. and from 0 V to 1500 V  in d.c. One of the first decision is the selection of type of current between the  alternative current which corresponds to the most common type of current through  out the world and the direct current. Then designers have to select the most  appropriate rated voltage within these ranges of voltages. When connected to a    LV public network, the type of current and the rated voltage are already selected    and imposed by the Utility. Compliance with national regulations is then the second priority of the designers  of electrical installation. Regulations may be based on national or international  standards such as the IEC 60364 series. Selection of equipment complying with national or international product standards  and appropriate verification of the completed installation is a powerful mean    for providing a safe installation with the expected quality. Defining and complying    with the verification and testing of the electrical installation at its completion as well  as periodic time will guarantee the safety and the quality of this installation all along  its life cycle. Conformity of equipment according to the appropriate product standards  used within the installation is also of prime importance for the level of safety    and quality. Environmental conditions will become more and more stringent and will need    to be considered at the design stage of the installation. This may include national    or regional regulations considering the material used in the equipment as well as    the dismantling of the installation at its end of life. Installed power loads - Characteristics A review of all applications needing to be supplied with electricity is to be done. Any  possible extensions or modifications during the whole life of the electrical installation  are to be considered. Such a review aimed to estimate the current flowing in each  circuit of the installation and the power supplies needed.The total current or power demand can be calculated from the data relative    to the location and power of each load, together with the knowledge of the operating  modes (steady state demand, starting conditions, non simultaneous operation, etc.)Estimation of the maximum power demand may use various factors depending  on the type of application; type of equipment and type of circuits used within the  electrical installation.From these data, the power required from the supply source and (where appropriate)  the number of sources necessary for an adequate supply to the installation is readily  obtained.Local information regarding tariff structures is also required to allow the best choice  of connection arrangement to the power-supply network, e.g. at medium voltage    or low voltage level. Connection to the MV public distribution network Where this connection is made at the Medium Voltage level a consumer-type  substation will have to be studied, built and equipped. This substation may be    an outdoor or indoor installation conforming to relevant standards and regulations  (the low-voltage section may be studied separately if necessary). Metering    at medium-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case. Connection to the LV utility distribution network Where the connection is made at the Low Voltage level the installation will be  connected to the local power network and will (necessarily) be metered according    to LV tariffs. MV & LV architecture selection guide The whole electrical system including the MV installation and the LV installation  is to be studied as a complete system. The customer expectations and technical  parameters will impact the architecture of the system as well as the electrical  installation characteristics.Determination of the most suitable architecture of the MV/LV main distribution and    LV power distribution level is often the result of optimization and compromise.Neutral earthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations, constraints  related to the power-supply, and to the type of loads. 1  Methodology A - General rules of electrical installation design  A§3 - Installed power loads - CharacteristicsA§4 - Power loading of an installation B - Connection to the MV utility distribution  network C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network D - MV & LV architecture selection guide

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The distribution equipment (panelboards, switchgears, circuit connections, ...)    are determined from building plans and from the location and grouping of loads.The type of premises and allocation can influence their immunity to externaldisturbances. LV distribution The system earthing is one protective measure commonly used for the protection  against electric shocks. These systems earthings have a major impact on the    LV electrical installation architecture and they need to be analysed as early    as possible. Advantages and drawbacks are to be analysed for a correct selection.Another aspect needing to be considered at the earlier stage is the external  influences. In large electrical installation, different external influences may be  encountered and need to be considered independently. As a result of these external  influences proper selection of equipment according to their IP or IK codes has to be  made. Protection against electric shocks & electric fires Protection against electric shock consists in providing provision for basic protection  (protection against direct contact) with provision for fault protection (protection  against indirect contact). Coordinated provisions result in a protective measure. One of the most common protective measures consists in “automatic disconnection  of supply” where the provision for fault protection consists in the implementation    of a system earthing. Deep understanding of each standardized system (TT, TN    and IT system) is necessary for a correct implementation. Electrical fires are caused by overloads, short circuits and earth leakage currents,  but also by electric arcs in cables and connections. These dangerous electric arcs  are not detected by residual current devices nor by circuit breakers or fuses. The  arc fault detector technology makes it possible to detect dangerous arcs and thus  provide additional protection of installations. See chapter F §9 for more information. Sizing and protection of conductors Selection of cross-sectional-areas of cables or isolated conductors for line  conductors is certainly one of the most important tasks of the design process of  an electrical installation as this greatly influences the selection of overcurrent  protective devices, the voltage drop along these conductors and the estimation of  the prospective short-circuit currents: the maximum value relates to the overcurrent  protection and the minimum value relates to the fault protection by automatic  disconnection of supply. This has to be done for each circuit of the installation. Similar task is to be done for the neutral conductor and for the Protective Earth (PE)  conductor. LV switchgear: functions & selection Once the short-circuit current are estimated, protective devices can be selected for  the overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers have also other possible functions such  as switching and isolation. A complete understanding of the functionalities offered by  all switchgear and controlgear within the installation is necessary. Correct selection  of all devices can now be done. A comprehensive understanding of all functionalities offered by the circuit breakers    is of prime importance as this is the device offering the largest variety of functions. Overvoltage protection Direct or indirect lightning strokes can damage electrical equipment at a distance    of several kilometres. Operating voltage surges, transient and industrial frequency  over-voltage can also produce the same consequences. All protective measures  against overvoltage need to be assessed. One of the most used corresponds    to the use of  S urge  P rotective  D evices (SPD). Their selection; installation    and protection within the electrical installation request some particular attention. Energy efficiency in electrical distribution Implementation of active energy efficiency measures within the electrical installation  can produce high benefits for the user or owner: reduced power consumption,  reduced cost of energy, better use of electrical equipment. These measures will  most of the time request specific design for the installation as measuring electricity  consumption either per application (lighting, heating, process…) or per area (floor,  workshop) present particular interest for reducing the electricity consumption still  keeping the same level of service provided to the user. J - Overvoltage protection 1  Methodology F - Protection against electric shocks & electric  fires G - Sizing and protection of conductors H - LV switchgear: functions & selection E - LV Distribution K – Energy efficiency in electrical distribution

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Reactive energy The power factor correction within electrical installations is carried out locally,  globally or as a combination of both methods. Improving the power factor has a  direct impact on the billing of consumed electricity and may also have an impact on  the energy efficiency. Harmonics Harmonic currents in the network affect the quality of energy and are at the origin    of many disturbances as overloads, vibrations, ageing of equipment, trouble    of sensitive equipment, of local area networks, telephone networks. This chapter  deals with the origins and the effects of harmonics and explain how to measure them  and present the solutions. Particular supply sources and loads Particular items or equipment are studied: b  Specific sources such as alternators or inverters b  Specific loads with special characteristics, such as induction motors, lighting  circuits or LV/LV transformers b  Specific systems, such as direct-current networks. A green and economical energy The solar energy development has to respect specific installation rules. Generic applications Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most  common example being residential dwellings. EMC Guidelines Some basic rules must be followed in order to ensure Electromagnetic Compatibility.  Non observance of these rules may have serious consequences in the operation    of the electrical installation: disturbance of communication systems, nuisance  tripping of protection devices, and even destruction of sensitive devices. Measurement Measurement is becoming more and more an essential part of the electrical  installations. Chapter S is an introduction to the different applications of  measurements, such as energy efficiency, energy usage analysis, billing, cost  allocation, power quality ... It also provides a panorama of the relevant standards  for these applications, with a special focus on the IEC 61557-12 related to Power  Metering and monitoring devices (PMD). Ecodial software Ecodial software (1)  provides a complete design package for LV installations,   in accordance with IEC standards and recommendations.The following features are included: b  Construction of one-line diagrams b  Calculation of short-circuit currents according to several operating modes (normal,  back-up, load shedding) b  Calculation of voltage drops b  Optimization of cable sizes b  Required ratings and settings of switchgear and fusegear b  Discrimination of protective devices b  Optimization of switchgear using cascading  b  Verification of the protection of people and circuits b  Comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data There is a number of tools which can help to speed-up the design process.    As an example, to choose a combination of components to protect and control    an asynchronous motor, with proper coordination (type 1, 2 or total, as defined    in international standard IEC 60947-4-1), rather than selecting this combination  using paper tables, it is much faster to use tools such as the Low Voltage Motor  Starter Solution Guide . (1) Ecodial is a Schneider Electric software available in several languages and according to different electrical installation standards. 1  Methodology N - Characteristics of particular sources and loads P - Photovoltaic Installations M - Harmonic management Q - Residential and other special locations R - EMC guidelines A companion tool of  the Electrical Installation Guide L - Power Factor Correction S - Measurement

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Low-voltage installations are usually governed by a number of regulatory    and advisory texts, which may be classified as follows: b  Statutory regulations (decrees, factory acts, etc.) b  Codes of practice, regulations issued by professional institutions, job specifications b  National and international standards for installations b  National and international standards for products 2.1  Definition of voltage ranges IEC voltage standards and recommendations 2  Rules and statutory regulations Three-phase four-wire or three-wire systems  Single-phase three-wire systems  Nominal voltage (V)    Nominal voltage (V)  50 Hz  60 Hz  60 Hz –  120/208  120/240 (d) 230 (c)   240 (c)  – 230/400 (a)   230/400 (a)  – –  277/480  – –  480  – –  347/600  – –  600  – 400/690 (b)  –  – 1000  600  – (a) The value of 230/400 V is the result of the evolution of 220/380 V and 240/415 V  systems which has been completed in Europe and many other countries. However,  220/380 V and 240/415 V systems still exist. (b) The value of 400/690 V is the result of the evolution of 380/660 V systems which  has been completed in Europe and many other countries. However, 380/660 V systems  still exist. (c) The value of 200 V or 220 V is also used in some countries. (d) The values of 100/200 V are also used in some countries on 50 Hz or 60 Hz  systems. Fig. A1 : Standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 60038 Edition 7.0  2009-06)  (1) Fig. A2 : AC 3 phases Standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV   (IEC 60038 Edition 7.0 2009) (a) Series I      Series II  Highest voltage  Nominal system  Highest voltage  Nominal system for equipment (kV)  voltage (kV)  for equipment (kV)  voltage (kV) 3.6 (b)  3.3 (b)  3 (b)   4.40 (b)   4.16 (b) 7.2 (b)   6.6 (b)   6 (b)  –  – 12  11  10  –  – –  – – 13.2 (c)   12.47 (c) –  –  –  13.97 (c)  13.2 (c) –  –  –  14.52 (b)   13.8 (b) (17.5)  –  (15)  –  – 24  22  20  –  – –  –  –  26.4 (c, e)   24.94 (c, e) 36 (d)  33 (d)   30 (d)  –  – –  –  –  36.5 (c)   34.5 (c) 40.5 (d)   –  35 (d)  –  – Note 1 : It is recommended that in any one country the ratio between two adjacent  nominal voltages should be not less than two. Note 2 : In a normal system of Series I, the highest voltage and the lowest voltage do  not differ by more than approximately ±10 % from the nominal voltage of the system.  In a normal system of Series II, the highest voltage does not differ by more than +5 %  and the lowest voltage by more than -10 % from the nominal voltage of the system. (a) These systems are generally three-wire systems, unless otherwise indicated. The  values indicated are voltages between phases. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values.  It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be  constructed in future. (b) These values should not be used for new public distribution systems. (c) These systems are generally four-wire systems and the values indicated are  voltages between phases. The voltage to neutral is equal to the indicated value divided  by 1.73. (d) The unification of these values is under consideration. (e) The values of 22.9 kV for nominal voltage and 24.2 kV or 25.8 kV for highest  voltage for equipment are also used in some countries. (1)  b   the lower values in the first and second columns are  voltages to neutral and the higher values are voltages between phases. When one value only is indicated, it refers to three-wire systems and specifies the voltage between phases. The lower value in the third column is the voltage to neutral and the higher value is the voltage between lines. b   voltages in excess of 230/400 V are intended for heavy  industrial applications and large commercial premises. b   concerning supply voltage range, under normal operating  conditions, the supply voltage should not differ from the nominal voltage of the system by more than ±10 %.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.2  Regulations In most countries, electrical installations shall comply with more than one set of  regulations, issued by National Authorities or by recognized private bodies. It is  essential to take into account these local constraints before starting the design. These regulations may be based on national standards derived from the IEC 60364:  Low-voltage electrical installations. 2.3  Standards This Guide is based on relevant IEC standards, in particular IEC 60364. IEC  60364 has been established by engineering experts of all countries in the world  comparing their experience at an international level. Currently, the safety principles  of IEC 60364 series, IEC 61140, 60479 series and IEC 61201 are the fundamentals  of most electrical standards in the world (see table below and next page). IEC 60038  IEC standard voltages IEC 60051 series   Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their accessories IEC 60071-1  Insulation co-ordination - Definitions, principles and rules IEC 60076-1  Power transformers - General IEC 60076-2  Power transformers - Temperature rise for liquid immersed transformers IEC 60076-3  Power transformers - Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances in air IEC 60076-5  Power transformers - Ability to withstand short-circuit IEC 60076-7  Power transformers - Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers IEC 60076-10  Power transformers - Determination of sound levels IEC 60076-11  Power transformers - Dry-type transformers IEC 60076-12  Power transformers - Loading guide for Dry-type power transformers IEC 60146-1-1  Semiconductor converters - General requirements and line commutated converters - Specifications of basic requirements IEC 60255-1  Measuring relays and protection equipment - Common requirements IEC 60269-1  Low-voltage fuses - General requirements IEC 60269-2  Low-voltage fuses - Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) - Examples    of standardized systems of fuses A to K IEC 60282-1  High-voltage fuses - Current-limiting fuses IEC 60287-1-1  Electric cables - Calculation of the current rating - Current rating equations (100 % load factor) and calculation of losses - General IEC 60364-1  Low-voltage electrical installations - Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions IEC 60364-4-41  Low-voltage electrical installations - Protection for safety - Protection against electric shock IEC 60364-4-42  Low-voltage electrical installations - Protection for safety - Protection against thermal effects IEC 60364-4-43  Low-voltage electrical installations - Protection for safety - Protection against overcurrent IEC 60364-4-44  Low-voltage electrical installations - Protection for safety - Protection against voltage disturbances and electromagnetic disturbances IEC 60364-5-51  Low-voltage electrical installations - Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Common rules IEC 60364-5-52  Low-voltage electrical installations - Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Wiring systems IEC 60364-5-53  Low-voltage electrical installations - Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Isolation, switching and control IEC 60364-5-54  Low-voltage electrical installations - Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Earthing arrangements and protective conductors IEC 60364-5-55  Low-voltage electrical installations - Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Other equipment IEC 60364-6  Low-voltage electrical installations - Verification IEC 60364-7-701  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Locations containing a bath or shower IEC 60364-7-702  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Swimming pools and fountains IEC 60364-7-703  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Rooms and cabins containing sauna heaters IEC 60364-7-704  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Construction and demolition site installations IEC 60364-7-705  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Agricultural and horticultural premises IEC 60364-7-706  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Conducting locations with restrictive movement IEC 60364-7-708  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Caravan parks, camping parks and similar locations IEC 60364-7-709  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Marinas and similar locations IEC 60364-7-710  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Medical locations IEC 60364-7-711  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Exhibitions, shows and stands IEC 60364-7-712  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems IEC 60364-7-713  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Furniture IEC 60364-7-714  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - External lighting installations IEC 60364-7-715  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Extra-low-voltage lighting installations IEC 60364-7-717  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Mobile or transportable units IEC 60364-7-718  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Communal facilities and workplaces IEC 60364-7-721  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Electrical installations in caravans and motor caravans IEC 60364-7-729  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Operating or maintenance gangways IEC 60364-7-740  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Temporary electrical installations for structures,  amusement devices and booths at fairgrounds, amusement parks and circuses IEC 60364-7-753  Low-voltage electrical installations - Requirements for special installations or locations - Heating cables and embedded heating systems IEC 60364-8-1  Low-voltage electrical installations - Energy efficiency IEC 60446  Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Identification of equipment terminals, conductors  terminations and conductors IEC 60479-1  Effects of current on human beings and livestock - General aspects IEC 60479-2  Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Special aspects IEC 60479-3  Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Effects of currents passing through the body of livestock IEC 60529  Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) IEC 60644  Specification for high-voltage fuse-links for motor circuit applications (Continued on next page)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved IEC 60664  Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems - all parts IEC 60715  Dimensions of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear. Standardized mounting on rails for mechanical support of electrical devices in switchgear  and controlgear installations. IEC 60724  Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages of 1 kV (Um = 1.2 kV) and 3 kV (Um = 3.6 kV ) IEC 60755  General requirements for residual current operated protective devices IEC 60787  Application guide for the selection of high-voltage current-limiting fuses-link for transformer circuit IEC 60831-1  Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.c. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V - Part 1: General - Performance,  testing and rating - Safety requirements - Guide for installation and operation IEC 60831-2  Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.c. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V - Part 2: Ageing test, self-healing  test and destruction test IEC 60947-1  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - General rules IEC 60947-2  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Circuit breakers IEC 60947-3  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units IEC 60947-4-1  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Contactors and motor-starters - Electromechanical contactors and motor-starters IEC 60947-6-1  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Multiple function equipment - Transfer switching equipment IEC 61000 series  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC ) IEC 61140  Protection against electric shocks - common aspects for installation and equipment IEC 61201  Use of conventional touch voltage limits - Application guide IEC/TR 61439-0  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Guidance to specifying assemblies IEC 61439-1  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - General rules IEC 61439-2  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Power switchgear and controlgear assemblies IEC 61439-3  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Distribution boards intended to be operated by ordinary persons (DBO) IEC 61439-4  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Particular requirements for assemblies for construction sites (ACS) IEC 61439-5  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Assemblies for power distribution in public networks IEC 61439-6  Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Busbar trunking systems (busways) IEC 61557-1  Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1000 V a.c. and 1500 V d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective  measures - General requirements IEC 61557-8  Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1000 V a.c. and 1500 V d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective  measures - Insulation monitoring devices for IT systems IEC 61557-9  Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1000 V a.c. and 1500 V d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective  measures - Equipment for insulation fault location in IT systems IEC 61557-12  Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1000 V a.c. and 1500 V d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective  measures - Performance measuring and monitoring devices (PMD) IEC 61558-2-6  Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for supply voltages up to 1100 V - Particular requirements and test    for safety isolating transformers and power supply units incorporating isolating transformers IEC 61643-11  Low-voltage surge protective devices - Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power systems - Requirements and test methods IEC 61643-12  Low-voltage surge protective devices - Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems - Selection and application  principles IEC 61643-21   Low voltage surge protective devices - Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signalling networks - Performance  requirements and testing methods IEC 61643-22  Low-voltage surge protective devices - Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signalling networks - Selection    and application principles IEC 61921  Power capacitors - Low-voltage power factor correction banks IEC 61936-1  Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. - Part 1: Common rules IEC 62271-1  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Common specifications IEC 62271-100  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Alternating-current circuit breakers IEC 62271-101  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Synthetic testing IEC 62271-102  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches IEC 62271-103  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Switches for rated voltages above 1 kV up to and including 52 kV IEC 62271-105  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Alternating current switch-fuse combinations for rated voltages above 1 kV up to and including 52 kV IEC 62271-200  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Alternating current metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV    and up to and including 52 kV IEC 62271-202  High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - High-voltage/low voltage prefabricated substations IEC 62305-1  Protection against lightning - Part 1: General principles IEC 62305-2  Protection against lightning - Part 2: Risk management IEC 62305-3  Protection against lightning - Part 3: Physical damage to structures and life hazard IEC 62305-4  Protection against lightning - Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems within structures IEC 62586-2  Power quality measurement in power supply systems - Part 2: Functional tests and uncertainty requirements IEC TS 62749  Assessment of power quality - Characteristics of electricity supplied by public networks (Concluded) 2.4  Quality and safety of an electrical installation In so far as control procedures are respected, quality and safety will be assured  only if: b  The design has been done according to the latest edition of the appropriate wiring  rules b   The electrical equipment comply with relevant product standards b   The initial checking of conformity of the electrical installation with the standard  and regulation has been achieved b  The periodic checking of the installation recommended is respected. 2  Rules and statutory regulations

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.5  Initial testing of an installation Before a utility will connect an installation to its supply network, strict pre- commissioning electrical tests and visual inspections by the authority,    or by its appointed agent, must be satisfied.These tests are made according to local (governmental and/or institutional)  regulations, which may differ slightly from one country to another. The principles    of all such regulations however, are common, and are based on the observance    of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation.IEC 60364-6 and related standards included in this guide are based on an  international consensus for such tests, intended to cover all the safety measures and  approved installation practices normally required for residential, commercial and (the  majority of) industrial buildings. Many industries however have additional regulations  related to a particular product (petroleum, coal, natural gas, etc.). Such additional  requirements are beyond the scope of this guide.The pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual-inspection checks for installations  in buildings include, typically, all of the following: b  Electrical continuity and conductivity tests of protective, equipotential and earth- bonding conductors b  Insulation resistance tests between live conductors and the protective conductors  connected to the earthing arrangement b  Test of compliance of SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) and PELV (Protection by  Extra Low Voltage) circuits or for electrical separation b  Insulation resistance/impedance of floors and walls b  Protection by automatic disconnection of the supply v  For TN, by measurement of the fault loop impedance, and by verification    of the characteristics and/or the effectiveness of the associated protective devices  (overcurrent protective device and RCD) v  For TT, by measurement of the resistance RA of the earth electrode of the  exposed-conductive-parts, and by verification of the characteristics and/or the  effectiveness of the associated protective devices (overcurrent protective device    and RCD) v  For IT, by calculation or measurement of the current Id in case of a fist fault at  the line conductor or at the neutral, and with the test done for TN system where  conditions are similar to TN system in case of a double insulation fault situation,    with the test done for TT system where the conditions are similar to TT system    in case of a double insulation fault situation. b  Additional protection by verifying the effectiveness of the protective measure b  Polarity test where the rules prohibit the installation of single pole switching  devices in the neutral conductor. b  Check of phase sequence in case of multiphase circuit b  Functional test of switchgear and controlgear by verifying their installation and  adjustment  b  Voltage drop by measuring the circuit impedance or by using diagrams These tests and checks are basic (but not exhaustive) to the majority of installations,  while numerous other tests and rules are included in the regulations to cover  particular cases, for example: installations based on class 2 insulation, special  locations, etc. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types  of installation, and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve  a satisfactory level of quality, which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance.  The methods recommended in this guide, modified if necessary to comply with any  possible variation imposed by a utility, are intended to satisfy all precommissioning  test and inspection requirements. After verification and testing an initial report must be provided including records    of inspection, records of circuits tested together with the test result and possible  repairs or improvements of the installation. 2.6  Put in out of danger the existing electrical installations This subject is in real progress cause of the statistics with origin electrical  installation (number of old and recognised dangerous electrical installations, existing  installations not in adequation with the future needs etc.)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.7  Periodic check-testing of an installation In many countries, all industrial and commercial-building installations, together    with installations in buildings used for public gatherings, must be re-tested  periodically by authorized agents. The following tests should be performed b  Verification of RCD effectiveness and adjustments b  Appropriate measurements for providing safety of persons against effects    of electric shock and protection against damage to property against fire and heat b  Confirmation that the installation is not damaged b  Identification of installation defects Figure A3  shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according    to the kind of installation concerned. Conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways Fig A3 : Frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation  As for the initial verification, a reporting of periodic verification is to be provided.  2.8  Conformity assessement (with standards and  specifications) of equipment used in the installation The conformity assessement of equipment with the relevant standards can be  attested: b  By mark of conformity granted by the certification body concerned, or b  By a certificate of conformity issued by a certification body, or b  By a declaration of conformity given by the manufacturer. Declaration of conformity As business, the declaration of conformity, including the technical documentation,    is generally used in for high voltage equipments or for specific products. In Europe,  the CE declaration is a mandatory declaration of conformity. Note: CE marking In Europe, the European directives require the manufacturer or his authorized  representative to affix the CE marking on his own responsibility. It means that: b  The product meets the legal requirements b  It is presumed to be marketable in Europe. The CE marking is neither a mark of origin nor a mark of conformity, it completes the  declaration of conformity and the technical documents of the equipments. Certificate of conformity A certificate of conformity can reinforce the manufacturer's declaration    and the customer's confidence. It could be requested by the regulation    of the countries, imposed by the customers (Marine, Nuclear,..), be mandatory    to garanty the maintenance or the consistency between the equipments. Mark of conformity Marks of conformity are strong strategic tools to validate a durable conformity. It  consolidates the confidence with the brand of the manufacturer. A mark of conformity  Type of installation    Testing frequency Installations  b  Locations at which a risk of degradation,   Annually   which require  fire or explosion exists   the protection  b  Temporary installations at worksites   of employees   b  Locations at which MV installations exist     b  Restrictive conducting locations  where     mobile equipment is used    Other cases  Every 3 years Installations in buildings   According to the type of establishment  From one to    used for public gatherings,  and its capacity for receiving the public  three years   where protection against   the risks of fire and panic    are required Residential   According to local regulations  Example : the REBT       in Belgium which       imposes a periodic       control each 20 years. 2  Rules and statutory regulations

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2  Rules and statutory regulations is delivered by certification body if the equipment meets the requirements from  an applicable referential (including the standard) and after verification of the  manufacturer’s quality management system. Audit on the production and follow up on the equipments are made globally each year. Quality assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production  run: these tests are called type tests. In some tests for conformity to standards,  the samples are destroyed (tests on fuses, for example).Only the manufacturer can certify that the fabricated products have, in fact,  the characteristics stated.Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration    or certification of conformity.As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality    of production, the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system  which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned. These certificates are  issued by organizations specializing in quality control, and are based    on the international standard ISO 9001: 2000.These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control  corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: b  Model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products b  Model 2 includes, in addition to checking of the final product, verification of the  manufacturing process. For example, this method is applied, to the manufacturer of  fuses where performance characteristics cannot be checked without destroying the fuse b  Model 1 corresponds to model 2, but with the additional requirement that the  quality of the design process must be rigorously scrutinized; for example, where it is  not intended to fabricate and test a prototype (case of a custom-built product made to  specification). 2.9  Environment The contribution of the whole electrical installation to sustainable development can  be significantly improved through the design of the installation. Actually, it has been  shown that an optimised design of the installation, taking into account operation  conditions, MV/LV substations location and distribution structure (switchboards,  busways, cables), can reduce substantially environmental impacts (raw material  depletion, energy depletion, end of life), especially in term of energy efficiency. Beside its architecture, environmental specification of the electrical component  and equipment is a fundamental step for an eco-friendly installation. In particular to  ensure proper environmental information and anticipate regulation. In Europe several Directives concerning electrical equipments have been published,  leading the worldwide move to more environment safe products. a) RoHS Directive ( R estriction of  H azardous  S ubstances): in force since July 2006  and revised on 2012. It aims to eliminate from products six hazardous substances:  lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or  polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) from most of end user electrical products..  Though electrical installations being “large scale fixed installation” are not in the  scope, RoHS compliance requirement may be a recommendation for a sustainable  installation b) WEEE Directive ( W aste of  E lectrical and  E lectronic  E quipment): in force since   August 2005 and currently under revision. Its purpose is to improve the end of life  treatments for household and non household equipment, under the responsibility    of the manufacturers. As for RoHS, electrical installations are not in the scope    of this directive. However, End of Life Product information is recommended    to optimise recycling process and cost. c) Energy Related Product, also called Ecodesign. Apart for some equipments like  lighting or motors for which implementing measures are compulsory, there are no  legal requirements that directly apply to installation. However, trend is to provide  electrical equipments with their Environmental Product Declarattion, as it is becoming  for Construction Products, to anticipate Building Market coming requirements.   d) REACh: ( R egistration  E valuation  A uthorisation of  C hemicals). In force since  2007, it aims to control chemical use and restrict application when necessary to  reduce hazards to people and environment. With regards to Energy Efficiency and  installations, it implies any supplier shall, upon request, communicate to its customer  the hazardous substances content in its product (so called SVHC, Substances of  Very High Concern). Then, an installer should ensure that its suppliers have the  appropriate information availableIn other parts of the world new legislations will follow the same objectives.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Installed power loads -  Characteristics The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enables  the establishment of: b  A declared power demand which determines the contract for the supply of energy b  The rating of the MV/LV transformer, where applicable (allowing for expected  increased load) b  Levels of load current at each distribution board. 3.1  Induction motors Current demand The rated current In supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae: b  3-phase motor: In = Pn x 1000 /  (√ 3 x U x  η  x cos  ϕ) b  1-phase motor: In = Pn x 1000 / (U x  η  x cos  ϕ) where I n: rated current (in amps) Pn: nominal power (in kW)U: voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals  for single-phase motors (in volts). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to- neutral or phase-to-phase. η : per-unit efficiency, i.e. output kW / input kW cos  ϕ : power factor, i.e. kW input / kVA input. Subtransient current and protection setting b  Subtransient current peak value can be very high; typical value is about 12  to 15 times the rms rated value  I n. Sometimes this value can reach 25 times  I n.  b   Schneider Electric circuit breakers, contactors and thermal relays are designed    to withstand motor starts with very high subtransient current (subtransient peak value can be up to 19 times the rms rated value  I n). b  If unexpected tripping of the overcurrent protection occurs during starting, this  means the starting current exceeds the normal limits. As a result, some maximum  switchgear withstands can be reached, life time can be reduced and even some  devices can be destroyed. In order to avoid such a situation, oversizing of the  switchgear must be considered.  b  Schneider Electric switchgears are designed to ensure the protection of motor  starters against short-circuits. According to the risk, tables show the combination    of circuit breaker, contactor and thermal relay to obtain type 1 or type 2 coordination  (see chapter N). Motor starting current Although high efficiency motors can be found on the market, in practice their starting  currents are roughly the same as some of standard motors. The use of start-delta starter, static soft start unit or variable speed drive allows    to reduce the value of the starting current (Example: 4  I n instead of 7.5  I n). See also chapter N §5 "Asyncronous motors" for more information Compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors It is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current  supplied to induction motors. This can be achieved by using capacitors without  affecting the power output of the motors. The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generally  referred to as “power-factor improvement” or “power-factor correction”.As discussed in chapter L, the apparent power (kVA) supplied to an induction motor  can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. Reduction  of input kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltage  remains constant).Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for  long periods at reduced power. As noted above  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B10 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power 3  Installed power loads -Characteristics The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enablesthe establishment of: c  A declared power demand which determines the contract for the supply of energy c  The rating of the HV/LV transformer, where applicable (allowing for expected increases load) c  Levels of load current at each distribution board 3.1  Induction motors Current demand The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae: c  3-phase motor:  I a = Pn x 1,000 /  √ 3 x U x  η  x cos  ϕ c  1-phase motor:  I a = Pn x 1,000 / U x  η  x cos  ϕ where I a: current demand (in amps) Pn: nominal power (in kW of active power)U: voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminalsfor single-phase motors (in volts). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase. η : per-unit efficiency, i.e. output kW / input kW cos  ϕ : power factor, i.e. kW input / kVA input Subtransient current and protection setting c  Subtransient current peak value can be very high ; typical value is about 12 to 15 times the RMS rated value  I nm. Sometimes this value can reach 25 times I nm. c  Merlin Gerin circuit breakers, Telemecanique contactors and thermal relays are designed to withstand motor starts with very high subtransient current (subtransientpeak value can be up to 19 RMS rated value  I nm). c  If unexpected tripping of the overcurrent protection occurs during starting, this means the starting current exceeds the normal limits. As a result, some maximumswitchgears withstands can be reach, life time can be reduce and even somedevices can be destroyed. In order to avoid such a situation, oversizing of theswitchgear must be considered. c  Merlin Gerin and Telemecanique switchgears are designed to ensure the protection of motor starters against short circuits. According to the risk, tables showthe combination of circuit breaker, contactor and thermal relay to obtain type 1 ortype 2 coordination (see chapter M). Motor starting current Although high efficiency motors can be find on the market, in practice their startingcurrents are roughly the same as some of standard motors. The use of start-delta starter, static soft start unit or speed drive converter allows toreduce the value of the starting current (Example : 4  I a instead of 7.5  I a). Compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors It is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the currentsupplied to induction motors. This can be achieved by using capacitors withoutaffecting the power output of the motors.The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generallyreferred to as “power-factor improvement” or “power-factor correction”. As discussed in chapter K, the apparent power (kVA) supplied to an induction motorcan be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. Reduction ofinput kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltageremains constant). Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate forlong periods at reduced power. As noted above  cos   =   kW input kVA input ϕ  so that a kVA input reduction in kVA input will increase (i.e. improve) the value of cos  ϕ . An examination of the actual apparent-powerdemands of different loads: a necessarypreliminary step in the design of aLV installation The nominal power in kW (Pn) of a motorindicates its rated equivalent mechanical poweroutput.The apparent power in kVA (Pa) supplied to themotor is a function of the output, the motorefficiency and  the power factor.Pa = Pn /  η  cos  ϕ   so that a kVA input reduction will increase  (i.e. improve) the value of cos  ϕ . An examination of the actual apparent-power demands of different loads: a necessary preliminary step in the design  of a LV installation The nominal power in kW (Pn) of a motor indicates its rated equivalent mechanical power output.The apparent power in kVA (Pa) supplied to the motor is a function of the output, the motor  efficiency and  the power factor. Pa = Pn cos η ϕ

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The current supplied to the motor, after power-factor correction, is given by: B11 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power The current supplied to the motor, after power-factor correction, is given by: I cos  cos ' = ϕ ϕ where cos  ϕ  is the power factor before compensation and cos  ϕ ’ is the power factor after compensation,  I a being the original current. It should be noted that speed drive converter provides reactive energy compensation. Figure B4  below shows, in function of motor rated power, standard motor current values for several voltage supplies. 3  Installed power loads -Characteristics kW hp 230 V 380 - 400 V 440 - 500 V 690 V 415 V 480 V A A A A A A 0.18 - 1.0 - 0.6 - 0.48 0.35 0.25 - 1.5 - 0.85 - 0.68 0.49 0.37 - 1.9 - 1.1 - 0.88 0.64 - 1/2 - 1.3 - 1.1 - - 0.55 - 2.6 - 1.5 - 1.2 0.87 - 3/4 - 1.8 - 1.6 - - - 1 - 2.3 - 2.1 - - 0.75 - 3.3 - 1.9 - 1.5 1.1 1.1 - 4.7 - 2.7 - 2.2 1.6 - 1-1/2 - 3.3 - 3.0 - - - 2 - 4.3 - 3.4 - - 1.5 - 6.3 - 3.6 - 2.9 2.1 2.2 - 8.5 - 4.9 - 3.9 2.8 - 3 - 6.1 - 4.8 - - 3.0 - 11.3 - 6.5 - 5.2 3.8 3.7 - - - - - - - 4 - 15 9.7 8.5 7.6 6.8 4.9 5.5 - 20 - 11.5 - 9.2 6.7 - 7-1/2 - 14.0 - 11.0 - - - 10 - 18.0 - 14.0 - - 7.5 - 27 - 15.5 - 12.4 8.9 11 - 38.0 - 22.0 - 17.6 12.8 - 15 - 27.0 - 21.0 - - - 20 - 34.0 - 27.0 - - 15 - 51 - 29 - 23 17 18.5 - 61 - 35 - 28 21 - 25 - 44 - 34 - 22 - 72 - 41 - 33 24 - 30 - 51 - 40 - - - 40 - 66 - 52 - - 30 - 96 - 55 - 44 32 37 - 115 - 66 - 53 39 - 50 - 83 - 65 - - - 60 - 103 - 77 - - 45 - 140 - 80 - 64 47 55 - 169 - 97 - 78 57 - 75 - 128 - 96 - - - 100 - 165 - 124 - - 75 - 230 - 132 - 106 77 90 - 278 - 160 - 128 93 - 125 - 208 - 156 - - 110 - 340 - 195 156 113 - 150 - 240 - 180 - - 132 - 400 - 230 - 184 134 - 200 - 320 - 240 - - 150 - - - - - - - 160 - 487 - 280 - 224 162 185 - - - - - - - - 250 - 403 - 302 - - 200 - 609 - 350 - 280 203 220 - - - - - - - - 300 - 482 - 361 - - 250 - 748 - 430 - 344 250 280 - - - - - - - - 350 - 560 - 414 - - - 400 - 636 - 474 - - 300 - - - - - - - Fig. B4  : Rated operational power and currents (continued on next page) I a   where cos  ϕ  is the power factor before compensation and cos  ϕ ’ is the power factor  after compensation,  I a being the original current. Figure A4  below shows, in function of motor rated power, standard motor current  values for several voltage supplies (IEC 60947-4-1 Annex G) kW  hp  230 V  380 -  400 V  440 -  500 V  690 V        415 V    480 V      A A A A A A 0.18  -  1.0  -  0.6  -  0.48  0.35   0.25  -  1.5  -  0.85  -  0.68  0.49   0.37  -  1.9  -  1.1  -  0.88  0.64 -  1/2  -  1.3  -  1.1  -  -   0.55  -  2.6  -  1.5  -  1.2  0.87   -  3/4  -  1.8  -  1.6  -  - -  1  -  2.3  -  2.1  -  -   0.75  -  3.3  -  1.9  -  1.5  1.1   1.1  -  4.7  -  2.7  -  2.2  1.6 -  1-1/2  -  3.3  -  3.0  -  -   -  2  -  4.3  -  3.4  -  -   1.5  -  6.3  -  3.6  -  2.9  2.1 2.2  -  8.5  -  4.9  -  3.9  2.8   -  3  -  6.1  -  4.8  -  -   3.0  -  11.3  -  6.5  -  5.2  3.8 4  -  15  9.7  8.5  7.6  6.8  4.9   -  5  -  9.7  -  7.6  -  -   5.5  -  20  -  11.5  -  9.2  6.7 -  7-1/2  -  14.0  -  11.0  -  -   -  10  -  18.0  -  14.0  -  -   7.5  -  27  -  15.5  -  12.4  8.9 11  -  38.0  -  22.0  -  17.6  12.8   -  15  -  27.0  -  21.0  -  -   -  20  -  34.0  -  27.0  -  - 15  -  51  -  29  -  23  17   18.5  -  61  -  35  -  28  21   -  25  -  44  -  34  - 22  -  72  -  41  -  33  24   -  30  -  51  -  40  -  -   -  40  -  66  -  52  -  - 30  -  96  -  55  -  44  32   37  -  115  -  66  -  53  39   -  50  -  83  -  65  -  - -  60  -  103  -  77  -  -   45  -  140  -  80  -  64  47   55  -  169  -  97  -  78  57 -  75  -  128  -  96  -  -   -  100  -  165  -  124  -  -   75  -  230  -  132  -  106  77 90  -  278  -  160  -  128  93   -  125  -  208  -  156  -  -   110  -  340  -  195    156  113 -  150  -  240  -  180  -  -   132  -  400  -  230  -  184  134   -  200  -  320  -  240  -  - 150  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   160  -  487  -  280  -  224  162   185  -  -  -  -  -  -  - -  250  -  403  -  302  -  -   200  -  609  -  350  -  280  203   220  -  -  -  -  -  -  - -  300  -  482  -  361  -  -   250  -  748  -  430  -  344  250   280  -  -  -  -  -  -  - -  350  -  560  -  414  -  -   -  400  -  636  -  474  -  -   300  -  -  -  -  -  -  - Fig. A4 : Rated operational power and currents (continued on next page)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved kW  hp  230 V  380 -  400 V  440 -  500 V  690 V        415 V    480 V      A A A A A A 315  -  940  -  540  -  432  313   -  450  -  -  -  515  -  -   335  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 355  -  1061  -  610  -  488  354   -  500  -  786  -  590  -  -   375  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 400  -  1200  -  690  -  552  400   425  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   450  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 475  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   500  -  1478  -  850  -  680  493   530  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 560  -  1652  -  950  -  760  551   600  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   630  -  1844  -  1060  -  848  615 670  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   710  -  2070  -  1190  -  952  690   750  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 800  -  2340  -  1346  -  1076  780   850  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   900  -  2640  -  1518  -  1214  880 950  -  -  -  -  -  -  -   1000  -  2910  -  1673  -  1339  970  Fig.  A4 : Rated operational power and currents (concluded) 3.2  Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen) See also chapter N §4 "Lighting circuits" The current demand of a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is easily  obtained from the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.e. cos  ϕ  = 1)    (see  Fig. A5 ) . Fig. A5 : Current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or  halogen) appliances Nominal  Current demand (A)power  1-phase 1-phase 3-phase 3-phase (kW)  127 V  230 V  230 V  400 V 0.1  0.79   0.43  0.25  0.14 0.2  1.58  0.87  0.50  0.29 0.5  3.94  2.17  1.26  0.72 1  7.9  4.35  2.51  1.44 1.5  11.8  6.52  3.77  2.17 2  15.8  8.70  5.02  2.89 2.5  19.7  10.9  6.28  3.61 3  23.6  13  7.53  4.33 3.5  27.6  15.2  8.72  5.05 4  31.5  17.4  10  5.77 4.5  35.4  19.6  11.3  6.5 5  39.4  21.7  12.6  7.22 6  47.2   26.1  15.1  8.66 7  55.1  30.4  17.6  10.1 8  63  34.8  20.1  11.5 9  71  39.1  22.6  13 10  79  43.5  25.1  14.4 3  Installed power loads - Characteristics

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved (2) “Power-factor correction” is often referred to as  “compensation” in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.   Cos  ϕ  is approximately 0.95 (the zero values of V and  I   are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0.5 due to the  impulsive form of the current, the peak of which occurs “late”  in each half cycle The currents are given by: b  3-phase case:  I a = Pn U 3 (1) I a = Pn U (1) b  1-phase case:  I a = Pn U 3 (1) I a = Pn U (1) where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.For an incandescent lamp, the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light  source. The light output is increased and the lifetime of the lamp is doubled. Note : At the instant of switching on, the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but  intense peak of current. 3.3  Fluorescent lamps See also chapter N §4 "Lighting circuits" Fluorescent lamps and related equipment The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include  the power dissipated in the ballast.The current is given by: B13 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power 3  Installed power loads -Characteristics (1) “Power-factor correction” is often referred to as“compensation” in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.Cos  ϕ  is approximately 0.95 (the zero values of V and  I  are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0.5 due to theimpulsive form of the current, the peak of which occurs “late”in each half cycle Fig. B6  : Current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 230 V-50 Hz) c  1-phase case:  I a = Pn U (1) where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment. The current demand of a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is easilyobtained from the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.e. cos  ϕ  = 1). The currents are given by: c  3-phase case:  I a   = Pn U 3 (1) c  1-phase case:  I a = Pn U (1) where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment. For an incandescent lamp, the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated lightsource. The light output is increased and the lifetime of the lamp is doubled. Note: At the instant of switching on, the cold filament gives rise to a very brief butintense peak of current. Fluorescent lamps and related equipment The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not includethe power dissipated in the ballast. The current is given by: I a  cos  = + P Pn U ballast ϕ If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25% of Pn may be used. Standard tubular fluorescent lamps The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include thepower dissipated in the ballast. The current taken by the complete circuit is given by: I a  cos  = + P Pn U ballast ϕ where U = the voltage applied to the lamp, complete with its related equipment.With (unless otherwise indicated): c  cos  ϕ  = 0.6 with no power factor (PF) correction (1)  capacitor c  cos  ϕ  = 0.86 with PF correction (1)  (single or twin tubes) c  cos  ϕ  = 0.96 for electronic ballast. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25% of Pn may be used. Figure B6  gives these values for different arrangements of ballast. Arrangement Tube power Current (A) at 230 V Tube of lamps, starters (W)  (2) Magnetic ballast Electronic length and ballasts ballast (cm) Without PF With PF correction correction capacitor capacitor Single tube 18 0.20 0.14 0.10 60 36 0.33 0.23 0.18 120 58 0.50 0.36 0.28 150 Twin tubes 2 x 18 0.28 0.18 60 2 x 36 0.46 0.35 120 2 x 58 0.72 0.52 150 (2) Power in watts marked on tube Compact fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps have the same characteristics of economy and long lifeas classical tubes. They are commonly used in public places which are permanentlyilluminated (for example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.) and can be mounted insituations otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps (see  Fig. B7  next page). Where U = the voltage applied to the lamp, complete with its related equipment. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25 % of Pn may be  used. Standard tubular fluorescent lamps With (unless otherwise indicated): b  cos  ϕ  = 0.6 with no power factor (PF) correction (2)  capacitor b   cos  ϕ  = 0.86 with PF correction (2)  (single or twin tubes) b  cos  ϕ  = 0.96 for electronic ballast. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast, a figure of 25 % of Pn may be  used. Figure A6  gives these values for different arrangements of ballast. (1)  I a in amps; U in volts. Pn is in watts. If Pn is in kW, then  multiply the equation by 1000 Fig. A6 : Current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent  lighting tubes (at 230 V-50 Hz) Arrangement  Tube power   Current (A) at 230 V    Tube of lamps, starters  (W)  (3)   Magnetic ballast  Electronic  length  and ballasts        ballast  (cm)     Without PF   With PF      correction   correction      capacitor capacitor Single tube  18  0.20  0.14  0.10  60   36  0.33  0.23  0.18  120   58  0.50  0.36  0.28  150 Twin tubes  2 x 18    0.28  0.18  60   2 x 36    0.46  0.35  120   2 x 58    0.72  0.52  150 (3) Power in watts marked on tube Compact fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps have the same characteristics of economy and long life  as classical tubes. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently  illuminated (for example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.) and can be mounted in  situations otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps (see  Fig. A7   next page).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Installed power loads - Characteristics The power in watts indicated on the tube  of a discharge lamp does not include  the power dissipated in the ballast. Fig. A7 : Current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 230 V-50 Hz) Type of lamp  Lamp power   Current at 230 V    (W) (A) Separated   10  0.080  ballast lamp  18  0.110    26  0.150  Integrated   8  0.075  ballast lamp  11  0.095    16  0.125    21  0.170 Fig. A8a : Current demands of discharge lamps Type of  Power  Current  I n(A)    Starting    Luminous   Average  Utilization lamp (W)  demand  PF not  PF   x  I n  Period  efficiency    timelife of     (W) at  corrected  corrected      (mins)  (lumens  lamp (h)    230 V  400 V  230 V   400 V  230 V  400 V      per watt) High-pressure sodium vapour lamps 50  60  0.76  0.3  1.4 to 1.6  4 to 6  80 to 120  9000  b  Lighting of 70  80  1  0.45          large halls 100  115  1.2  0.65          b  Outdoor spaces 150   168  1.8  0.85         b  Public lighting 250   274  3  1.4            400   431  4.4  2.2            1000  1055  10.45  4.9            Low-pressure sodium vapour lamps  26   34.5  0.45  0.17  1.1 to 1.3  7 to 15  100 to 200  8000   b  Lighting of  36   46.5    0.22        to 12000  autoroutes 66   80.5    0.39          b  Security lighting, 91   105.5    0.49          station  131  154    0.69          b  Platform, storage                   areas Mercury vapour + metal halide (also called metal-iodide)  70  80.5  1  0.40  1.7  3 to 5  70 to 90  6000  b  Lighting of very 150   172  1.80  0.88        6000  large areas by 250   276  2.10  1.35        6000  projectors (for 400   425  3.40  2.15        6000  example: sports  1000  1046  8.25  5.30        6000  stadiums, etc.)  2000      2092    2052  16.50    8.60  10.50     6        2000    Mercury vapour + fluorescent substance (fluorescent bulb)   50   57  0.6  0.30  1.7 to 2  3 to 6  40 to 60  8000   b  Workshops 80   90  0.8  0.45        to 12000  with very high 125  141  1.15  0.70          ceilings (halls, 250  268  2.15  1.35          hangars) 400  421  3.25  2.15         b  Outdoor lighting 700  731  5.4  3.85         b   Low light output (1) 1000  1046  8.25  5.30            2000     2140    2080  15  11         6.1            (1) Replaced by sodium vapour lamps. Note : these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50 % of their nominal voltage, and will  not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes. Note : Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources. However, use of  these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible. 3.4  Discharge lamps See also chapter N §4 "Lighting circuits" Figure A8a  gives the current taken by a complete unit, including all associated  ancillary equipment.These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour  of a metallic compound, which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent  envelope at a pre-determined pressure. These lamps have a long start-up time,  during which the current  I a is greater than the nominal current  I n. Power and current  demands are given for different types of lamp (typical average values which may  differ slightly from one manufacturer to another).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Installed power loads - Characteristics 3.5  LED lamps & fixtures See also chapter N §4 "Lighting circuits" A lamp or luminaire with LED technology is powered by a driver:  b  can be integrated into the bulb (tube or lamp for retrofit) : in this case refer to the  power indicated on the lamp b  if separated : in that case it is necessary to take into account the power dissipated  in the driver and the power indicated for one or several associated LED modules. This technology has a very short start-up time. On the other hand, the inrush current  at the powering is generally much higher than for fluorescent lamp with electronic  ballast. Note : The power in Watts indicated on the LED module with a separated driver  doesn’t include the power dissipated in the driver. Fig. A8b : Main characteristics of LED lamps & fixtures Power Power  Starting     Luminous   Average  Utilization demand  factor  Inrush  Inrush   Full  efficiency    timelife   (W) at    current  current  Time  (lumens  230 V    Ip/In  time  to  per watt)       (microsec)  start 3  to 400 W  0.9  Up to 250  250   0.5   100 to 140  20000  b   All lighting          microsec  to 1 sec    to 50000  applications in all                 domains (housing,                 commercial and                 industrial building,                 infrastructure)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved A - General rules of electrical installation design In order to design an installation, the actual maximum load demand likely    to be imposed on the power-supply system must be assessed.To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the  installation would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice. The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity  (non simultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e.g.  an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability, etc.)    of all existing and projected loads can be assessed. The values given are based    on experience and on records taken from actual installations. In addition to providing  basic installation-design data on individual circuits, the results will provide    a global value for the installation, from which the requirements of a supply system  (distribution network, MV/LV transformer, or generating set) can be specified. 4.1  Installed power (kW) The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power consuming devices  in the installation.This is not the power to be actually supplied  in practice. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal  power rating (Pn). The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming  devices in the installation. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.  This is the case for electric motors, where the power rating refers to the output power  at its driving shaft. The input power consumption will evidently be greater. Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are other  cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power  consumed by the lamp and its ballast.Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lighting  appliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter.The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set  or battery, and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered.For a power supply from a LV public-supply network, or through a MV/LV transformer,   the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA. 4  Power loading of an installation 4.2  Installed apparent power (kVA) The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum    of the kVA of individual loads. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however  is not equal to the total installed kVA.The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) is  obtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary, as noted above    for motors, etc.) and the application of the following coefficients: η  = the per-unit efficiency = output kW / input kW cos  ϕ  = the power factor = kW / kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the loadPa = Pn /( η  x cos  ϕ ) From this value, the full-load current  I a (A) (1)  taken by the load will be: b   B15 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power In order to design an installation, the actual maximum load demand likely to beimposed on the power-supply system must be assessed. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in theinstallation would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice. The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity(nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e.g.an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability, etc.) of allexisting and projected loads can be assessed. The values given are based onexperience and on records taken from actual installations. In addition to providingbasic installation-design data on individual circuits, the results will provide a globalvalue for the installation, from which the requirements of a supply system(distribution network, HV/LV transformer, or generating set) can be specified. 4.1  Installed power (kW) The installed power is the sum of the nominalpowers of all powerconsuming devices in theinstallation.This is not the power to be actually supplied inpractice. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominalpower rating (Pn).The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consumingdevices in the installation. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.This is the case for electric motors, where the power rating refers to the outputpower at its driving shaft. The input power consumption will evidently be greater Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are othercases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the powerconsumed by the lamp and its ballast. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lightingappliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter. The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating setor battery, and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. For a power supply from a LV public-supply network, or through a HV/LV transformer,the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA. 4.2  Installed apparent power (kVA) The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum ofthe kVA of individual loads. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however isnot equal to the total installed kVA. The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) isobtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary, as noted above formotors, etc.) and the application of the following coefficients: η  = the per-unit efficiency = output kW / input kW cos  ϕ  = the power factor = kW / kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the loadPa = Pn /( η  x cos  ϕ ) From this value, the full-load current  I a (A) (1)  taken by the load will be: c   I a = Pa x 10 V 3 for single phase-to-neutral connected load c   I a = Pa x 10 3 x U 3 for three-phase balanced load where:V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts)U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts)It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the total kVA of apparent power is not thearithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loadsare at the same power factor).It is common practice however, to make a simple arithmetical summation, the resultof which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable “designmargin”.When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in Figure B9  next page may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW).The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 m 2 . The installed apparent power is commonlyassumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVAof individual loads. The maximum estimatedkVA to be supplied however is not equal to thetotal installed kVA. (1) For greater precision, account must be taken of the factorof maximum utilization as explained below in 4.3 4  Power loading of an installation     for single phase-to-neutral connected load b   B15 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power In order to design an installation, the actual maximum load demand likely to beimposed on the power-supply system must be assessed. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in theinstallation would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice. The aim of this chapter is to show how some factors taking into account the diversity(nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e.g.an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability, etc.) of allexisting and projected loads can be assessed. The values given are based onexperience and on records taken from actual installations. In addition to providingbasic installation-design data on individual circuits, the results will provide a globalvalue for the installation, from which the requirements of a supply system(distribution network, HV/LV transformer, or generating set) can be specified. 4.1  Installed power (kW) The installed power is the sum of the nominalpowers of all powerconsuming devices in theinstallation.This is not the power to be actually supplied inpractice. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominalpower rating (Pn).The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consumingdevices in the installation. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.This is the case for electric motors, where the power rating refers to the outputpower at its driving shaft. The input power consumption will evidently be greater Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are othercases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the powerconsumed by the lamp and its ballast. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lightingappliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter. The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating setor battery, and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. For a power supply from a LV public-supply network, or through a HV/LV transformer,the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA. 4.2  Installed apparent power (kVA) The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum ofthe kVA of individual loads. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however isnot equal to the total installed kVA. The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) isobtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary, as noted above formotors, etc.) and the application of the following coefficients: η  = the per-unit efficiency = output kW / input kW cos  ϕ  = the power factor = kW / kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the loadPa = Pn /( η  x cos  ϕ ) From this value, the full-load current  I a (A) (1)  taken by the load will be: c   I a = Pa x 10 3 for single phase-to-neutral connected load c   I a = Pa x 10 3 x U 3 for three-phase balanced load where:V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts)U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts)It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the total kVA of apparent power is not thearithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loadsare at the same power factor).It is common practice however, to make a simple arithmetical summation, the resultof which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable “designmargin”.When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in Figure B9  next page may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW).The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 m 2 . The installed apparent power is commonlyassumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVAof individual loads. The maximum estimatedkVA to be supplied however is not equal to thetotal installed kVA. (1) For greater precision, account must be taken of the factorof maximum utilization as explained below in 4.3 4  Power loading of an installation 3 x U   for three-phase balanced load where: V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts)U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts)It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the total kVA of apparent power is not the  arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loads are  at the same power factor).It is common practice however, to make a simple arithmetical summation, the result  of which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable “design  margin”. The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal  to the total installed kVA. (1) For greater precision, account must be taken of the factor of maximum utilization as explained below in 4.3

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.3  Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand All individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power    nor necessarily at the same time. Factors ku and ks allow the determination    of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension  the installation. Factor of maximum utilization (ku) In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less  than that indicated as its nominal power rating, a fairly common occurrence that  justifies the application of an utilization factor (ku) in the estimation of realistic values.This factor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention    to electric motors, which are very rarely operated at full load.In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0.75    for motors.For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals 1.For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being  supplied from the sockets concerned.For Electric Vehicle the utilization factor will be systematically estimated to 1, as it  takes a long time to load completely the batteries (several hours) and a dedicated  circuit feeding the charging station or wall box will be required by standards.  Fig. A9 : Estimation of installed apparent power Fluorescent lighting (corrected to cos  ϕ  = 0.86)    Type of application  Estimated (VA/m 2 )  Average lighting    fluorescent tube   level (lux =  l m/m 2 )    with industrial reflector (1) Roads and highways  7  150   storage areas, intermittent work Heavy-duty works: fabrication and  14  300   assembly of very large work pieces Day-to-day work: office work  24  500  Fine work: drawing offices   41  800   high-precision assembly workshops Power circuits  Type of application  Estimated (VA/m 2 )   Pumping station compressed air  3 to 6  Ventilation of premises  23  Electrical convection heaters:     private houses  115 to 146   flats and apartments  90  Offices  25  Dispatching workshop  50  Assembly workshop  70  Machine shop  300  Painting workshop  350  Heat-treatment plant  700  (1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included), flux 5,100 lumens (Im),    luminous efficiency of the tube = 78.5 Im / W. When some or all of the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in    Figure A9  may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands  (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW).    The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 m 2 .

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Power loading of an installation The determination of ks factors is the responsibility of the designer, since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the individual circuits are to be exploited. For this reason, it is not possible to give precise values for general application. Diversity factor - Coincidence factor (ks) It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed  loads of a given installation never occurs in practice, i.e. there is always some  degree of diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the  use    of a factor (ks). This factor is defined in IEC60050 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary,    as follows: b  Coincidence factor:  the ratio, expressed as a numerical value or as a percentage,  of the simultaneous maximum demand of a group of electrical appliances or consumers within a specified period, to the sum of their individual maximum  demands within the same period. As per this definition, the value is always y 1 and  can be expressed as a percentage b  Diversity factor:  the reciprocal of the coincidence factor. It means it will   always be u  1. Note:  In practice, the most commonly used term is the diversity factor, but it is  used in replacement of the coincidence factor, thus will be always = 1. The term  "simultaneity factor" is another alternative that is sometimes used.The factor ks is applied to each group of loads (e.g. being supplied from a  distribution or sub-distribution board). The following tables are coming from local standards or guides, not from  international standards. They should only be used as examples of determination    of such factors. Diversity factor for an apartment block Some typical values for this case are given in  Figure A10 , and are applicable to  domestic consumers without electrical heating, and supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase  4-wires). In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space  Fig. A10 : Example of diversity factors for an apartment block as defined in French standard  NFC14-100, and applicable for apartments without electrical heating Number of downstream  Diversity consumers  factor (ks) 2 to 4  1 5 to 9  0.78 10 to 14  0.63 15 to 19  0.53 20 to 24  0.49 25 to 29  0.46 30 to 34  0.44 35 to 39  0.42 40 to 49  0.41 50 and more  0.38 heating, a factor of 0.8 is recommended, regardless of the number of consumers. Example  (see  Fig. A11 ): 5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers, each having 6 kVA of installed load.The total installed load for the building is: 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVAThe apparent-power supply required for the building is: 150 x 0.46 = 69 kVAFrom  Fig. A11 , it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different  sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors. For vertical rising mains  fed at ground level, the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be  progressively reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors.These changes of conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor  intervals.In the example, the current entering the rising main at ground level is: 150 x 0.46 x 10 400 3   3 = 100 A the current entering the third floor is: (36 + 24) x 0.63 x 10 400 3   3 = 55 A 4 th floor 6 consumers36 kVA 3 rd floor 2 nd floor 1 st floor groundfloor 4 consumers24 kVA 6 consumers36 kVA 5 consumers30 kVA 4 consumers24 kVA 0.78 0.63 0.53 0.49 0.46 Fig. A11 : Application of the diversity factor (ks) to an apartment  block of 5 storeys

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Rated Diversity Factor for distribution switchboards The standards IEC61439-1 and 2 define in a similar way the Rated Diversity Factor  for distribution switchboards (in this case, always y 1)IEC61439-2 also states that, in the absence of an agreement between the assembly  manufacturer (panel builder) and user concerning the actual load currents    (diversity factors), the assumed loading of the outgoing circuits of the assembly or  group of outgoing circuits may be based on the values in  Fig. A12. If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads, it is prudent to adopt ks values close to  unity. Circuit function    Diversity factor (ks) Lighting    1 Heating and air conditioning  1 Socket-outlets    0.1 to 0.2  (1) Lifts and catering hoist  (2)  b  For the most powerful      motor  1    b  For the second most      powerful motor  0.75    b  For all motors  0.60 (1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this factor can be higher.(2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor,  increased by a third of its starting current. Fig. A13 : Diversity factor according to circuit function (see UTE C 15-105 table AC) Type of load Assumed loading factor Distribution - 2 and 3 circuits 0.9 Distribution - 4 and 5 circuits 0.8 Distribution - 6 to 9 circuits 0.7 Distribution - 10 or more circuits 0.6 Electric actuator 0.2 Motors y 100 kW 0.8 Motors  100 kW 1.0 Fig. A12 : Rated diversity factor for distribution boards (cf IEC61439-2 table 101) Diversity factor according to circuit function ks factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads,  are shown in   Figure A13 . It is provided in French practical guide UTE C 15-105.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Power loading of an installation 4.4  Example of application of factors ku and ks An example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of an  installation, from each load position to the point of supply is given  Fig. A14. In this example, the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA, which corresponds  to an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the MV/LV transformer   of 65 kVA only. Note : in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation, the  current  I  (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation:   Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B18 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power 4.4  Example of application of factors ku and ks An example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of aninstallation, from each load position to the point of supply (see  Fig. B14 opposite page). In this example, the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA, which correspondsto an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the HV/LV transformerof 65 kVA only. Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation, thecurrent  I  (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation: I = kVA U  x 10   3 3 where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on thediagram for the circuit concerned, and U is the phaseto- phase voltage (in volts). 4.5  Diversity factor The term diversity factor, as defined in IEC standards, is identical to the factor ofsimultaneity (ks) used in this guide, as described in 4.3. In some English-speakingcountries however (at the time of writing) diversity factor is the inverse of ks i.e. it isalways  u  1. Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards Figure B12  shows hypothetical values of ks for a distribution board supplying a number of circuits for which there is no indication of the manner in which the totalload divides between them. If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads, it is prudent to adopt ks values close tounity. Fig. B12  : Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 60439) Number of Factor of circuits simultaneity (ks) Assemblies entirely tested 0.9 2 and 3 4 and 5 0.8 6 to 9 0.7 10 and more 0.6 Assemblies partially tested 1.0 in every case choose Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function Ks factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads, areshown in  Figure B13 . Circuit function Factor of simultaneity (ks) Lighting 1 Heating and air conditioning 1 Socket-outlets 0.1 to 0.2  (1) 10 and more 0.6 Lifts and catering hoist  (2) c  For the most powerful motor 1 c  For the second most powerful motor 0.75 c  For all motors 0.60 (1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this factor can be higher. (2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor,oncreased by a third of its starting current. Fig. B13  : Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function 4  Power loading of an installation where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the  diagram for the circuit concerned, and U is the phase to- phase voltage (in volts). Fig A14 : An example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only) 1 Distributionbox Workshop A 5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 5 5 5 2 2 Lathe 18 3 1 1 1 0.8 0.4 1 15 10.6 2.5 2.5 15 15 Ventilation 0.28 1 18 1 1 2 1 Oven 30 fluorescentlamps Pedestal-drill Workshop B Compressor Workshop C no. 1 no. 2 no. 3 no. 4 no. 1 no. 2 no. 1 no. 2 no. 1 no. 2 4 4 4 4 1.6 1.6 18 3 14.4 12 1 1 1 1 2.5 2 18 15 15 2.5 Workshop Adistributionbox 0.75 Powercircuit Powercircuit Powvercircuit Workshop Bdistributionbox Workshop Cdistributionbox MaingeneraldistributionboardMGDB Socket-oulets Socket-oulets Socket-oulets Lightingcircuit Lightingcircuit Lightingcircuit 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 10.6 3.6 3 12 4.3 1 15.6 18.9 37.8 35 5 2 65 LV / MV Distributionbox 1 1 1 0.2 1 10/16 A 5 socket-outlets 20 fluorescentlamps 5 socket-outlets 10 fluorescentlamps 3 socket-outlets   10/16 A 10/16 A Utilization   Apparent  Utilization  Apparent  Diversity  Apparent  Diversity  Apparent  Diversity  Apparent   power  factor  power  factor  power  factor  power  factor  power   (Pa)  max.  demand    demand    demand    demand   kVA    max. kVA    kVA    kVA    kVA Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A - General rules of electrical installation design A22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.5  Choice of transformer rating When an installation is to be supplied directly from a MV/LV transformer    and the maximum apparent-power loading of the installation has been determined,    a suitable rating for the transformer can be decided, taking into account the following  considerations (see  Fig. A15 ): b  The possibility of improving the power factor of the installation (see chapter L) b  Anticipated extensions to the installation b  Installation constraints (e.g. temperature) b  Standard transformer ratings. The nominal full-load current  I n on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B20 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power c  Installation constraints (temperature...) standard transformer ratings The nominal full-load current In on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: I n a x 10   3 = P U 3 where c  Pa = kVA rating of the transformer c  U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load in volts (237 V or 410 V) c   I n is in amperes. For a single-phase transformer: I n a x 10 3 = P V where c  V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load (in volts) c  Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) c   I n = kVA x 1.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 60076. 4.7  Choice of power-supply sources The study developed in E1 on the importance of maintaining a continuous supplyraises the question of the use of standby-power plant. The choice and characteristicsof these alternative sources are described in E1.4.For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection to theHV or the LV network of the power-supply utility.In practice, connection to a HV source may be necessary where the load exceeds(or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level - generally of the order of250 kVA, or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally availablefrom a LV network.Moreover, if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouringconsumers, when connected to a LV network, the supply authorities may proposea HV service. Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: in fact, a HV consumer: c  Is not disturbed by other consumers, which could be the case at LV c  Is free to choose any type of LV earthing system c  Has a wider choice of economic tariffs c  Can accept very large increases in load It should be noted, however, that: c  The consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV substation and, in some countries, he must build and equip it at his own expense. The power utility can, in certaincircumstances, participate in the investment, at the level of the HV line for example c  A part of the connection costs can, for instance, often be recovered if a second consumer is connected to the HV line within a certain time following the originalconsumer’s own connection c  The consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation, access to the HV part being reserved to the utility personnel (meter reading, operations, etc.).However, in certain countries, the HV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-breakswitch) can be operated by the consumer c  The type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer and the utility 4  Power loading of an installation where b  Pa = kVA rating of the transformer b  U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load in volts (237 V or 410 V) b   I n is in amperes. For a single-phase transformer: Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 B20 B - General design - Regulations -Installed power c  Installation constraints (temperature...) standard transformer ratings The nominal full-load current In on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: I n a x 10   3 = P U 3 where c  Pa = kVA rating of the transformer c  U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load in volts (237 V or 410 V) c   I n is in amperes. For a single-phase transformer: I n a x 10 3 = P V where c  V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load (in volts) c  Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) c   I n = kVA x 1.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 60076. 4.7  Choice of power-supply sources The study developed in E1 on the importance of maintaining a continuous supplyraises the question of the use of standby-power plant. The choice and characteristicsof these alternative sources are described in E1.4.For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection to theHV or the LV network of the power-supply utility.In practice, connection to a HV source may be necessary where the load exceeds(or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level - generally of the order of250 kVA, or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally availablefrom a LV network.Moreover, if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouringconsumers, when connected to a LV network, the supply authorities may proposea HV service. Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: in fact, a HV consumer: c  Is not disturbed by other consumers, which could be the case at LV c  Is free to choose any type of LV earthing system c  Has a wider choice of economic tariffs c  Can accept very large increases in load It should be noted, however, that: c  The consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV substation and, in some countries, he must build and equip it at his own expense. The power utility can, in certaincircumstances, participate in the investment, at the level of the HV line for example c  A part of the connection costs can, for instance, often be recovered if a second consumer is connected to the HV line within a certain time following the originalconsumer’s own connection c  The consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation, access to the HV part being reserved to the utility personnel (meter reading, operations, etc.).However, in certain countries, the HV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-breakswitch) can be operated by the consumer c  The type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer and the utility 4  Power loading of an installation where b  V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load (in volts) Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) b   I n = kVA x 1.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 60076. Fig. A15 : Standard apparent powers for MV/LV transformers and related nominal output currents Apparent power  I n (A) kVA  237 V  410 V 100  244  141 160  390  225 250  609  352 315  767  444 400  974  563 500  1218  704 630  1535  887 800  1949  1127 1000  2436  1408 1250  3045  1760 1600  3898  2253 2000  4872  2816 2500  6090  3520 3150  7673  4436

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 A23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.6  Choice of power-supply sources The importance of maintaining a continuous supply raises the question of the use    of standby-power plant. The choice and characteristics of these alternative sources  are part of the architecture selection, as described in chapter D.For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection    to the MV or the LV network of the power-supply utility. In some cases main source  of supply can be rotating generators in the case of remote installations with difficult  access to the local Utility public grid (MV or LV) or where the reliability of the public  grid does not have the minimum level of reliability expected.In practice, connection to a MV source may be necessary where the load exceeds  (or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level - generally of the order of  250 kVA, or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally available  from a LV network.Moreover, if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouring consumers,  when connected to a LV network, the supply authorities may propose a MV service.Supplies at MV can have certain advantages: in fact, a MV consumer: b  Is not disturbed by other consumers, which could be the case at LV b  Is free to choose any type of LV earthing system b  Has a wider choice of economic tariffs b  Can accept very large increases in load It should be noted, however, that: b  The consumer is the owner of the MV/LV substation and, in some countries,  he must build equip and maintain it at his own expense. The power utility can,    in certain circumstances, participate in the investment, at the level of the MV line    for example b  A part of the connection costs can, for instance, often be recovered if a second  consumer is connected to the MV line within a certain time following the original  consumer’s own connection b  The consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation, access to the  MV part being reserved to the utility personnel (meter reading, operations, etc.).  However, in certain countries, the MV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-break  switch) can be operated by the consumer b  The type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer    and the utility.More and more renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panels are used  to supply low-voltage electrical installations. In some case these PV panels  are connected in parallel to the Utility grid or these PV panels are used in an  autonomous mode without connection to the public grid. Conversion from d.c. to a.c.  is then necessary as rated voltage of these PV panels are higher and higher (few  hundreds volts) and also because PV panels produce d.c. currents.See also chapter P "Photovoltaic installations" 4  Power loading of an installation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved   Power supply at medium voltage   B2   1.1  Main requirements for power supply at Medium Voltage     and typical architectures  B2   1.2  Medium voltages and current values according     to IEC Standards  B4   1.3  Different types of MV power supply  B5   1.4  Some practical issues  concerning MV distribution networks  B7   Procedure for the establishment of a new substation  B10   2.1  Preliminary information  B10   2.2  Information and requirements provided  by the utility   B11   2.3  Commissioning, testing, energizing   B11   Protection against electrical hazards, faults and mis-operations     in electrical installations   B12   3.1  General principle of protection  against electrical     shocks in electrical installations  B12   3.2  Protection of transformer and circuits  B14   3.3  MV/LV transformer protection with circuit breaker  B17   3.4  Interlocks and conditioned operations  B19   The consumer substation with LV metering  B23   4.1  Definition   B23   4.2  Functions of a substation with LV metering  B23   4.3  Choice of MV equipment  B24   The consumer substation with MV metering  B26   5.1  Definition   B26   5.2  Functions of the substation with MV metering  B26   5.3  Choice of MV equipment  B28   Choice and use of MV equipment and MV/LV transformer  B29   6.1  Choice of MV equipment  B29   6.2  Instructions for use of MV equipment  B30   6.3  Choice of MV/LV transformer  B31   6.4  Ventilation in MV Substations  B34   Substation including  generators and parallel operation    of transformers  B37   7.1  Generators in stand-alone operation,    not working in parallel with the supply network   B37   7.2  Generators operating in parallel  with the utility supply network  B37   7.3  Parallel operation of transformers  B39   Types and constitution of MV/LV distribution substations  B40   8.1  Different types of substations   B40   8.2  Indoor substation  B40   8.3  Outdoor substations  B42 Chapter B Connection to the MV utility   distribution network 2    1    3     4    5    6     7     8     Contents

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The term "medium voltage" is commonly used for distribution systems with voltages  above 1 kV and generally applied up to and including 52 kV (1) . For technical and  economic reasons, the service voltage of medium voltage distribution networks  rarely exceeds 35 kV.In this chapter, networks which operate at 1000 V or less are referred to as low  voltage (LV) networks.The connection of an electrical installation to a MV utility distribution network is  always realized by means of a dedicated MV substation usually designed "Main  substation". Depending on its size and specific criteria mainly related to the loads  (Rated voltage, number, power, location, etc…), the installation may include  additional substations designed "Secondary substations". The locations of these  substations are carefully selected in order to optimize the budget dedicated to MV  and LV power cables. They are supplied from the main substation through the  internal MV distribution.Generally, most of the loads are supplied in low voltage by means of MV/LV step  down transformers. Large loads such as asynchronous motors above around 1MW  are supplied in MV. Only LV loads are considered in this electrical guide.MV/LV step down power transformers are indifferently located either in the main  substation or in the secondary substations. Small installations may only include a  single MV/LV transformer installed in the main substation in most of the cases.A main substation includes five basic functions:  Function 1: Connection to the MV utility network Function 2: General protection of the installation Function 3: Supply and protection of MV/LV power transformers located   in the substation Function 4: Supply and protection of the internal MV distribution Function 5: Metering.For the installations including a single MV/LV power transformer the general  protection and the protection of the transformer are merged.The metering can be performed either at MV level or at LV level. It is authorized  at LV level for any installation including a single MV/LV transformer, provided that  the rated power of the transformer remains below the limit fixed by the local utility  supplying the installation.In addition to the functional requirements the construction of both main and  secondary substations shall comply with the  local  standards and rules dedicated  to the protection of persons. IEC recommendations should also be taken into  consideration in all circumstances. 1.1  Main requirements for power supply   at Medium Voltage and typical architectures The characteristics of electrical equipment (switchgears, transformers, etc…) installed  in the substations are fixed by the rated values of both voltage and current specified  for the distribution network supplying the installation: b  Ur, rated voltage, rms value, kV b  Ud, rated power frequency withstand voltage, rms value, kV during 1mn b  Up: rated lightning impulse withstand voltage, peak value, kV b  Un, service voltage, rms value, kV As the rated voltage Ur indicates the maximum value of the "highest system voltage"  of networks for which the equipment may be used, the service voltage Un really  existing in the network, including its possible variations shall remain below the rated  voltage. b  Rated normal current Ir, rms value, A b  Rated short-time withstand current Ik, rms value, kA b  Rated peak withstand current Ip, peak value, kA. Considering the previous requirements and basic usages, four typical architectures  can be defined for an electrical installation connected to a MV utility distribution  network:   Fig. B1: single MV/LV power transformer with metering at LV level Fig. B2: single MV/LV power transformer with metering at MV level Fig. B3: several MV/LV transformers, all located in the main substation Fig. B4: several secondary substations supplied by an internal MV distribution. Most of   MV/LV transformers are located in secondary substations. Some of them when required  are installed in the main substation (1) According to the IEC there is no clear boundary between  medium and high voltage. Local and historical factors  play a part, and limits are usually between 30 and 100 kV  (see IEV 601-01-28). The publication IEC 62271-1  "High- voltage switchgear and controlgear; common specifications"  incorporates a note in its scope: "For the use of this standard, high voltage (see IEV 601-01-27) is the rated voltage above 1000 V. However, the term medium voltage (see IEV 601-01-28) is commonly used for distribution systems with voltages above 1 kV and generally applied up to and including 52 kV." . 1  Power supply at medium voltage 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1  Power supply at medium voltage Fig. B2 : Installation including a single MV/LV power  transformer with metering at MV level Main Substation Function 1 Connection  to the MV  utility  distribution  network Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer Function 5 Metering at  MV Level LV Distribution MV/LV Transformer Fig. B3 : Installation including several MV/LV transformers, all located in the main substation Main Substation Function 1 Connection  to the MV  utility  distribution  network Function 2 General  protection  of the  installation Function 5 Metering at  MV Level Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer 1 Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer 3 Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer 2 LV Distribution LV Distribution LV Distribution MV/LV Transformer 1, 2 & 3 Fig. B4 : Installation including several secondary substations supplied by an internal  MV distribution Main Substation Function 1 Connection  to the MV  utility  distribution  network Function 2 General  protection  of the  installation Function 5 Metering at  MV Level Function 4 Protection  of internal  MV  distribution Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer Function 4 Protection  of internal  MV  distribution Internal MV distribution  (spur, ring or parallel service) LV Distribution LV Distribution MV/LVTransformer LV Distribution MV/LVTransformer LV Distribution MV/LVTransformer Secondary Substation 1 Secondary Substation 2 Secondary Substation 3 MV/LVTransformer The functional and safety requirements defined above are detailed in this chapter, in  the following sub-clauses:   b   1.2 to 1.4: Voltages and currents according to IEC Standards, different types of  MV power supply, practical issues concerning MV distribution networks b   2.1 to 2.2: Procedure for the establishment of a new substation  b   3.1 to 3.4: Protection against electrical hazards, faults and mis-operations  b   4.1 to 4.2: Consumer substation with LV metering   b   5.1 to 5.2: Consumer substation with MV metering b   6.1 to 6.4: Choose and use MV equipment and MV/LV transformers b   7.1 to 7.3: Substation including generators and parallel operation   of transformers  b   8.1 to 8.3: Types and constitution of MV/LV distribution substations.  The methodology of selection of an architecture for a MV/LV electrical installation   is detailed in chapter D. Fig. B1 : Installation including a single MV/LV power  transformer with metering at LV level Main Substation Function 1 Connection  to the MV  utility  distribution  network Function 3 Protection  of MV/LV  transformer Function 5 Metering at  LV Level LV Distribution MV/LV Transformer

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.2  Medium voltages and current values   according to IEC Standards 1.2.1  Rated voltage values according to IEC 60071-1 (Insulation   co-ordination – Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules)  (see  Fig. B5) b  Ur, rated voltage, rms value, kV: this is the maximum rms value of voltage that the  equipment can withstand permanently. 24 kV rms for example.  b  Ud, rated power frequency withstand voltage, rms value, kV during 1 mn: defines  the level of rms over-voltages that the equipment may withstand during 1 minute.   50 kV rms for example.  b  Up: rated lightning impulse withstand voltage, peak value, kV: define the level of  lightning over-voltages that the equipment may withstand. 125 kV peak for example. b  The service voltage, Un rms value, kV: is the voltage at which the MV utility distribution  network is operated. For example, some networks are operated at Un 20 kV. In this  case, switchgear of at least 24 kV rated voltage shall be installed. 1.2.2  Rated current values according to IEC 62271-1 (High-voltage  switchgear and controlgear - Part 1: Common specifications) b  Rated normal current Ir, rms value, A: this is the rms value of current that  equipment may withstand permanently, without exceeding the temperature rise  allowed in the standards. 630 A rms for example.  b  Rated short-time withstand current Ik, rms value, kA: this is the rms value of the  short circuit current that the equipment can carry during a specific time. It is defined  in kA for generally 1 s, and sometimes 3 s. It is used to define the thermal withstand  of the equipment 12 kA rms 1s for example. b  Rated peak withstand current Ip, peak value, kA: this is the peak value of the short  circuit current that the equipment may withstand. It is used to define the electro-dynamic  withstand of the equipment, 30 kA peak for example. Fig. B5 : Example of standard values Ur, Ud, Up (kV)  IEC standardised voltages Rated voltage Rated power frequency  withstand voltage  50 Hz 1 mn Rated lightning withstand voltage 7.2 12 17.5 2436 20 60 28 75 38 95 50 125 70 170 t Up 0.5 Up 0 1.2 µs 50 µs Ud Ur Up Ud

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.3  Different types of MV power supply The following methods may be used for the connection of an electrical installation   to a MV utility distribution network. 1.3.1  Connection to an MV radial network: Single-line service The substation is supplied by a tee-off from the MV radial network (overhead line   or underground cable), also known as a spur network.  This method provides only one supply for loads (see  Fig. B6, A and B). It is widely  used for installations including a single MV/LV transformer with LV metering. It can  also be used without any restriction for installations with MV metering including either  several MV/LV transformers or even an internal MV distribution netwok. The connection is made by means of a single load break switch associated   to a earthing switch dedicated to overhead line or underground cable grounding. This principle can be the first step of the two other methods of connection (ring main  and dual parallel feeders), the upgrading of the substation being generally performed  during an extension of the installation or required by the adjunction of loads asking a  higher level of supply continuity. Generally, the pole-mounted transformers in rural areas are connected to the over- head lines according to this principle without load break switch nor fuses. Protection  of the line and associated switching devices are located in the remote substations  supplying the over-head distribution network.  1.3.2  Connection to an MV loop: Ring-main service The substation is connected to a loop (see  Fig. B6, C) of the medium voltage  distribution network. The line current passes through the substation which gives   the possibility to supply the substation by two different ways.  With this arrangement, the user benefits of a reliable power supply based on two  redundant MV feeders. The connection is made by means of two independent load break switches, each  associated to an earthing switch for underground cables earthing. This method is mainly used for the underground MV distribution networks found   in urban areas. 1.3.3  Connection to two dual MV cables: Parallel feeders service Two parallel underground cables are used to supply the substation. Each cable is  connected to the substation by means of a load-break switch. (see  Fig. B6, D).  As mentioned for single and ring main service cable grounding is performed   by means of earthing switches associated to the load break switches. The two load break switches are interlocked, meaning that only one load break  switch is closed at a time.  This principle gives the possibility to supply the substation by two independent  sources giving a full redundancy. In the event of the loss of supply, the load-break switch supplying the installation  before the loss of supply must be open and the second must be closed.   This sequence can be performed either manually or automatically. This method is used to supply very sensitive installation such as hospitals  for example. It is also often used for densely-populated urban areas supplied by  underground cables.  1  Power supply at medium voltage

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Supplier Consumer Parallel  feeders  service Ring-main service Single-line service (equipped for  extension to form  a ring main) Single-line service A D C B Installation including a single MV/LV power transformer with metering at LV level Installation including a single MV/LV power transformer with metering at MV  Installation including several MV/LV transformers, all located in the main substation Installation including several secondary substations supplied by an internal MV distribution LV Metering MVMetering MVMetering MVMetering General protection and transformer protection are merged: Circuit  breaker or Load break switch + fuses General  protection:  Circuit  breaker Transformer 1 Transformer N General protection and transformer protection are merged: Circuit  breaker or Load break switch + fuses Transformer  protection: Circuit  breaker or Load  break switch + fuses Transformer  protection: Circuit  breaker or Load  break switch + fuses General  protection:  Circuit  breaker Feeder 1 Feeder N Feeder protection:  Circuit breaker Feeder protection:  Circuit breaker Fig. B6:  A: Single line service. B: Single line service with provision for extension to ring main or parallel feeder service. C: Ring main service. D: parallel feeder  service

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.4  Some practical issues   concerning MV distribution networks 1.4.1  Overhead networks Weather conditions such as wind may bring overhead wires into contact and cause  phase to phase short-circuits. Over voltages due to lightning strokes may generate flash-over across ceramic   or glass insulators and cause phase to earth faults Temporary contacts of vegetation such as trees with live overhead conductors may  also generate phase to earth faults.  Most of these faults are temporary. They disappear naturally with the interruption  of the voltage. This means that the supply can be restored after a short delay  following the tripping. This delay is usually named "dead time".  Hence the sequence of fault clearing and voltage restoration in an overhead network  is as follows: b  Fault detection by phase to phase or phase to earth protection  b  Circuit breaker opening, the faulty over-head line is de-energized  b  Dead time  b  Circuit breaker reclosing. Following the reclosing two situations are possible: v  The fault has been cleared by the interruption of the voltage, the reclosing is  successful  v  The line is still faulty, a new tripping is initiated followed again by a reclosing  sequence.  b  Several sequences of tripping-reclosing may be activated depending on the rules  of operation of the network adopted by the utility  b  If after the execution of the preselected number of reclosing sequences the fault   is still present, the circuit breaker is automatically locked and consequently the faulty  part of the network remains out of service until the fault is localized and eliminated.As such, it is possible to improve significantly the service continuity of overhead  networks by using automatic reclosing facilities. Generally a reclosing circuit breaker   is associated to each overhead line. 1.4.2  Underground networks Cable Faults on underground MV cables may have several causes such as: b  Poor quality of cable laying, absence of mechanical protection  b  Bad quality of cable terminations confection  b  Damages caused by excavators or tools such as pneumatic drills  b  Over voltages generated by lightning strokes occurring on overhead line  connected to underground cables. The over voltages can be amplified at the levels  of the junctions between overhead lines and underground cables causing the  destruction   of the cable terminations. Lightning arresters, are often installed at these locations to  limit the risks of damages. The experience shows that the rate of fault occurring on underground cables is lower  than the one registered for overhead lines. But faults on underground cables are  invariably permanent and take longer time to locate and repair. A loop architecture (see  Fig. B10) correctly instrumented with fault detectors   and motorized load break switches allow within a short period of time to identify  a faulty cable, to disconnect it and to restore the supply to the whole substations  included in the loop. These procedures of faults detection, cables disconnection and supply restoration  can be automatically performed in less than one minute by dedicated functions  commonly integrated in remote control and monitoring systems of MV networks. 1.4.3  Remote control and monitoring for MV networks  (see  Fig. B7)  Remote control and monitoring of MV feeders make it possible to reduce  loss of supply resulting from cable faults by supporting fast and effective loop  reconfiguration.  This facility relies on motorized switches associated with fault detectors on a number  of substations in the loop and controlled by remote control units. All stations containing this equipment can have their supply restored remotely,  whereas other stations will require additional manual operations. 1  Power supply at medium voltage The use of centralised remote control and monitoring based on SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems and recent developments in digital communication technology is increasingly common in countries where the complexity associated   with highly interconnected networks justifies    the investment required. Fig. B7:  Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System SCADA

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.4.4  Values of earth fault currents in MV networks   (see  Fig. B8 and Fig. B9)  The values of earth fault currents in MV distribution networks depend on the  MV neutral earthing system. These values must be limited to reduce their effects,  mainly: b  Damages to equipment b  Temporary over voltages  b  Transient over voltages  b  Touch and step voltages. The neutral of an MV network can be earthed by five different methods, according  to type (resistive, inductive) and the value (zero to infinity) of the impedance Z n   connected between the neutral and the earth: b  Z n  = ∞ isolated neutral, no intentional neutral earthing connection b  Z n  is related to a resistance with a fairly high value, b  Z n  is related to a reactance, with a generally low value, b  Z n  is related to a compensation reactance, designed to compensate   the capacitance of the network  b  Z n  = 0: the neutral is solidly earthed. The fault current I K1  is the sum of two components: b   The neutral current through the impedance Z n b   The capacitive current through the phase to  earth capacitors.When Z n  is a reactance these two currents are   opposite, which means that the reactance compensate the capacitive current. If the compensation is perfect, the fault current value is zero. Fig. B8 : Effects of the phase to earth fault current Methods of Neutral Earthing Isolated Resistance Reactance Compensated Solid Damages  Very low Low Low Very low Very high  Temporary  over voltages High Medium Medium  Medium  Low Transient over  voltages High Low High High Low Touch and  step voltages  Very low Low Low  Low High  Zn Ik1 C C C Fig. B9 : Circulation of the phase to earth fault current

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.4.5  Medium voltage loop  (see  Fig. B10) A medium voltage loop is generally supplied from two separate primary substations.  It supplies secondary MV/LV substations dedicated to the LV public distribution   and private electrical installations.The MV/LV secondary substations and those dedicated to the connection of private  electrical installations are connected in series by means of underground cables.   Two load break switches are used for the connection of each secondary substation.  The loop is normally open, all the load break switches are closed except one.In case of fault between A and B, the breaker C trips clearing the fault. The two  substations S1 and S2 are de-energized. The restoration of the supply to all  substations is then realized as follow:1 - Isolation of the faulty cable by opening load break switches A and B 2 - Closing open point D 3 - Reclosing circuit breaker C. The open point is now between S1 and S2.This sequence of faulty cable disconnection followed by the restoration   of the supply can be executed either manually by the operators of the MV network   or automatically by means of dedicated functions integrated in remote control   and monitoring systems of MV networks.Manual operations are generally long whereas automatic supply restoration can  be executed within less than one minute by the remote control system. These  automatism now available in any control system require a suitable instrumentation of  the loop: b  Fault detectors at both ends of the underground cables b  Motorized load break switches b  Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) in each secondary substation. The RTU performes: v  The monitoring of the fault detectors and load break switches v  Local automatism v  The command of load break switches v  The communication with the remote control and monitoring center b  DC auxiliary supply in every substation. As described above, most of the loops are historically equipped with load break  switches and protected at each end only by circuit breakers located in the  HV/ MV primary substations. In case of fault, all the customers supplied by a faulty  feeder are disconnected. But in fact the customers upstream from the fault could  have not been disconnected.The addition of circuit breakers, adequately located and associated with appropriate  protection relays may reduce the number of customers disconnected in case of fault.As an example, a loop including two additional circuit breakers is divided in four  independent sections. Assume the open point located between the two additional  circuit breakers. In case of fault in the section delimited by these two circuit breakers  only a part of the secondary substations of the section will be disconnected,   all the other remaining energized. 1  Power supply at medium voltage Primary substation Primary substation HV/MV transformer HV/MV transformer C S1 S2 Fault A B D Open point Fig. B10 : Open loop configuration and operation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Large consumers of electricity are always fed by a medium voltage supply.On LV systems operating at 120/208 V (3-phases 4-wires), a load of 50 kVA may be  considered as "large", while on a 230/400 V (3-phases 4-wires) system this limit is  generally above 100 kVA. These two systems of LV distribution are widely used in  most of the parts of the world. See chapter A §2.1 "Definition of voltage ranges".The IEC recommends a "world" standard low voltage system of 230/400 V for  3-phases 4-wires. This is a compromise which will allow the existing systems  operated at either 220/380 V or 240/415 V, or close to these values, to comply  simply with the proposed standard by just adjusting the off load tap changers of the   MV/LV distribution transformers.The choice of the most appropriate level of supply of a new electrical installation   is under the responsibility of the utility operating the network to which the installation  is supposed to be connected. The decision is mainly based on two criteria: b  The distance to the primary substation that will feed the installation     b  The total power required by the installation. Other criteria such as the rate of availability of the electricity supply are also taken  into account.There are two possibilities for the construction of a substation dedicated to the  supply of a new electrical installation:  1 - The utility builds the substation according to its own specifications, close to the  consumer’s premises. The MV/LV transformer(s) however, remain located inside the  installation, close to the loads. Depending on local rules the MV/LV transformer(s) may belong or not to the utility,  they may be installed or not by the owner of the installation, the utility has or not  unrestricted access to their locations  2 - The owner of the electrical installation builds and equips the substation inside   his premises. In most of the cases the utility must at least have unrestricted access to the metering  and to the part of the substation ensuring the connection of the installation to  the MV utility network. The utility may require a separate room for the equipment  dedicated to these two functions.The following chapters only refer to the construction of the substation by the owner   of the electrical installation. 2.1  Preliminary information In most of the cases the project of the construction of a new substation must be  submitted before any further detailed studies to the approval of the utility operating  the MV network that will feed the substation. The list of information to provide for  this approval may be the result of preliminary discussions with the utility. Among all  information, the following are generally required:  2.1.1  Maximum anticipated power (kVA) demand The method of evaluation of this parameter is detailed in Chapter A, it must take into  account the future additional loads. According to chapter A, two factors associated   to the loads are used in the proposed method: b  The factor of maximum utilization (ku) b  The diversity factor (ks). 2.1.2  Layout and arrangement drawings of the proposed substation The following information may be required:  b  Situation of the substation with regard to traffic lane  b  Location of the substation inside the installation  b  Dispositions foreseen for the unrestricted access of the utility operating staff  b  Arrangement drawings showing clearly the location of the electrical equipment  (MV Switchboard, transformers, Metering panel,…) b  Routing of MV cables b  Single line diagram and type of protections against  phase to phase and phase   to earth faults b  Main characteristics of electrical equipment  b  Solution foreseen for the compensation of the reactive energy  b  Principle of the earthing system b  Presence in the installation of a power generator operated in parallel   with the MV network  b  Etc. 2  Procedure for the establishment  of a new substation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.1.3  Degree of supply continuity required The consumer must estimate the consequences of a failure of supply in terms of:  b  Safety of the persons  b  Impact on the environment b  Safety of the installation b  Loss of production. He shall indicate to the utility the acceptable frequency of the interruptions  of the electricity and their durations. 2.2  Information and requirements provided   by the utility  Based on the information provided by the consumer, the utility must provide his  proposition, his commitment and his own requirements concerning the connection  of the substation: b  Level of voltage b  Supply by overhead line  b  Supply by underground cables  b  Single-line service, ring type supply, parallel feeders, etc. b  Rated values concerning the voltage b  Rated value concerning the current b  Details concerning the applicable tariff and the billing of the electrical energy b  Comments on drawings and information provided by the consumer  b  Specific requirements applicable to the substation. The detailed studies of the substation must take into account all these parameters  and requirements. 2.3  Commissioning, testing, energizing  When required by the local authority, commissioning tests and checking must be  successfully completed to get the authorization to energize a new installation.  The following tests and checking are generally mandatory and applicable to the  whole installation: b  Verification that the main substation complies with all the requirements expressed  by the utility b  Measurement of earth-electrodes resistances b  Electrical continuity of all equipotential and bonding conductors b  Inspection and functional testing of all MV components b  Dielectric test of switchgears and transformers  b  Inspection and testing of the LV parts of the installation  b  Mechanical and electrical interlocks checking   b  Protective-relays checking  b  Other additional tests and checking mat be required. As soon as the conformity official document is issued, the utility proceeds with the  energizing of the installation.  2  Procedure for the establishment  of a new substation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations  The subject of protection in the industry and electrical installations is vast. It covers  many aspects: b  Protection of the persons and animals against electrical shocks b  Protection of the equipment and components against the stresses generated  by short-circuits, lightning surges, power-system instability, and other electrical  perturbations  b  Protection of the property and equipment against damages and destructions b  Protection against the production losses b  Protection of the workers, the surrounding population and the environment against  fire, explosions, toxic gases, etc. b  Protection of the operators and of the electrical equipment from the consequences  of incorrect operations. This means that the switching devices (Load break switches,  disconnectors, earthing switches) must be operated in the right order. Suitable  Interlocking ensures strict compliance with the correct operating sequences.Four aspects of the protection are detailed in the scope of this guide: b  Protection against electrical shocks b  Protection of the transformers against external constraints and internal faults  b  Improvement of MV/LV transformer protection with circuit breaker associated   to self powered relay b  Protection of the operators against the consequences of incorrect operations   by appropriate interlocks.  3.1  General principle of protection   against electrical shocks in electrical installations Protective measures against electric shocks are based on two well known dangers: b   Direct contact: contact with an active conductor, i.e. which is live with respect to  the earth in normal circumstances. (see  Fig. B11). b   Indirect contact: contact with a conductive part of an apparatus which is normally  dead and earthed, but which has become live due to an internal insulation failure.  (see  Fig. B12). Touching the part with hand would cause a current to pass through the hand and  both feet of the exposed person. The value of the current passing through the human  body depends on: v  The level of the touch voltage generated by the fault current injected in the earth  electrode (see  Fig. B12) v  The resistance of the human body v  The value of additional resistances like shoes. Busbars 1 2 3 N Ib: Current throughthe human body Insulation failure 1 2 3 Ib If Potential gradient Rm Ut Fig. B11 : Direct contact Fig B12 : Indirect contact b   Touch voltage:  Ut b   Ut y Ue b   Earth potential rise: Ue  b   Ue = Rm x If b   Ib: Current through  the human body  b   Ib = Ut/Rb b   Rb: Resistance of  the human body b   If: Earth Fault  current b   Rm: Resistance of  the earth electrode b   The touch voltage Ut is lower than the earth potential rise Ue. Ut depends on the potential  gradient on the surface of the ground. In  Figure B13, the green curve shows the variation of the earth surface potential along  the ground: it is the highest at the point where the fault current enters the ground, and  declines with the distance. Therefore, the value of the touch voltage Ut is generally lower  than the earth potential rise Ue. On the left side, it shows the earth potential evolution without potential grading earth  electrodes. On the right side, it describes how buried potential grading earth electrodes  made of naked copper (S1,S2, Sn..) contribute to the reduction of the contact voltages  (Ut, Us). A third type of shock hazard is also shown in  Figure B13, the "step- voltage" hazard  (Us): the shock current enters by one foot and leaves by the other. This hazard exists in  the proximity of MV and LV earth electrodes which are passing earth-fault currents. It is  due to the potential gradients on the surface of the ground. Animals with a relatively long  front-to-hind legs span are particularly sensitive to step-voltage hazards. It clearly appears that the higher is the potential gradient without control (Ue), the higher  are the levels of both touch voltage (Ut) and step voltage (Us). Any presence of bonding conductors between all the metallic parts embedding concrete  reinforcement contributes significantly to the reduction of contact voltages (touch, step).  In addition, surrounding the MV installation with any equipotential loop of buried naked  copper contributes to a wider equipotential area.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Reference earth Without potential grading 1m 1m 1m S1 S2 S3 With potential grading E U e U t U t U s Potential gradientwithout control Potential gradientwith control Fig B13 : Potential gradient control - EN50522 - Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. b  Ue: Earth potential rise.  b  Ut: Prospective touch voltage.  b  Us: Prospective step voltage. b  E: Earth electrode.   b  S1,S2,S3: Potential grading earth electrodes (e.g. ring earth electrodes),     connected to the earth electrode E  3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations  Accessiblesurface Minimum safety distance min. 2.00 Minimum distance      from the ground Fig. B15 : Protection by installation of barriers. The safety  distances are fixed by IEC 61936  Fig. B14 : Protection by placing live parts out of reach. The safety distances are fixed by IEC 61936  Accessible surface Danger zone ≥ 2 250 Live parts Vicinity zone D w D w  = Minimum working          distance Minimum distance      from the ground D L D L 3.1.1  Direct-contact protection or basic protection There are four main principles of protection against direct contact hazards: b  By containing all live parts in housings made of insulating material or in metallic  earthed cubicles. For MV switchgear, the IEC standard 62271-200 (Prefabricated Metal Enclosed  switchgear and controlgear for voltages up to 52 kV) specifies a minimum  Protection  Index (IP coding) of IP2X to ensures the direct-contact protection. Furthermore, the  metallic cubicles has to demonstrate an electrical continuity between all inside and  outside metallic parts.  b  By placing live parts out of reach. This principle is used in  Air Insulated  Substations "AIS" (see Fig. B14) b  By installations of barriers also used in AIS substations (see  Fig. B15) b  By insulation. The best example of protection by insulation is the electrical LV and  HV cables.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.1.2  Indirect-contact protection or fault protection As described above, a person touching the metal enclosure or the frame   of an electrical apparatus affected by an internal failure of insulation is subject   to an indirect contact. Extensive studies have demonstrated that a current lower than 30 mA passing  through the human body can be considered as not dangerous. It correspond   to a touch voltage of about 50 V. This means that the operation of installations may continue in presence of any  phase to earth fault if the touch voltages can be maintained below 50 V. In all other  situations where the expected touch voltages are above 50 V the interruption   of the supply is mandatory. The higher the expected touch voltages are, the lower   the interruption time must be. The maximum admissible interruption times, function   of the expected touch voltages are specified by the IEC 60364 and IEC 61936 for   LV and HV systems respectively.Case of fault on L.V. system Only the isolated neutral system (IT) allows to maintain touch voltages below 50 V  and does not require the interruption of the supply in presence of phase to earth  faults. Other two neutral systems (TT and TN) are always subjected to expected  touch voltages above 50 V. In these cases the interruption of the voltage is  mandatory. It is ensured within the time specified by the IEC 60364, either by the  circuit breakers or the fuses protecting the electrical circuits. For more information  concerning indirect contact in LV system, refer to chapter F.Indirect-contact hazard in the case of a MV fault In MV electrical systems, the expected touch voltages may reach values requiring  interruption of the supply within much shorter times than the quickest opening time   of the breakers. The principle of protection used for the LV systems cannot be  applied as such for MV systems.  One possible solution for the protection of the persons it to create equipotential  systems by means of bonding conductors interconnecting all the metallic parts of  the installation: enclosures of switchgears, frames of electrical machines, steel  structures, metallic floor pipes, etc. This disposition allows to maintain the touch  voltages below the dangerous limit. A more sophisticated approach concerning the protection of persons against indirect  contact in MV and HV installations is developed in IEC 61936 and EN 50522. The  method developed in these standards authorizes higher touch voltage limits justified  by higher values of the human body resistance and additional resistances such as  shoes and layer of crushed rock. 3.2  Protection of transformer and circuits The electrical equipment and circuits in a substation must be protected in order   to limit the damages due to abnormal currents and over voltages.  All equipment installed in a power electrical system have standardized ratings   for short-time withstand current and short duration power frequency voltage.  The role of the protections is to ensure that these withstand limits can never be  exceeded, therefore clearing the faults as fast as possible.  In addition to this first requirement a system of protection must be selective.  Selectivity or discrimination means that any fault must be cleared by the device   of current interruption (circuit breaker or fuses) being the nearest to the fault, even if  the fault is detected by other protections associated with other interruption devices.  As an example for a short circuit occurring on the secondary side of a power  transformer, only the circuit breaker installed on the secondary must trip. The  circuit breaker installed on the primary side must remain closed. For a transformer  protected with MV fuses, the fuses must not blow.  They are typically two main devices able to interrupt fault currents, circuit breakers  and fuses : b  The circuit breakers must be associated with a protection relay having three main  functions: v  Measurement of the currents v  Detection of the faults  v  Emission of a tripping order to the breaker b  The fuses blow under certain fault conditions.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations  3.2.1  Transformer protection Stresses generated by the supply  Two types of over voltages may stress and even destroy a transformer: b  The lightning over voltages due to lightning stroke falling on or near an overhead  line supplying the installation where the transformer is installed b  The switching over voltages generated by the opening of a circuit breaker or a load  break switch for instance. Depending of the application, protection against these two types of voltage surges  may be necessary and are often ensured by means of Z n O surge arrestors preferably  connected on the MV bushing of the transformer.Stresses due to the load A transformer overload is always due to an increase of the apparent power demand (kVA)  of the installation. This increase of the demand can be the consequence of either a  progressive adjunction of loads or an extension of the installation itself. The effect of any overload is an increase of the temperature of oil and windings  of the transformer with a reduction of its life time. The protection of a transformer against the overloads is performed by a dedicated  protection usually called thermal overload relay. This type of protection simulates   the temperature of the transformer’s windings. The simulation is based on the measure  of the current and on the thermal time constant of the transformer. Some relays are  able to take into account the effect of harmonics of the current due to non-linear  loads such as rectifiers, computers, variable speed drives etc. This type of relay is  also able to evaluate the remaining time before the emission of the tripping order  and the time delay before re-energizing the transformer. In addition, oil-filled transformers are equipped with thermostats controlling   the temperature of the oil. Dry-type transformers use heat sensors embedded in the hottest part of the windings insulation. Each of these devices (thermal relay, thermostat, heat sensors) generally provides  two levels of detection:  b  A low level used to generate an alarm to advise the maintenance staff,  b  A high level to de-energize the transformer. Internal faults in oil filled transformers   In oil filled transformers, internal faults may be classified as follow: b  Faults generating production of gases, mainly: v  Micro arcs resulting from incipient faults in the winding insulation v  Slow degradation of insulation materials v  Inter turns short circuit b  Faults generating internal over pressures with simultaneously high level of line  over currents: v  Phase to earth short circuit  v  Phase to Phase short circuit. These faults may be the consequence of external lightning or switching over voltage. Depending on the type of the transformer, there are two kinds of devices able to detect  internal faults affecting an oil filled transformer. b  The Buchholz dedicated to the transformers equipped with an air breathing conservator  (see  Fig. B16a) The buchholz is installed on the pipe connecting the tank of he transformer to the  conservator (see  Fig. B16b). It traps the slow emissions of gasses and detect the flow  back of oil due to the internal over pressures  b  The DGPT (Detection of Gas, Pressure and Temperature) for the integral filled  transformers (see  Fig. B17, Fig. B18a and Fig. B18b). This type of transformer is  manufactured up to around10 MVA. The DGPT as the buchholz detects the emissions of  gasses and the internal over pressures. In addition it monitors the temperature of the oil. Concerning the monitoring of gas and temperature the buchholz and the DGPT provide  two levels of detection: b  A low level used to generate an alarm to advise the maintenance staff,  b  A high level to trip the switching device installed on the primary side of the transformer  (circuit breaker or load break switch associated with fuses).  In addition, both the buchholz and the DGPT are suitable for oil leakages detection. Fig. B17 : Integral filled transformer Fig. B16a : Breathing transformer protected by buchholz  Fig. B16b : Transformer with conservator Fig. B18a : Contacts of the transformer  protection relay DGPT (cover removed) Alarm Output: Aging & Minor faults causing slow release of gas e.g. interturn faults        core faults        oil leakage Trip Output: Internal severe faults giving rapid release of gas & internal high pressure Conservator Transformer Tank Mercury switch Pet-cock From transformer Deflector plate To oil conservator Buchholz Relay Fig. B18b : Transformer protection relay  DGPT

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. B21 : Discrimination between MV fuse operation and   LV circuit breaker tripping, for transformer protection Fig. B22 : MV fuse and LV circuit breaker configuration U 1 MV LV U 2 D C Time A B Current Minimum pre-arcing time of MV fuse Circuit breaker trippingcharacteristic B/A  u  1.35 at any  moment in timeD/C u  2 at any  current value Fig. B19 : Dry type transformer Fig. B20 : Thermal relay for protection of dry type transformer  (Ziehl) Overloads and internal faults in dry type transformers   (see  Fig. B19 and Fig. B20)  The dry type transformers are protected against over-heating due to possible  downstream overloads by a dedicated relay monitoring thermal sensors embedded  in the windings of the transformer (see  Fig. B20). The internal faults, mainly inter turns and phase to earth short circuits occurring  inside a dry type transformers are cleared either by the circuit breaker or the fuses  installed on the primary side of the transformer. The tripping of the circuit breakers  when used is ordered by the phase to phase and phase to earth over current  protections.Inter turns faults need a dedicated attention:  b  They generally generate moderate line over currents. As an example when 5 % of  a HV winding are short circuited the line current of the transformer does not exceed  2 In, for a short circuit affecting 10 % of the winding the line current is limited around  3 In.  b  Fuses are not appropriate to clear properly such currents b  Dry type transformers are not equipped with additional protection devices such as  DGPT dedicated to internal faults detection. Hence, internal faults generating low level of line over current may not be safely  cleared by fuses. Protection by means of over current relay with adequate  characteristic and settings is preferred (Schneider Electric VIP relay range for  example).Discrimination between the protective devices upstream and downstream   of the transformer It is a common practice to ensure the discrimination between the MV circuit breaker  or fuses installed on the primary side of a transformer and the LV circuit breaker.The characteristics of the protection ordering the tripping or the MV circuit breaker or  the operating curves of the fuses when used must be such as in case of downstream  fault the LV circuit breaker only trips. The MV circuit breaker must remain closed or  the fuse must not blow.The tripping curves of MV fuses, MV protection and LV circuit breakers are given by  graphs giving the operating time as a function of the current. The curves are in general inverse-time type. LV circuit breakers have an abrupt  discontinuity which defines the limit of the instantaneous action. Typical curves are shown in  Fig. B21. Discrimination between LV circuit breaker and MV fuses (see Fig. B21 and  Fig. B22)  b  All parts of the MV fuse curve must be above and to the right of the LV CB curve. b  In order to leave the fuses unaffected (i.e. undamaged), the two following  conditions must be satisfied: v  All parts of the minimum pre-arcing fuse curve must be shifted to the right of the   LV CB curve by a factor of 1.35 or more. - Example: where, at time T, the CB curve passes through a point corresponding   to 100 A, the fuse curve at the same time T must pass through a point corresponding  to 135 A, or more, and so on. v  All parts of the fuse curve must be above the CB curve by a factor of 2 or more - Example: where, at a current level I the CB curve passes through a point  corresponding to 1.5 seconds, the fuse curve at the same current level I must pass  through a point corresponding to 3 seconds, or more, etc. The factors 1.35 and 2 are based on the maximum manufacturing tolerances given  for MV fuses and LV circuit breakers. In order to compare the two curves, the MV currents must be converted to the  equivalent LV currents, or vice-versa.Discrimination between LV circuit breaker and MV circuit breaker   b  All parts of the minimum MV circuit breaker curve must be shifted to the right   of the LV CB curve by a factor of 1.35 or more: - Example: where, at time T, the LV CB curve passes through a point corresponding  to 100 A, the MV CB curve at the same time T must pass through a point  corresponding to 135 A, or more, and so on. b  All parts of the MV CB curve must be above the LV CB curve. The time difference  between the two curves must be 0.3 s at least for any value of the current. The factors 1.35 and 0.3 s are based on the maximum manufacturing tolerances  given for MV current transformers, MV protection relay and LV circuit breakers.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.3  MV/LV transformer protection with circuit breaker MV/LV transformer protection with circuit-breaker is usually used in large Commercial,  Industrial and Building applications and especially when the transformer power  exceeds 800 kVA. In these applications, switchboards made of modular units provide  high flexibility. The protection chain of each unit may include self powered relays (see  Fig. B23 and  Fig. B24) bringing a high level of safety and optimized CTs (See Fig. B25). This solution provides interesting benefits concerning: b  The maintenance b  The improvement of protection of the transformer b  The improvement of the discrimination with the LV installation b  The insensitivity to the inrush currents b  The detection of low earth fault currents. 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations  Fig. B23 : Schneider Electric VIP 30 self powered relay for  basic transformer protection Fig. B24 : Schneider Electric VIP 300 self powered IDMT  (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) overcurrent and earth-fault  relay Fig. B25 : Schneider Electric SM6 and Premset switchboards including MV/LV transformer protection  with circuit breaker associated to self powered relay

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Most common faults are short-circuit inside a turn of the MV winding where the fault  level is of low magnitude (1 to 6 times the rated current) (see  Fig. B26). In case of circuit breaker, as soon as the fault reaches the setting, the relay will  detect it and trip safely the circuit breaker, disconnecting the MV/LV transformer  circuit. 3.3.6  High magnitude fault currents In the rare event of a short-circuit between MV bushings, the protection must act  quickly. In that case the circuit breaker is slower than the MV fuse that has current  limiting capabilities. However, the circuit breaker will clear the fault in less than  100 ms, and this is effective enough to avoid any serious damages. 3.3.7  Low level MV earth-faults In case of either high impedance earth fault on MV winding or solid earth-faults in  impedance earthed neutral system, the earth fault magnitude is below the rated  current of the transformer. Modern self powered relays integrate sensitive earth fault  protection and then provide effective coverage on these conditions. Transformer internal fault between MV bushings ( 1 %) Transformer internal fault inside primary windings (60 %) Short Circuit inside LV switchboard busbar ( 20 %) Fig. B26 : Localization of a fault 3.3.1  Maintenance Modern protective relays are now almost maintenance free, as they include self  testing features. However it remains necessary to check the protection chain at  commissioning stage and periodically (every 5 or 10 years). 3.3.2  Protection performance Circuit breakers combined with electronic protection relays bring many protection  selectivity benefits, including: b  coordination with upstream and downstream devices; b  discrimination of inrush currents; b  detection of low level of phase to phase and phase to earth fault currents. 3.3.3  Discrimination with LV installation In cases where the LV installation includes an incoming LV Air circuit breaker,  discrimination with the MV circuit-breaker is easy, as  it is possible to choose the  right curve in the electronic relay to ensure discrimination between MV and LV  protection. 3.3.4  Inrush current Transformer energizing produces very high transient inrush current that can reach  peak values, up to about ten times the peak rated current for step-down transformer,  and 25 times for step-up transformer. This is a natural phenomenon and the  protection should not operate. The circuit breaker allows high flexibility to avoid  tripping current while still maintaining a good level of protection due to the electronic  relay time/current characteristic. 3.3.5  Low magnitude phase fault current A MV/LV transformer has usually a very low failure rate. Most of the faults are  interturn faults or phase to earth faults. Phase-to-phase faults between MV bushing  are of more seldom occurrences (see  Fig. B26).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.3.8  Case of public distribution In public distribution applications, such as MV ring network configurations, utilities  look for the simplest repetitive MV/LV substations that are dispersed in a large  geographical area. The power of MV/LV transformer is generally limited to 630 kVA  or less. Compact and often non extensible 3 function switchgear are specified by  the utilities. In these cases, protection of MV/LV transformers by MV fuses offers an  optimized solution (see  Fig. B27). Fig. B27 : Compact 3 function switchgear 3.4  Interlocks and conditioned operations Mis-operations in electrical installations may expose operating personnel   to danger and lead to electrical incidents. As a measure of protection against incorrect sequences of manoeuvres by operating  personnel, mechanical and electrical interlocks are included in the mechanisms   and in control circuits of electrical apparatus. The interlocks may be classified in two categories: b  Functional interlocks incorporated in MV functional units and dedicated to the  operation of the apparatus located in the units only. These interlocks are generally  realized by means of specific mechanical devices linked with the mechanisms   of the apparatus b  Interlocks between MV functional units or between a functional unit and another  equipment such as a MV/LV transformer. Most of these interlocks are realized by  means of keys transferred from one equipment to another when they are made free.  They may be improved by additional electrical interlocks. 3.4.1  Functional interlocks Some interlocks are mandatory in MV functional units according to IEC 62271-200,  dedicated to metal enclosed switchgear, for example to prevent from: b  closing a switch or circuit breaker on a closed earthing switch; b  closing an earthing switch while the associated switching function is closed Specific additional interlocks may be specified by the users when required by their  operational rules, for example: b  Allowing the opening of a MV cable connection compartment only if the earthing  switch associated to the remote end of the MV cable is closed.The access to a MV compartment requires a certain number of operations which  shall be carried out in a pre-determined order. To restore the system to its former  condition it is necessary to carry out operations in the reverse order. Dedicated procedures and instructions may also ensure that the operations are  performed in the right sequence.  Hence, the accessibility to an MV compartment can be either interlock controlled or  based on procedure. A compartment can also be accessible only by means of tools   if its access is not necessary for normal operation or maintenance of the switchgear,  or "not accessible", access being either forbidden or impossible (see  Fig. B28). 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved design stage. Hence, the apparatuses concerned by the interlocks will be equipped  during the manufacturing with the appropriate keys and locking devices. 3.4.3  Service continuity The notion of  Loss of Service Continuity: "LSC" (see Fig B29  and Fig. B30) defines  the conditions of access to any high voltage accessible compartment of a given high  voltage functional unit. IEC 62271-200 defines four categories of Loss of Service Continuity: LSC1, LSC2,  LSC2A, LSC2B. Each category defines which other high voltage compartments and /or other  functional units can be kept energized when opening an accessible high-voltage  compartment in a given functional unit.For the single busbar architectures the following definitions are applicable: b  LSC1 functional unit Functional unit having one or several high-voltage accessible compartments, such  that, when any of these accessible high-voltage compartments is open, the busbar  and one or several other functional units of the switchgear must be de-energized  b  LSC2 functional unit  Functional unit having at least an accessible compartment for the high-voltage  connection (called connection compartment), such that, when this compartment  is open the busbar can remain energized. All the other functional units of the  switchgear can continue to be operated normally.Note: When LSC2 functional units have accessible compartments other than the  connection compartment, further subdivisions into LSC2A and LSC2B are defined.  b  LSC2A functional unit Functional unit having several high-voltage accessible compartments, such that, the  busbar can remain energized when any other accessible high voltage compartment  is open. All the other functional units of the switchgear can continue to be operated  normally b  LSC2B functional unit Functional unit having several high-voltage accessible compartments, such that, the  high-voltage connections compartment and the busbar can remain energized when  any other accessible high voltage compartment is open. All the other functional units  of the switchgear can continue to be operated normally.  Fig. B28 : Type of accessibility to a compartment Type of  accessibility to   a compartment Access features Type of construction Interlock-controlled Opening for normal operation  and maintenance, e.g. , fuse  replacement. Access is controlled by the  construction of the switchgear,  i.e. , integrated interlocks prevent  impermissible opening. Procedure-based Opening for normal operation  or maintenance, e.g. , fuse  replacement. Access control via a suitable  procedure (work instruction of the  operator) combined with a locking  device (lock). Tool-based Opening not for normal operation  and maintenance, e.g. , cable  testing. Access only with tool for opening;  special access procedure  (instruction of the operator). Not accessible Opening not possible not intended for operator; opening can destroy the  compartment. This applies generally to the gas-filled compartments of  gas-insulated switchgear. Because the switchgear is maintenance-free  and climate-independent, access is neither required nor possible. Fig. B29 : Example of functional unit architecture with  compartments, favoring service continuity 3.4.2  Key interlocking The interlocks between devices located in separate MV functional units or between  a functional unit and access to a MV/LV transformer for example are performed by  means of keys. The principle is based on the possibility of freeing or trapping one or several keys,  according to whether or not the required conditions of operation are satisfied. These conditions ensure the safety of the personnel by the avoidance of incorrect  operations.Note: Concerning the MV/LV substations, the interlocks shall be specified during the 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.4.4  Interlocks in substations Example of functional interlocks, embedded in single functional units b  Load break switch closing: the door must be closed and the earthing switch open b  Earthing switch closing: the door must be closed and associated circuit breaker,  switch and/or isolating apparatus open b  Access to an accessible compartment: the associated circuit breaker, switch and/ or isolating apparatus must be open and the earthing switch closed.Example of functional interlocks involving several functional units or separate  equipment (see Fig. B31): Lets consider a MV/LV transformer supplied by a MV functional unit including: b  A load break switch   b  A set of MV fuses b  An earthing switch  The transformer is installed in a dedicated cubicle.The access to the MV/LV transformer is authorized when the following conditions   are satisfied: b  MV load break switch open  b  MV earthing switch closed and locked in close position  b  LV circuit breaker open and locked in open position   The required sequence of operations to meet these conditions in full safety is   the following:  b   Step 1: Open the LV CB and lock it open with key "O". Key "O" is then free b   Step 2: Open the MV load break switch. Check that the "voltage presence"  indicators are extinguished, unlock earthing switch with key O, key O is now trapped  b   Step 3: Close the MV earthing switch and lock it in close position with key S. Key  S is now free b   Step 4: Key S allows to open the door of the transformer cubicle. When the door   is open, key S is trapped. The restoration of the supply to the LV switchboard is performed with the execution  of the reverse sequence of operation: b   Step 1: Door of the transformer cubicle closing  b   Step 2: MV earthing switch opening b   Step 3: MV load break switch closing  b   Step 4: LV circuit breaker closing. Due to LV production, some national regulations require an earthing system as  temporary or permanent device to operate on the transformer under full safety, and  the earthing connection shall be integrated within the interlock procedure. 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations  Applies when LSC1 When any compartment of the FU is open the  busbar and one or several other FUs of the  switchgear must be de-energised One or several compartments in  the considered FU are accessible LSC2 When the cable compartment is open the  busbar can remain energized and all the  other FUs of the switchgear can be operated  normally Only the connection compartment  in the considered FU is accessible LSC2A The busbar can remain energized when any  other accessible high voltage compartment  is open. All the other functional units of the  switchgear can continue to be operated  normally   Several compartments in the  considered FU are accessible LSC2B The high-voltage connections compartment  and the busbar can remain energized  when any other accessible high voltage  compartment is open. All the other functional  units of the switchgear can continue to be  operated normally  Several compartments in the  considered FU are accessible Fig. B30 : Loss of Service Continuity definitions 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved s s s s s Panel or door Legend Key absentKey freeKey trapped s s s s s key S key S key S key O key O key S key S key O o o o o o o o o o o key O key O Fig. B31 : Example of MV/LV interlocking system Initial configuration: LV Switchboard energized.  MV Load break switch closed. LV circuit breaker   closed. Earthing switch open and locked in  open  position. Key O trapped. Key S trapped. Step 3: Load break switch open,   LV circuit breaker  open and locked in open position.  Earthing switch closed   and locked, Key O trapped, Key S free. Step 1: Load break switch closed.   LV circuit breaker  open and locked. Earthing  switch open, locked in  open position. Key O  free, Key S trapped. Step 4: Load break switch open,   LV circuit breaker open and locked in open position.  Earthing switch closed and locked, door of transformer  cubicle open, Key O trapped, Key S trapped.   Step 2: Load break switch open,   LV circuit breaker  open and locked in   open position. Earthing switch  unlocked,   Key O trapped, Key S trapped. 3  Protection against electrical   hazards, faults and mis-operations  in electrical installations 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network 4.1  Definition  A consumer substation with LV metering is an electrical installation connected   to a utility supply network at a nominal voltage usually between 1 kV - 35 kV,   and including generally a single MV/LV transformer not exceeding 1250 kVA. The substation may be installed either in a dedicated room located in a building,   or outdoor in a prefabricated housing. 4.2  Functions of a substation with LV metering 4.2.1  Connection to the MV network Connection to the MV network can be made: b  By a single service cable or overhead line, b  By dual parallel feeders via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches  b  Via a ring main unit including two load-break switches. 4.2.2  MV/LV Transformers Since the ban of PCB in most of the countries, the remaining available insulation  technologies for the transformers are: b  Oil-immersed for transformer preferably located outside premises b  Dry-type, cast-resin preferred for transformers located inside premises such as  buildings receiving the public.  Local regulations define where the use of cast resin transformers is mandatory. 4.2.3  Metering Most of the LV metering and billing principles take into account the  MV/ LV transformer losses. The characteristics and the location of the VT’s and CT’s dedicated to the metering  must comply with the utility’s requirements. The metering current transformers are generally installed in the LV terminal  box of the power transformer, alternatively they can be installed in a dedicated  compartment in the main LV switchboard. The compartments housing the metering VT’s and CT’s are generally sealed by the  utility.  The meters are mounted on a dedicated panel accessible by the utility at any time. 4.2.4  Local emergency generators Emergency standby generators are intended to maintain the supply to the essential  loads, in the event of failure of the utility power supply. A substation with LV metering may include one single emergency generator  connected at low voltage level on the main LV distribution switchboard. The generator may be sized either for the supply of the whole installation or for a  part only. In this case a load shedding system must be associated to the generator.  The loads requiring an emergency supply may also be grouped on a dedicated LV  busbar (see  Fig. B32). An  Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) may be added when required at LV level to  avoid the interruption of the supply during the starting of the emergency generator.  4  The consumer substation  with LV metering Fig. B32 : Emergency generator at LV Level Emergency  supply LV MV UPS Main supply kV Q3 Q2 G Emergency  loads Critical loads

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B24 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.2.5  Capacitors Capacitors are intended to maintain the power factor of the installation   at the contractual value specified by the utility. The capacitor banks are connected   on the main LV switchboard and can be fixed or adjustable by means of steps  controlled by a regulator. See chapter L "Power Factor Correction" 4.2.6  LV main switchboard  The MV/LV transformer is connected to a main LV distribution switchboard equipped  with a LV general circuit breaker ensuring: b  The general protection of the LV installation b  The general isolation of the LV circuits, according to the rules of protection of the  persons working in an electrical installations  b  The protection of the MV/LV transformer against overload To comply with the interlocking requirements defined in 3.3, the circuit breaker must  be equipped with padlocking facilities for locking it in open position. 4.2.7  Simplified electrical network diagram The diagram ( Fig. B33) shows: b  The different methods to connect a MV/LV substation to the utility supply: v  Single-line service v  Single line service with provision for future connection to a ring or to dual parallel  feeders  v  Dual parallel feeders  v  Loop or ring-main service b  The protection of the MV/LV transformer, either by a load break switch   or by a circuit breaker  b  The LV metering   b  The main LV switchboard. 4.3  Choice of MV equipment  (Refer to section 6) MV equipment shall comply with applicable IEC standards and local regulations. It shall be selected according to the electrical and environmental constraints  to which it is supposed to be subjected.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B25 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. B33 : Consumer substation with LV metering Supplier MV protection andMV/LV transformer LV metering LV distribution  Transformer LV terminals Protection Auto-changeoverswitch Protection Parallel feeders service   Single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main)   Single-line service Ring mainservice LV standbygenerator 4  The consumer substation  with LV metering

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B26 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5.1  Definition  A consumer substation with MV metering is an electrical installation connected   to a utility supply system at a nominal voltage usually between 1 kV - 35 kV,   which for example may supply: b  A single MV/LV transformer exceeding generally 1250 kVA b  Several MV/LV transformers b  One or several MV/LV secondary substations. The single line diagram and the layout of a substation with MV metering depend on  the complexity of the installation and the presence of secondary substations. For example a substation may: b  Include one single room containing the MV switchboard, the metering panel,   the transformer(s) and the low voltage main distribution board(s), b  Supply one or several transformers, each installed in a dedicated room including  the corresponding main LV distribution switchboard b  Supply one or several secondary MV/LV substations. 5.2  Functions of the substation with MV metering 5.2.1  Connection to the MV network Connection to the MV network can be made: b  By a single service cable or overhead line, b  By dual parallel feeders via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches  b  Via a ring main unit including two load-break switches. 5.2.2  MV/LV Transformers and internal MV distribution  As mentioned for substation with LV metering, only oil-immersed and dry type   cast-resin transformers are allowed with the same rules of installation. When the installation includes several MV/LV transformers and/or secondary  MV/ LV substations an internal MV distribution network is required. According to the required level of availability, the MV supplies to the transformers  and the secondary substations may be made, b  By simple radial feeders connected directly to the transformers or to the secondary  substations  b  By one or several rings including the secondary MV/LV substations ( Fig. B10) b  By duplicate feeders supplying the secondary MV/LV substations.  For the two latter solutions the MV switchboard located in each secondary substation  includes two load break switch functional units for the connection of the substation to  the internal MV distribution and one transformer protection unit, for each transformer  installed in the substation. The level of availability can be increased by using two transformers operating   in parallel or arranged in dual configuration with an automatic change over system. It is not recommended to use MV/LV transformers above 2500 kVA due to: b  The high level of the short circuit current generated on the main LV switchboard. b  The number of LV cable required for the connection of the transformer  to the LV switchboard. 5.2.3  Metering The characteristics and the location of the VT’s and CT’s dedicated to the metering  shall comply with the utility requirements. The VT’s and CT’s are generally installed in the MV switchboard. A dedicated  functional unit is in most of the cases required for the voltage transformers while  the current transformers may be contained in the functional unit housing the circuit  breaker ensuring the general protection of the substation. The panel that contains the meters shall be accessible by the utility at any time. 5.2.4  Local emergency generators Emergency standby generators are intended to maintain the power supply to the  essential loads in the event of failure of the utility power supply. According to the energy needs an installation may contains one or several  emergency generators.  The generators can be connected: b  At MV level to the MV main substation (see  Fig. B34).The generator(s) may be  sized either for the supply of the whole installation or for a part only. In this case   a load shedding system must be associated to the generator(s). b  At LV level on one or several LV switchboards requiring an emergency supply.   At each location, the loads requiring an emergency supply may be grouped   on a dedicated LV busbar supplied by a local generator (see  Fig. B31). 5  The consumer substation  with MV metering

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B27 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved MV LV MV LV MV LV MV Level LV Level Emergencygenerators MV Utilitysupply MV LV MV LV MV LV Fig. B34 : Connection of emergency generators at MV level 5.2.5  Capacitors Capacitors are intended to maintain the power factor of the installation  at the contractual value specified by the utility. The capacitor banks can be fixed   or adjustable by means of steps. They can be connected: b  At MV level to the main MV substation b  At LV level on LV switchboards.  5.2.6  LV main switchboard  Every MV/LV transformer is connected to a main LV switchboard complying with the  requirements listed for substation with LV metering (see 4.2.6). 5.2.7  Simplified electrical network diagram The diagram ( Fig. B35) shows: b  The different methods to connect a MV/LV substation to the utility supply: v  Spur network or single-line service v  Single line service with provision for future connection to a ring or to dual parallel  feeders  v  Dual parallel feeders  v  Loop or ring-main service b  General protection at MV level b  MV metering functions b  Protection of MV circuits b  LV distribution switchboard Compared with a substation with LV metering, a substation with MV metering  includes in addition: b  A MV Circuit breaker functional unit for the general protection of the substation b  A MV metering functional unit  b  MV Functional units dedicated to the connection and the protection of: v  MV/LV transformers v  MV feeders supplying secondary substations  v  MV capacitor banks v  Emergency generators  The general protection usually includes protection against phase to phase and  phase to earth faults. The settings must be coordinated with the protections installed   on the feeder of the primary substation supplying the installation. 5  The consumer substation  with MV metering

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B28 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved MV protectionand metering  MV distribution and protectionof outgoing circuits  LV distribution Ring-mainservice Single-line service(equipped for extension to form a ring main) Auto change over switch LV Standby generator  A single transformer Single-line service Parallel feeders service Supplier Fig. B35 : Consumer substation with MV metering 5.3  Choice of MV equipment  (Refer to chapter 6) MV equipment shall comply with applicable IEC standards and local regulations.  It shall be selected according to the electrical and environmental constraints to which it is supposed to be subjected. 5  The consumer substation  with MV metering

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B29 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.1  Choice of MV equipment The electrical equipment must withstand both electrical and environmental  constraints to which it will be submitted during its life time without any mechanical  and dielectric degradation reducing its level of performance. 6.1.1  Standards and specifications Depending on the devices, components and products included in the MV switchgear,  different standards have to be considered for compliance, such as: b  IEC 62271-1, 62271-100, 62271-102, 62271-103, 62271-105, 62271-200. Local regulations may also require compliance with national standards: b  ANSI/IEEE for USA b  EN for European Union b  GOST for Russia b  GB/DL for China. 6.1.2  Types of MV equipment Substations shall be designed and built according to local standards and practices.  The following types of equipment may be used: b  Compartmented modular units supporting all types of single line diagram  and layout b  Compact solution based on ring-main unit solution when the supply is provided  by a ring. A ring main unit includes two load break switches for the connection of the substation  to the ring and a transformer protection unit. Some compact RMU designs   are particularly suitable when harsh environmental conditions apply. 6.1.3  Modular metal-enclosed switchgear (Fig. B36) The IEC 62271-200 standard specifies requirements for "AC metal-enclosed  switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including  52 kV". Different categories of prefabricated metal enclosed switchgear are defined with  respect to the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance  on the switchgear. For classification in categories, various aspects have to be taken into account: b  Definition of functional unit: "a switchgear component contained in a metallic  enclosure and incorporating all the main and auxiliary circuit equipment required to  perform a single function" - usually a modular unit b  Definition of compartment: "a switchgear component contained in a closed metallic  enclosure. The manufacturer defines the content (e.g. busbar, cable connections, etc.) b  Accessibility to individual compartments (see 3.4.1): v  Controlled by interlocking v  In accordance with procedures; for compartments which can be opened during  normal operation v  Using tools; for compartments which should not be opened during normal  operation v  Not accessible for compartments which must not be opened b  Loss of Service Continuity (LSC) (see 3.4.3) defining the extent   to which other compartments can remain energised when one compartment is open. Four LSC categories are defined: v  LSC1, LSC2, LSC2 A, LSC2 B b  Definition of partition: "a switchgear component contained in a metallic enclosure  and separating one compartment from another". There are two types of partitions : v  PM: metallic partitions v  PI: insulating partitions. Metal-enclosed switchgear can be based on all modern switchgear technologies,  such as: b  AIS ( Air Insulated Switchgear) b  SIS ( Solid Insulated Switchgear) b  GIS ( Gas Insulated Switchgear) b  2SIS ( Shielded Solid Insulated Switchgear). 6  Choice and use of MV equipment  and MV/LV transformer B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network Fig. B36 : SF6 modular unit

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility    distribution network B30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.1.4  Choice of MV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit Three types of MV switchgear panel can be used: b  Load-break switch associated to MV fuses without coordination between the fuses  and the breaking capability of the load break switch  b  Load-break switch/MV fuses combination with coordination between the fuses and  the breaking capability of the load break switch  b  Circuit breaker As explained in paragraph 3.3, a circuit breaker with a dedicated protection relay  ensures a better protection of the transformer than the MV fuses coordinated   or not with a load break switch. Note: The fuses used in the load-break switch / fuses combination have striker-pins which ensure tripping of the 3-pole switch as soon as at least one fuse blows.   6.2  Instructions for use of MV equipment The purpose of this chapter is to provide general guidelines on how to avoid   or greatly reduce MV equipment degradation on sites exposed to humidity  and pollution.  6.2.1  Normal service conditions for indoor MV equipment All MV equipment are intented to be used in the normal services conditions   as defined in IEC 62271-1 standard "Common specifications for high-voltage  switchgear and controlgear".For instance, regarding humidity, the standard mentions: b  The average value of the relative humidity, measured over a period of 24 h   does not exceed 95 %; b  The average value of the water vapour pressure, over a period of 24 h   does not exceed 2.2 kPa; b  The average value of the relative humidity, over a period of one month   does not exceed 90 %; b  The average value of water vapour pressure, over a period of one month   does not exceed 1.8 kPa.As indicated in the standard, condensation may occasionally occur even under normal  conditions. Either switchgear designed for such conditions shall be used and/or special   measures concerning the substation premises can be implemented to prevent  condensation, such as suitable ventilation and heating of the station. 6.2.2  Use under severe conditions Under certain severe conditions concerning humidity and pollution, largely beyond  the normal conditions of use mentioned above, electrical equipment can be subject  to damage by rapid corrosion of metal parts and surface degradation of insulating  parts. Examples of suitable measures of protection against condensation and  pollution are listed bellow.Remedial measures for condensation problems b  Carefully design or adapt substation ventilation. b  Avoid temperature variations. b  Eliminate sources of humidity in the substation environment. b  Install an  Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning unit (HVAC) b  Make sure cabling is in accordance with applicable rules. Remedial measures for pollution problems b  Equip substation ventilation openings with chevron-type baffles to reduce entry   of dust and pollution especially when the transformer is installed in the same room  with switchgears or controlgears. b  Install the transformer in a different room to use more efficient ventilation grids if  any,  b  Keep substation ventilation to the minimum required for evacuation of transformer  heat to reduce entry of pollution and dust b  Use MV cubicles with a sufficiently high degree of protection (IP) b  Use air conditioning systems or air forced cooling with filters installed in air inlet to  restrict entry of pollution and dust. b  Regularly clean all traces of pollution from metal and insulating parts.  b  Instead of using AIS equipment ( Fig. B37), use equipment that is insensitive to the  environment such as GIS or 2SIS type (see  Fig. B38). Fig. B37 : SM6 Modular Unit Fig. B38 : PREMSET. Shielded Solid Insulated MV equipment

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B31 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3  Choice of MV/LV transformer The transformers shall comply with IEC 60076. A transformer is characterized  by its electrical parameters, but also by its technology and its conditions of use.  6.3.1  Characteristic parameters of a transformer b   Rated power: the apparent-power in kVA on which the values of the design  parameters and the construction of the transformer are based. Manufacturing tests  and guarantee refer to this rated power b   Frequency: for power distribution systems discussed in this guide, the frequency   is either 50 Hz or 60 Hz b   Rated primary voltage: the service voltage of the electrical network on which the  transformer in connected b   Rated secondary voltage: the voltage measured between the secondary  terminals when the transformer is off load and energized at its rated primary voltage b   Transformer ratio: RMS value of the rated primary voltage divided by the RMS  value of the rated secondary voltage b   Rated insulation levels: are defined by the values of the overvoltage power  frequency withstand test, and high voltage lightning impulse tests. For the voltage levels considered in this guide, the encountered switching over  voltages are generally lower than the expected lightning over voltages, so no over  voltage switching tests are required for these voltages b   Off-load tap-Changer switch: allows to adjust the rated primary voltage and  consequently the transformer ratio within the range ± 2.5 % and ± 5 %.   The transformer must be de-energized before the operation of the switch  b  Winding configurations: Star, Delta and Zigzag high and low voltage windings  connections are defined by an alphanumeric code read from the left to the right. The  first letter refers to the high voltage winding, the second letter to low voltage winding : v  Capital letters are used for the high voltage windings - D = delta connection - Y = star connection  - Z = zigzag connection  - N = neutral point brought out to a dedicated terminal v  Lower-case letters are used for the low voltage winding - d = delta - y = star - z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) - n = neutral point brought out to a dedicated terminal v  A number between 0 and 11 indicates the phase shifting between the primary   and the secondary voltages.    v  A common winding configuration used for distribution transformers is Dyn 11: - High voltage primary windings connected in Delta  - Low voltage secondary windings connected in Star  - Low voltage neutral point brought out to a dedicated terminal.  - Phase shifting between the primary and the secondary voltage: 30°. 6  Choice and use of MV equipment  and MV/LV transformer

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility    distribution network B32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3.2  Technology and utilization of the transformers There are two basic types of distribution transformer: b  Dry type (cast resin encapsulated) transformer b  Liquid filled (oil-immersed) transformer. According IEC 60076, the standard conditions of utilization of the transformers for  outdoor and indoor installation are the following:  b  Altitude  y  1000 m  b  Maximum ambient temperature: 40 °C b  Monthly average temperature: 30 °C during the hottest month  b  Annual average temperature: 20 °C. For other service conditions: b  For oil immersed transformer the IEC 60076-2 specifies the oil and winding  temperature rise. b  For dry type transformer the IEC 60076-11 specifies the thermal class. The temperature surrounding the transformer is linked to the outdoor service  condition, its cooling mode and efficiency when installed in a room, and its load. Two  loading guides can help to verify if the transformer is correctly defined according to  the expected lifespan, which are respectively the IEC 60076-7 and IEC 60076-12. An annex within the HV/LV prefabricated substation standard IEC 62271-202 gives  several examples of installation, based on these two guides. 6.3.3  Dry type transformers  (see  Fig. B39) The dry type transformers shall comply with IEC 60076-11: Each individual winding of these transformers is casted in resin according to a  vacuum dedicated process. The high voltage winding, the low voltage winding and the frame are separate by air. The encapsulation of a winding uses three components: b  Epoxy-resin based on biphenol A with a viscosity that ensures complete  impregnation of the windings b  Anhydride hardener modified to introduce a degree of resilience in the moulding,  essential to avoid the development of cracks during the temperature cycles occurring  in normal operation b  Pulverulent additive composed of trihydrated alumina Al (OH)3 and silica   which enhances its mechanical and thermal properties, as well as giving exceptional  intrinsic qualities to the insulation in the presence of heat. b  This three-component system of encapsulation gives insulation system temperature  155°C (F) with average winding temperature rise limit at rated current Dθ = 100 K  which provides excellent fire-resisting qualities and immediate self-extinction. The moulding of the windings contain no halogen compounds (chlorine, bromine,  etc.) and no other compounds capable of producing corrosive or toxic pollutants,  thereby guaranteeing a high degree of safety to personnel in emergency situations,  notably in the event of a fire. These transformers are classified as nonflammable. Transformers exposed to fire  risk with low flammability and self extinguishing in a given time. They are also exceptionally well adapted for hostile industrial atmospheres  and comply with the following class of environment:  b  Class E3: up to 95 % of humidity and/or high level of pollution b  Class C3: utilization, transport and storage down to -50 °C. Fig. B39 :  Dry type transformer 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B33 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. B41 : Hermetically-sealed  totally-filled oil transformer Fig. B42 : Air-breathing oil transformer 6.3.4  Liquid-filled transformers The most common insulating liquid used in these transformers is mineral oil, which  also acts as a cooling medium. Mineral oils are specified in IEC 60296, they must not contain PCB ( PolyChlorinated  Biphenyl). Mineral oil can be replaced by an alternative insulating liquid such as high density  hydrocarbons, esters, silicones, halogen liquids. The oil being flammable, dedicated safety measures against fire are mandatory in  many countries, especially for indoor substations.The dielectric liquids are classified in several categories according to their fire  performance. This latter is assessed according to two criteria (see  Fig. B40):  b  The flash-point temperature b  The minimum calorific power.   Fig. B40 : Categories of dielectric fluids Code  Dielectric fluid  Flash-point  Minimum calorific power        (°C)  (MJ/kg) O1   Mineral oil   300  - K1   High-density hydrocarbons  300   48  K2   Esters   300   34 - 37 K3   Silicones   300   27 - 28 L3   Insulating halogen liquids  -   12   6  Choice and use of MV equipment  and MV/LV transformer There are two types of liquid filled transformers: Hermetically-sealed totally-filled  transformers and Air-breathing transformer. b  Hermetically-sealed totally-filled transformers up to 10 MVA (see  Fig. B41)  For this type of transformers the expansion of the insulating liquid is compensated   by the elastic deformation of the oil-cooling radiators attached to the tank. The protection against internal faults is ensured by means of a DGPT device:  Detection of Gas, Internal Over Pressure and Oil Over Temperature.  The "total-fill" technique has many advantages:  v  Water cannot enter the tank v  Oxidation of the dielectric liquid with atmospheric oxygen is entirely precluded v  No need for an air-drying device, and so no consequent maintenance (inspection  and changing of saturated desiccant) v  No need for dielectric-strength test of the liquid for at least 10 years b  Air-breathing transformer (see  Fig. B42) This type of transformer is equipped with an expansion tank or conservator mounted  above the main tank. The expansion of the insulating liquid is compensated inside  the conservator by the raising of the oil level.A conservator is required for transformers rated above10 MVA which is presently   the upper limit for "totally filled type transformers". In the conservator the top of the oil is in contact with the air which must remain dry   to avoid any oxidation. This is achieved by admitting the outside air in the  conservator through a desiccating device containing silica-gel crystals. The protection of breathing transformers against internal faults is ensured by means  of a buchholz mounted on the pipe linking the main tank to the conservator.   The buchholz ensures the detection of gas emission and internal over pressure.   The over temperature of the oil is commonly detected by an additional thermostat.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility    distribution network B34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3.5  Choice of technology As discussed above, the choice of transformer is between liquid-filled or dry type. For ratings up to 10 MVA, totally filled units are available as an alternative  to conservator type transformers. The choice depends on a number of considerations, including: b   Local regulations and recommendations. In some countries dry-type transformers  are mandatory for specific buildings such as hospitals, commercial premises etc. b   Risk of fire b   Prices and technical considerations, taking account the relative advantages of  each technology. 6.3.6  Determination of the optimal power The over sizing of a transformer results in: b   Excessive investment  b   Un necessarily high no-load losses b   Lower on-load losses. Under sizing a transformer causes: b   A reduced efficiency when fully loaded. The highest efficiency is attained in the  range 50 % - 70 % of the full load, b   On long-term overload, serious consequences for the transformer, owing to the  premature ageing of the windings insulation, and in extreme cases, resulting in  failure of insulation and loss of the transformer.Definition of optimal power In order to select an optimal power rating for a transformer, the following factors  must be taken into account: b   List the consumers and define the factor of utilization ku and the diversity factor ks  for each load as describe in chapter A  b   Determine the load cycle of the installation, noting the duration of loads  and overloads b   Take into account all possible future extensions of the installation. b   Arrange for power-factor correction, if justified, in order to: v   Reduce billing penalties in tariffs based, in part, on maximum kVA demand v   Reduce the value of the required apparent power: P(kVA) = P (kW)/cos φ b   Select the transformer, among the range of standard transformer ratings available. To avoid over heating and consequently premature ageing of the transformer,   it is important to ensure that cooling arrangements and temperature rise of the  transformer are adequate. Notes: b   A wrong choice of the winding temperature rise or thermal class can be at the  origin of a reduced lifespan. b   A wrong assessment of the service conditions linked to the load profile can be at  the origin of a reduced lifespan. Ex: Photovoltaic production where the load is during  the day and when a 70°C maximum ambient temperature gradient is met as in Russia  between winter and summer. 6.4  Ventilation in MV Substations Substation ventilation is generally required to dissipate the heat produced by  transformers and other equipment, and to allow drying after particularly wet or humid  periods. However, a number of studies have shown that excessive opening can drastically  increase condensation. The following paragraphs highlight a number of recommendations and good  practices to ensure proper ventilation of MV substations. More details to design a  natural ventilation of a transformer can be found within the MV Technical Guide §  Ventilation. 6.4.1  Remark concerning HV/LV outdoor prefabricated substation in  special service conditions b   Any installation of a transformer in the same room or in the same enclosure   as HV and LV switchgears will impact the lifespan of the products. b   Any air flow generated by the transformer heating reduces the impact of irradiance.  This air flow is the natural convection as required by the IEC 62271-202 standard. b   Any separation of the transformer by a partition wall with the HV and LV  switchgears compartment improves the service condition of the switchgears for  moderate climates, and avoids exposing them to harsh environment as example  wind farms near coastal areas. b   For outdoor installations, any switchgear should be preferably installed in a  thermal insulated enclosure protecting it from outdoor service conditions (dust,  humidity, solar radiation etc.) especially for very hot and cold climates, and harsh  environment.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B35 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.4.2  Recommendations for HV/LV substation ventilation  General considerations Ventilation should be kept to the minimum level required.Furthermore, ventilation should never generate sudden temperature variations that  can cause the dew point to be reached. For this reason, natural ventilation should  be used whenever possible. Heating could be required when the application can be  de-energized for a period; this is to maintain a minimum air flow. If forced ventilation  is necessary, the fans should operate continuously to avoid temperature fluctuations.  When forced ventilation is not enough to assure the indoor service condition of the  switchgear or when the installation surrounding is a hazardous area, HVAC unit will  be necessary to separate completely the indoor service conditions to the outdoor  service conditions.Natural ventilation is the mostly used method for MV installations (see  Fig. B43 and B44).   A guideline for sizing the air entry and exit openings of HV/LV substations is  proposed in the "MV Technical Guide" by Schneider Electric. Ventilation opening locations To favor evacuation of the heat produced by the transformer via natural convection,  ventilation openings should be located at the top and bottom of the wall near the  transformer. The heat dissipated by the MV switchboard could be neglected. To  avoid condensation problems, the substation ventilation openings should be located  as far as possible from the switchboards (see  Fig. B45). Type of ventilation openings To reduce the entry of dust, pollution, mist, etc., the substation ventilation openings  should be equipped with chevron-blade baffles when the transformer is installed in a  same room with the switchboards, otherwise the use of higher efficiency ventilation  grids is allowed, especially advised when total losses are above 15kW. Temperature variations inside cubicles To reduce temperature variations, always install anti-condensation heaters inside  MV cubicles if the average relative humidity can remain high over a long period of  time. The heaters must operate continuously, 24 hours a day, all year long. Never  connect them to a temperature control or regulation system as this could lead to  temperature variations and condensation as well as a shorter service life for the  heating elements. Make sure the heaters offer an adequate service life. Temperature variations inside the substation The following measures can be taken to reduce temperature variations inside the  substation: b  Improve the thermal insulation of the substation to reduce the effects of outdoor  temperature variations on the temperature inside the substation b  Avoid substation heating if possible. If heating is required, make sure the  regulation system and/or thermostat are sufficiently accurate and designed to avoid  excessive temperature swings (e.g. no greater than 1 °C). If a sufficiently accurate  temperature regulation system is not available, leave the heating on continuously,   24 hours a day, all year long b  Eliminate cold air drafts from cable trenches under cubicles or from openings in  the substation (under doors, roof joints, etc.). Substation environment and humidity Various factors outside the substation can affect the humidity inside. b  Plants: avoid excessive plant growth around the substation, and closing any  opening. b  Substation waterproofing: the substation roof must not leak. Avoid flat roofs for  which waterproofing is difficult to implement and maintain. b  Humidity from cable trenches: make sure cable trenches are dry under all  conditions. A partial solution is to add sand to the bottom of the cable trench. Fig. B43 : Two different examples of HV/LV substation designs  with natural ventilation, according to the layouts described in Fig B54 6  Choice and use of MV equipment  and MV/LV transformer Fig. B44 : Example of HV/LV prefabricated substation tested  with 1250 kVA liquid filled transformer Fig. B45 : Ventilation opening locations

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility    distribution network B36 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Pollution protection and cleaning Excessive pollution favors leakage current, tracking and flashover on insulators.   To prevent MV equipment degradation by pollution, it is possible to either protect the  equipment against pollution or regularly clean the resulting contamination. Protection Indoor MV switchgear can be protected by enclosures providing a sufficiently high  degree of protection (IP). Cleaning If not fully protected, MV equipment must be cleaned regularly to prevent  degradation by contamination from pollution. Cleaning is a critical process. The use of unsuitable products can irreversibly  damage the equipment. 6  Choice and use of MV equipment  and MV/LV transformer

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B37 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Only generators connected at MV level are considered in this chapter.  7.1  Generators in stand-alone operation,  not working in parallel with the supply network  When the installation needs a high level of power availability, one or several  MV standby generator set can be used.  In all the stand alone applications the installation includes an automatic changeover  able to switch from the utility network supply to the generator(s) in case of failure of  the utility supply (see Fig. B51).The generators are protected by dedicated protections. For medium size generators  the following protections are usually used: b  Phase to phase and phase to earth over current b  Percentage biased differential b  Negative sequence over current  b  Overload b  Stator frame fault  b  Rotor frame fault  b  Reverse active power  b  Reverse reactive power or loss of field b  Loss of synchronization  b  Over and under voltage b  Over and under frequency b  Overheating of bearings. It shall be noted that, due to the very low short-circuit current of the generator(s)  compared to the one delivered from the utility supply network, a great attention must  be paid to the settings of the protection and the discrimination. It is recommended  when ordering a generator(s) to check with the manufacturer its (their) ability in  providing a short circuit current ensuring the operation of the phase to phase short  circuit protection. In case of difficulties the boosting of the generator’s excitation is  required and shall be specified.Voltage and frequency control The voltage and the frequency are controlled by the primary regulator(s) of the  generator(s). The frequency is controlled by the speed regulator(s), while the voltage  is controlled by the excitation regulator(s).When several generators operate in parallel an additional control loop is required   to perform the sharing of the active and reactive power between the generators.   The principle of operation is the following: b  The active power delivered by a generator increases when the driven machine   is accelerated and vice versa  b  The reactive power delivered by a generator increases when its excitation current   is increased and vice versa. Dedicated modules are installed to perform this sharing, generally ensuring other  tasks such as the automatic synchronization and coupling of the generators  (see  Fig. B52). 7.2  Generators operating in parallel   with the utility supply network When one or several generators are intended to operate in parallel with the supply  network the agreement of the utility is usually required. The utility specifies the  conditions of operation of the generators and specific requirements may be asked.  The utility generally requires information concerning the generators, such as: b  Level of the short circuit current injected by the generators in case of fault   on the supply network  b  Maximum active power intended to be injected in the supply network   b  Operation principle of the voltage control   b  Capability of the generators to control the power factor of the installation. In case of fault on the utility supply network, the instantaneous disconnection   of the generators is generally required. It is achieved by means of a dedicated  protection specified by the utility. This protection may operate according to one   or several of the following criteria: b  Under-voltage and over-voltage  b  Under-frequency and over-frequency  b  Zero sequence overvoltage  The protection generally orders the tripping of the main circuit breaker ensuring   the connection of the installation to the utility while the generators continue to supply  the totality of the internal consumers or a part only if they are not sized for the full  power required (see  Fig. B34). In this case load shedding must be simultaneously  executed with the tripping of the main circuit breaker. 7  Substation including   generators and parallel operation  of transformers Fig. B51 : Automatic change over associated with stand-alone  generators From standby generator MV distribution  panels for  which standby  supply is  required   Automatic changeover panel Busbar transition panel To remainder  of the MV  switchboard  

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B38 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. B52 : Control of generators operating in parallel with the utility supply network Control When generators at a consumer’s substation operate in island mode (Utility power  supply disconnected) the voltage and the frequency at the main substation level are  both fixed by the generators and consequently the control system of the generators  operate in Voltage/Frequency mode (see  Fig. B52). When the utility power supply is connected the voltage and the frequency are both  fixed by the utility and the control system of the generators must be switched from  Voltage/Frequency mode (V/F control mode) to Active power/Reactive power mode  (P/Q control mode) (see  Fig. B52). The function of the P/Q control mode is to control the exchange of active and  reactive power with the utility. The typical principle of operation used in most of the  applications is the following: b  The amount of the active and reactive power exchanged with the utility are set by  the operator. The settings may be specified by the utility b  The control system maintains the values of the exchange at the required values  by acting on the speed of the generators for the control of active power and on the  excitation current for the control of the reactive power  b  The sharing of the active and reactive power between the generators remains in  operation. The P/Q control mode allows: b  To strictly limit the value of the active power imported from the utility at the amount  which can’t be provided by the generators when the demand of the installation  exceed their capability.  b  To maintain at zero the imported active power, when the demand of the installation  remains below the capability of the generators  b  To maintain the power factor of the installation at the contractual value specified by  the utility.  When the capability of the generators in providing reactive power is exceeded, the  additional reactive power required to comply with the contractual power factor shall  be supplied by a dedicated capacitor bank. Selector Speed controller Excitation controller Excitation controller Selector Speed controller Reg P Reg F Reg V Reg Q P G1 G2 Q P Q Sharing P Sharing Q

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B39 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  Substation including   generators and parallel operation  of transformers 7.3  Parallel operation of transformers The need to operate two or more transformers in parallel may be required when: b  The level of security of supply to be guarantied requires to duplicate the sources   of supply  b  The capacity of an existing transformer is exceeded due to the extension   of the installation  b  A single large transformer cannot be installed due to the lack of space  b  The standardisation of the transformers throughout the installation is required. It is not recommended to connect more than two transformers in parallel because   the short circuit current at low voltage level may become too high.  7.3.1  Total power (kVA) The total power (kVA) available when two or more transformers are connected   in parallel, is equal to the sum of the individual transformer’s ratings. Transformers of equal power rating will each provide a load equal to the total load  provided to the installation, divided by the number of transformers working in parallel. Transformers of unequal power ratings will share the load in proportion to their  ratings, providing that their voltage ratios and their short circuit impedances   are identical.  7.3.2  Necessary conditions for parallel operation The following conditions for the connection of power transformers in parallel are  required: It is preferred to connect in parallel transformers having the same characteristics: b  Same voltage ratio b  Same rated power b  Same short circuit impedance. b  Same coupling symbol of windings as for example D yn 11 b  Same impedances of the LV links between the transformers and the main LV  switchboard where the paralleling is realized. For transformers having unequal rated power their internal impedances are   in the ratio of the rated power of the transformers.Connection in parallel of transformers having a power ratio equal or higher than two  is not recommended. When the transformers do not comply with the above requirements,  recommendations for their paralleling shall be asked to the manufacturer.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B40 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved MV/LV substations may be built in public places, such as parks, residential areas,  etc. or in private premises. In this case the utility must have an unrestricted access   to the substation. This is normally achieved by locating the substation in such  a manner that one of the entrance can be directly accessible at any time from the public way. 8.1  Different types of substations  A substation may be installed: b  Indoor within a building, in a dedicated room  b  Outdoor inside a dedicated housing prefabricated or not b  Outdoor without housing b  Pole mounted. 8.2  Indoor substation 8.2.1  General arrangement of a LV metering substation  Figures ( Fig. B53 and Fig. B54) shows a typical layout recommended for a   LV metering substation.Remark: The cast-resin dry-type transformer does not need a fire protection oil  sump. However, periodic cleaning of the transformer is needed. 8  Types and constitution  of MV/LV distribution substations Fig. B53 : General arrangement of a LV metering substation LV switchgear LV connections  from transformer  MV connections to transformer 2 incoming MV panels  MV  switching  and  protection  panel   Transformer LV cable  trench Oil sump Connection to the power- supply network by single-core  or three-core cables   Current  transformers  for metering 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B41 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 8  Types and constitution  of MV/LV distribution substations Fig. B54 : Examples of general arrangements of LV metering substations, plan view 8.2.2  Connection to the utility   and internal MV and LV interconnections Connection to the MV utility network is made by, and is under the responsibility   of the utility. Connection between the MV switchgear and the transformer may be realized by: b  Short copper bars when the transformer is housed in a panel part   of the MV switchboard b  By single-core or three cores screened cables with PR or EPR insulation,   and possible connection to the transformers by plugin type terminals. Connection between the LV terminals of the transformer and the LV switchgear may  be realized with: b  Single-core cables b  LV busway with heat-shrinkable insulation. It is highly recommended to use busway for the connection of transformers requiring  more than five single LV cables in parallel per phase. Above five single core cables  per phase the equal share of the current in each cable cannot be ensured and the  laying becomes a real difficulty. 8.2.3  Earthing circuits To ensure the safety of the persons an equipotential system must be created within  the substation. It is realized according the following recommendations: b  Creation of an earthing electrode under the substation by burying copper  conductors b  Inter-connection by means of protective conductors of all the exposed conductive  parts of the installation: v  Enclosures of the electrical equipment  v  Screens of the MV cables  v  Frame of the transformer v  Metallic doors v  Etc.  b  Connection of all protective conductors at one single common point   b  Connection of the common point of the protective conductors and the reinforcing  rods of the concrete slab supporting the substation, should be connected to the earth  electrode. 8.2.4  Lighting The supply of the lighting circuits can be taken upstream or downstream from the  main incoming LV circuit breaker. Appropriate LV circuit breakers must be provided  for the protection of LV lighting circuits. The lighting must adequately illuminate: b  The switchgear operating handles  b  The mechanical flags indicating the position of electrical apparatus b  All the information displayed on the meters and on the protection relays  b  All the instruction plates dedicated to the operations and the safety. For safety reasons, it is recommended to add emergency lighting boxes including  each an individual battery. 1 2 3 1 4 2 3 1  HV Switchboard  3  LV switchboard 2  Transformer  4  Electronic devices / Capacitors 4

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B - Connection to the MV utility   distribution network B42 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 8.2.5  Materials for operation and safety According to local safety rules, the substation shall be equiped with the following  safety equipment: b  Devices for the safe exploitation of the substation: v  An Insulated stool v  An insulated mat v  A pair of insulated gloves stored in a dedicated box v  A detector of MV voltage presence b  Fire-extinguishing devices complying with the local regulations b  Warning and instruction plates dedicated to: v  Operation of the substation v  Safety of the persons v  First-aid care to victims of electrical accidents. 8.3  Outdoor substations 8.3.1  Outdoor substations with prefabricated enclosures The prefabricated outdoor MV/LV substations (see  Fig. B55) comply   with IEC 62271-202 standard. b  A type tested prefabricated outdoor substation is subjected to tests   and verifications dedicated to: v  Degree of protection v  Temperature class v  Non-flammable materials v  Mechanical resistance of the enclosure v  Sound level v  Insulation level v  Internal arc withstand v  Earthing circuit  v  Retention of oil  v  Operation of the substation. Main benefits: The prefabricated substations provide a particularly interesting and optimized  solution regarding: b  Delivery time  b  Construction works b  Erection works b  Commissioning b  Total cost. Fig. B55 : Type tested substation according to IEC 62271-202 Use of equipment conform to IEC standards: b  Degree of protection b  Electromagnetic  compatibility b  Functional tests b  Temperature class b  Non-flammable  materials Mechanical resistance of the enclosure: b  Sound level b  Insulation level b  Internal arcing  withstand LV Earthing circuit test Oil retention MV IEC 62271-202 standard defines requirements for two types of outdoor prefabricated  substations (see  Fig. B56):  b  Walk-in type substation b  Non walk-in type substation. Walk-in Non walk-in Fig. B56 : Walk in and non-walk in type substations

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 B43 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The substations may be situated at ground level, half buried or completely buried  (underground substation), resulting in three types of design (see  Fig. B57 and  Fig. B58). 8.3.2  Outdoor substation without enclosure (see Fig. B59) This kind of outdoor substations based on weatherproof equipment is commonly  used in countries such as UK and India for example. These substations are generally included in MV rings and include: b   Two functional units dedicated to the connection of the substation to the ring b   One functional unit for the supply and the protection of the MV/LV power  transformer generally done by a circuit breaker unit b   One single MV/LV Power transformer  b   One LV distribution panel. The transformer and the LV panel can be installed in dedicated outdoor type  housing. 8.3.3  Pole mounted substation Application These substations are mainly used for the supply of isolated rural consumers   from MV overhead lines.Constitution This type of substation includes (see  Fig. B60): b   A single pole mounted MV/LV power transformer that is, according to the local  rules associated or not with: v   A load break switch v   A set of three fuses v   A set of three surge arrestors b   A low voltage circuit breaker  b   An earthing electrode realized at the bottom of the pole supporting the equipment. The location of the substation must allow easy access of the personnel and handling  equipment. 8  Types and constitution  of MV/LV distribution substations Ground level Half buried Underground Fig. B57 : Outdoor substations. The three type of design Fig. B60 : Pole mounted MV/LV substation Earthing conductor 25 mm² copper  Protective conductor cover LV circuit breaker D1  Safety earth mat Lightning arresters Fuse a - b - Fig. B58 : Outdoor substations  [a]  Ground level walk in type  substation;  [b]  Half buried non walk in type substation Fig. B59 : Outdoor substation without enclosure 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Chapter C Connection to the LV utility distribution network   Contents   Low-voltage utility distribution networks  C2   1.1  Low-voltage consumers  C2   1.2  LV distribution networks  C10   1.3  The consumer-service connection  C11   1.4  Quality of supply voltage  C15   Tariffs and metering  C16     1    2   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.1  Low-voltage consumers In Europe, the transition period on the voltage tolerance to “230V/400V + 10% / - 10%” has been extended for another 5 years up to the year 2008. Low-voltage consumers are, by definition, those consumers whose loads can be  satisfactorily supplied from the low-voltage system in their locality. The voltage of the local LV network may be 120/208 V or 240/415 V, i.e. the lower or upper extremes of the most common 3-phase levels in general use, or at some intermediate level, as shown in Figure C1. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC 60038 to be 230/400 V. Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV, but power-supply organizations generally propose a MV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate. 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks The most-common LV supplies are within the range 120 V single phase to 240/415 V  3-phase 4-wires.Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV, but power-supply organizations generally propose a MV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate.An international voltage standard for 3-phase  4-wire LV systems is recommended by the  IEC 60038 to be 230/400 V Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %)  Afghanistan  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  Algeria  50 ± 1.5  220/127 (e)  380/220 (a)  10,000      220 (k)  220/127 (a)  5,500        6,600        380/220  (a) Angola  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)    220  (k)  Antigua and Barbuda  60  240 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)      120 (k)  120/208 (a)  120/208 (a) Argentina  50 ± 2  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)  Armenia  50 ± 5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)  Australia  50 ± 0.1  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)  22,000        240 (k)  440/250 (a)  11,000      440  (m)  6,600        415/240        440/250 Austria  50 ± 0.1  230 (k)  380/230 (a) (b)  5,000        230 (k)  380/220 (a) Azerbaijan  50 ± 0.1  208/120 (a)  208/120 (a)      240/120 (k)  240/120 (k) Bahrain  50 ± 0.1  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)  11,000      240 (k)  240 (k)  415/240 (a)        240  (k)  Bangladesh  50 ± 2  410/220 (a)  410/220 (a)  11,000        220 (k)    410/220 (a) Barbados  50 ± 6  230/115 (j)  230/115 (j)  230/400 (g)      115 (k)  200/115 (a)  230/155 (j)        220/115  (a) Belarus  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)      127  (k) Belgium  50 ± 5  230 (k)  230 (k)  6,600      230 (a)  230 (a)  10,000      3N, 400  3N, 400  11,000        15,000  Bolivia  50 ± 0.5  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)      230  (k)    Botswana  50 ± 3  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  Brazil  60 ± 3  220 (k, a)  220/380 (a)  69,000      127 (k, a)  127/220 (a)  23,200        13,800        11,200        220/380  (a)        127/220  (a) Brunei  50 ± 2  230  230  11,000        68,000  Bulgaria  50 ± 0.1  220  220/240  1,000        690        380 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) Cambodia  50 ± 1  220 (k)  220/300  220/380  Cameroon  50 ± 1  220/260 (k)  220/260 (k)  220/380 (a) Canada  60 ± 0.02  120/240 (j)  347/600 (a)  7,200/12,500        480 (f)  347/600 (a)      240  (f)  120/208          120/240 (j)  600 (f)        120/208 (a)  480 (f)        240  (f)  Cape Verde    220  220  380/400 Chad  50 ± 1  220 (k)  220 (k)  380/220 (a) Chile  50 ± 1  220 (k)  380/220 (a)   380/220 (a) China  50 ± 0.5  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)        220 (k)  220 (k)  Colombia  60 ± 1  120/240 (g)  120/240 (g)  13,200      120 (k)  120 (k)  120/240 (g) Congo  50  220 (k)  240/120 (j)  380/220 (a)      120  (k)    Croatia  50  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)      230 (k)  230 (k)    Cyprus  50 ± 0.1  240 (k)  415/240  11,000        415/240  Czech Republic  50 ± 1  230  500  400,000      230/400  220,000        110,000        35,000        22,000        10,000        6,000        3,000  Denmark  50 ± 1  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a) Djibouti  50    400/230 (a)  400/230 (a) Dominica  50  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a) Egypt  50 ± 0.5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  66,000      220 (k)  220 (k)  33,000        20,000        11,000        6,600        380/220  (a) Estonia  50 ± 1  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    Ethiopia  50 ± 2.5  220 (k)  380/231 (a)  15 000        380/231  (a) Falkland Islands  50 ± 3  230 (k)  415/230 (a)  415/230 (a) Fidji Islands  50 ± 2  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)  11,000      240 (k)  240 (k)  415/240 (a) Finland  50 ± 0.1  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  690/400 (a)        400/230  (a) France  50 ± 1  400/230 (a)  400/230  20,000    230  (a)  690/400  10,000      590/100  230/400 Gambia  50  220 (k)  220/380  380  Georgia  50 ± 0.5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    Germany  50 ± 0.3  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  20,000      230 (k)  230 (k)  10,000        6,000        690/400        400/230  Ghana  50 ± 5  220/240  220/240  415/240 (a) Gibraltar  50 ± 1  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a) Greece  50  220 (k)  6,000  22,000    230  380/220  (a)  20,000        15,000        6,600  Granada  50  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a) Hong Kong  50 ± 2  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  11,000        220 (k)  386/220 (a) Hungary  50 ± 5  220  220  220/380  Iceland  50 ± 0.1  230  230/400  230/400  Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %) 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) India  50 ± 1.5  440/250 (a)  440/250 (a)  11,000      230 (k)  230 (k)  400/230 (a)        440/250  (a) Indonesia  50 ± 2  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  150,000        20,000        380/220  (a) Iran  50 ± 5  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  20,000        11,000        400/231  (a)        380/220  (a) Iraq  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  11,000        6,600        3,000        380/220  (a) Ireland  50 ± 2  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  20,000        10,000        400/230  (a) Israel  50 ± 0.2  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  22,000      230 (k)  230 (k)  12,600        6,300        400/230  (a) Italy  50 ± 0.4  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  20,000    230  (k)    15,000        10,000        400/230  (a) Jamaica  50 ± 1  220/110 (g) (j)  220/110 (g) (j)  4,000        2,300        220/110  (g) Japan (east)  + 0.1  200/100 (h)  200/100 (h)  140,000    - 0.3    (up to 50 kW)  60,000        20,000        6,000        200/100  (h) Jordan  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  400 (a)    400/230  (k)      Kazakhstan  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)    127  (k)    Kenya  50  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a) Kirghizia  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)    127  (k) Korea (North)  60 +0, -5  220 (k)  220/380 (a)  13,600        6,800  Korea (South)  60  100 (k)  100/200 (j)    Kuwait  50 ± 3  240 (k)  415/240 (a)   415/240 (a) Laos  50 ± 8  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a) Lesotho    220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a) Latvia  50 ± 0.4  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    Lebanon  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a) Libya  50  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)      127 (k)  220/127 (a)  220/127 (a)      230  (k)      127  (k) Lithuania  50 ± 0.5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    Luxembourg  50 ± 0.5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  20,000        15,000        5,000  Macedonia  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  10,000      220 (k)  220 (k)  6,600        380/220  (a) Madagascar  50  220/110 (k)  380/220 (a)  35,000        5,000        380/220 Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %) Malaysia  50 ± 1  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)    415  (a)      Malawi  50 ± 2.5  230 (k)  400 (a)  400 (a)      230  (k) Mali  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      127 (k)  220/127 (a)  220/127 (a)      220  (k)      127  (k) Malta  50 ± 2  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a) Martinique  50  127 (k)  220/127 (a)  220/127 (a)      127  (k)    Mauritania  50 ± 1  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a) Mexico  60 ± 0.2  127/220 (a)  127/220 (a)  4,160      120/240 (j)  120/240 (j)  13,800        23,000        34,500        277/480  (a)        127/220  (b) Moldavia  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)    127  (k)    Morocco  50 ± 5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  225,000   220/110  (a)    150,000        60,000        22,000        20,000  Mozambique  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  6,000        10,000 Nepal  50 ± 1  220 (k)  440/220 (a)  11,000        220 (k)  440/220 (a) Netherlands  50 ± 0.4  230/400 (a)  230/400 (a)  25,000    230  (k)    20,000        12,000        10,000        230/400  New Zealand  50 ± 1.5  400/230 (e) (a)  400/230 (e) (a)  11,000      230 (k)  230 (k)  400/230 (a)    460/230  (e) Niger  50 ± 1  230 (k)  380/220 (a)  15,000        380/220  (a) Nigeria  50 ± 1  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  15,000      220 (k)  380/220 (a)  11,000        400/230  (a)        380/220  (a) Norway  50 ± 2  230/400  230/400  230/400        690  Oman  50  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)      240  (k)    Pakistan  50  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)      230  (k)    Papua New Guinea  50 ± 2  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  22,000      240  (k)  11,000        415/240  (a) Paraguay  50 ± 0.5  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  22,000        220 (k)  380/220 (a) Philippines (Rep of the)  60 ± 0.16  110/220 (j)  13,800  13,800      4,160  4,160      2,400  2,400        110/220 (h)  440 (b)        110/220  (h) Poland  50 ± 0.1  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  1,000        690/400        400/230  (a) Portugal  50 ± 1  380/220 (a)  15,000  15,000    220  (k)  5,000  5,000        380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220  (k)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) Qatar  50 ± 0.1  415/240 (k)  415/240 (a)  11,000        415/240  (a) Romania  50 ± 0.5  220 (k)  220/380 (a)  20,000    220/380  (a)    10,000        6,000        220/380  (a)  Russia  50 ± 0.2  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    Rwanda  50 ± 1  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  15,000        6,600        380/220  (a) Saint Lucia  50 ± 3  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  11,000        415/240  (a) Samoa    400/230     San Marino  50 ± 1  230/220  380  15,000        380  Saudi Arabia  60  220/127 (a)  220/127 (a)  11,000      380/220  (a)  7,200        380/220  (a) The Solomon Islands  50 ± 2  240  415/240  415/240  Senegal  50 ± 5  220 (a)  380/220 (a)  90,000      127 (k)  220/127 (k)  30,000        6,600  Serbia and Montenegro  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  10,000      220 (k)  220 (k)  6,600        380/220  (a) Seychelles  50 ± 1  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  11,000        400/230  (a) Sierra Leone  50 ± 5  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  11,000      230  (k)  400  Singapore  50  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  22,000    230  (k)    6,600        400/230  (a) Slovakia  50 ± 0.5  230  230  230/400  Slovenia  50 ± 0.1  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  10,000        6,600        380/220  (a) Somalia  50  230 (k)  440/220 (j)  440/220 (g)      220 (k)  220/110 (j)  220/110 (g)      110 (k)  230 (k)  South Africa  50 ± 2.5  433/250 (a)  11,000  11,000    400/230  (a)  6,600  6,600    380/220  (a)  3,300  3,300      220 (k)  433/250 (a)  500 (b)        400/230 (a)  380/220 (a)      380/220  (a) Spain  50 ± 3  380/220 (a) (e)  380/220 (a)   15,000      220 (k)  220/127 (a) (e)  11,000      220/127 (a)    380/220 (a)    127  (k) Sri Lanka  50 ± 2  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  11,000        230 (k)  400/230 (a) Sudan  50  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  415/240 (a)      240  (k)    Swaziland  50 ± 2.5  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  11,000        230 (k)  400/230 (a) Sweden  50 ± 0.5  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  6,000      230 (k)  230 (k)  400/230 (a) Switzerland  50 ± 2  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  20,000        10,000        3,000        1,000        690/500  Syria  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      115 (k)  220 (k)      200/115  (a)    Tadzhikistan  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)    127  (k)    Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C1  : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (continued on next page) 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %) Tanzania  50  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  11,000        400/230  (a) Thailand  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220  (k)    Togo  50  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  20,000        5,500        380/220  (a) Tunisia  50 ± 2  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  30,000      220 (k)  220 (k)  15,000       10,000        380/220  (a) Turkmenistan  50  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)    220/127  (a)    127  (k)    Turkey  50 ± 1  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  15,000        6,300        380/220  (a) Uganda  + 0.1  240 (k)  415/240 (a)  11,000        415/240  (a) Ukraine  + 0.2 / - 1.5  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)      220 (k)  220 (k)  220 (k)  United Arab Emirates  50 ± 1  220 (k)  415/240 (a)  6,600        380/220 (a)  415/210 (a)        220 (k)  380/220 (a) United Kingdom   50 ± 1  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  22,000  (except Northern        11,000  Ireland)       6,600        3,300        400/230  (a) United Kingdom   50 ± 0.4  230 (k)  400/230 (a)  400/230 (a)  (Including Northern     220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380/220 (a)  Ireland)  United States of    60 ± 0.06  120/240 (j)  265/460 (a)  14,400  America      120/208 (a)  120/240 (j)  7,200  Charlotte       120/208 (a)  2,400  (North Carolina)        575 (f)        460  (f)        240  (f)        265/460  (a)        120/240  (j)        120/208  (a) United States of   60 ± 0.2  120/240 (j)  480 (f)  13,200  America    120/208 (a)  120/240 (h)  4,800   Detroit (Michigan)      120/208 (a)  4,160        480  (f)        120/240  (h)        120/208  (a) United States of   60 ± 0.2  120/240 (j)  4,800  4,800  America       120/240 (g)  120/240 (g)  Los Angeles (California)  United States of   60 ± 0.3  120/240 (j)  120/240 (j)  13,200  America    120/208 (a)  120/240 (h)  2,400  Miami (Florida)      120/208 (a)  480/277 (a)        120/240  (h) United States of   60  120/240 (j)  120/240 (j)  12,470  America New York     120/208 (a)  120/208 (a)  4,160  (New York)      240 (f)  277/480 (a)        480  (f)  United States of   60 ± 0.03  120/240 (j)  265/460 (a)  13,200    America       120/240 (j)  11,500  Pittsburg       120/208 (a)  2,400  (Pennsylvania)      460 (f)  265/460 (a)        230 (f)  120/208 (a)        460  (f)        230  (f) 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Country  Frequency & tolerance  Domestic (V)  Commercial (V)  Industrial (V)    (Hz & %) United States of   60   120/240 (j)  227/480 (a)  19,900  America      120/240 (j)  12,000  Portland (Oregon)      120/208 (a)  7,200      480  (f)  2,400        240 (f)  277/480 (a)        120/208  (a)        480  (f)        240  (f) United States of   60 ± 0.08  120/240 (j)  277/480 (a)  20,800  America      120/240 (j)  12,000  San Francisco         4,160  (California)        277/480 (a)        120/240  (g) United States of   60 ± 0.08  120/240 (j)  277/480 (c)  12,470  America    120/208 (a)  120/240(h)  7,200  Toledo (Ohio)      120/208 (j)  4,800        4,160        480  (f)        277/480  (a)        120/208  (a) Uruguay  50 ± 1  220 (b) (k)  220 (b) (k)  15,000        6,000        220  (b)  Vietnam  50 ± 0.1  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  35,000        15,000        10,000        6,000  Yemen  50  250 (k)  440/250 (a)  440/250 (a) Zambia  50 ± 2.5  220 (k)  380/220 (a)  380 (a)  Zimbabwe  50  225 (k)  390/225 (a)  11,000        390/225  (a) Fig. C1   : Voltage of local LV network and their associated circuit diagrams (concluded) (f) Three-phase delta: Three-wire (g) Three-phase delta; Four-wire: Earthed mid point of one phase (h) Three-phase open delta; Four-wire: Earthed mid point of one phase (i) Three-phase open delta: Earthed junction of phases (j) Single-phase; Three-wire: Earthed mid point (k) Single-phase; Two-wire: Earthed end of phase (l) Single-phase; Two-wire Unearthed (m) Single-wire: Earthed return (swer) V k V (b) Three-phase star: Three-wire Circuit diagrams (a) Three-phase star; Four-wire: Earthed neutral (c) Three-phase star; Three-wire: Earthed neutral (d) Three-phase star; Four-wire: Non-earthed neutral (e) Two-phase star; Three-wire Earthed neutral (n) DC: Three-wire: Unearthed

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Residential and commercial consumers The function of a LV “mains” distributor is to provide service connections  (underground cable or overhead line) to a number of consumers along its route.The current-rating requirements of distributors are estimated from the number of  consumers to be connected and an average demand per consumer.The two principal limiting parameters of a distributor are: b  The maximum current which it is capable of carrying indefinitely, and b  The maximum length of cable which, when carrying its maximum current, will not  exceed the statutory voltage-drop limitThese constraints mean that the magnitude of loads which utilities are willing to  connect to their LV distribution mains, is necessarily restricted.For the range of LV systems mentioned in the second paragraph of this sub-clause  (1.1) viz: 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase, typical maximum permitted loads  connected to a LV distributor might (1)  be (see   Fig. C2): (1) The Figure C2 values shown are indicative only, being  (arbitrarily) based on 60 A maximum service currents for the  first three systems, since smaller voltage drops are allowed at  these lower voltages, for a given percentage statutory limit.  The second group of systems is (again, arbitrarily) based on a  maximum permitted service current of 120 A. Fig. C2  : Typical maximum permitted loads connected to a LV distributor Practices vary considerably from one power supply organization to another, and no  “standardized” values can be given.Factors to be considered include: b  The size of an existing distribution network to which the new load is to be connected b  The total load already connected to the distribution network b  The location along the distribution network of the proposed new load, i.e. close to  the substation, or near the remote end of the distribution network, etcIn short, each case must be examined individually. The load levels listed above are adequate for all normal residential consumers, and  will be sufficient for the installations of many administrative, commercial and similar  buildings. Medium-size and small industrial consumers (with dedicated  LV lines direct from a utility supply MV/LV substation) Medium and small industrial consumers can also be satisfactorily supplied at low- voltage.For loads which exceed the maximum permitted limit for a service from a distributor,  a dedicated cable can usually be provided from the LV distribution fuse- (or switch-)  board, in the power utility substation.Generaly, the upper load limit which can be supplied by this means is restricted only  by the available spare transformer capacity in the substation.In practice, however: b  Large loads (e.g. 300 kVA) require correspondingly large cables, so that,  unless the load centre is close to the substation, this method can be economically  unfavourable b  Many utilities prefer to supply loads exceeding 200 kVA (this figure varies with  different suppliers) at medium voltage For these reasons, dedicated supply lines at LV are generally applied (at 220/380 V  to 240/415 V) to a load range of 80 kVA to 250 kVA. Consumers normally supplied at low voltage include: b  Residential dwellings b  Shops and commercial buildings b  Small factories, workshops and filling stations b  Restaurants b  Farms, etc 1  Low-voltage utility distribution  networks System   Assumed max. permitted current   kVA      per consumer service 120 V 1-phase 2-wire   60 A   7.2 120/240 V 1-phase 3-wire   60 A   14.4 120/208 V 3-phase 4-wire   60 A   22 220/380 V 3-phase 4-wire   120 A   80 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire   120 A   83 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wire   120 A   86

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.2  LV distribution networks In European countries the standard 3-phase 4-wire distribution voltage level is 230/400 V. Many countries are currently converting their LV systems to the latest IEC standard of 230/400 V nominal (IEC 60038). Mediumto large-sized towns and cities have underground cable distribution systems.MV/LV distribution substations, mutually spaced at approximately 500-600 metres, are typically equipped with: b  A 3-or 4-way MV switchboard, often made up of incoming and outgoing load- break switches forming part of a ring main, and one or two MV circuit-breakers or combined fuse/ load-break switches for the transformer circuits b  One or two 1,000 kVA MV/LV transformers b  One or two (coupled) 6-or 8-way LV 3-phase 4-wire distribution fuse boards, or  moulded-case circuit-breaker boards, control and protect outgoing 4-core distribution cables, generally referred to as “distributors” The output from a transformer is connected to the LV busbars via a load-break switch, or simply through isolating links. In densely-loaded areas, a standard size of distributor is laid to form a network, with (generally) one cable along each pavement and 4-way link boxes located in manholes at street corners, where two cables cross. Recent trends are towards weather-proof cabinets above ground level, either against  a wall, or where possible, flush-mounted in the wall. Links are inserted in such a way that distributors form radial circuits from the substation with open-ended branches (see   Fig. C3). Where a link box unites a  distributor from one substation with that from a neighbouring substation, the phase links are omitted or replaced by fuses, but the neutral link remains in place. In cities and large towns, standardized LV distribution cables form a network through link boxes. Some links are removed, so that each (fused) distributor leaving a substation forms a branched open-ended radial system, as shown in  Figure C3 Fig. C3  : Showing one of several ways in which a LV distribution network may be arranged for  radial branched-distributor operation, by removing (phase) links 4-way link box HV/LVsubstation Servicecable  Phase links removed

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved In less-densely loaded urban areas a more-economic system of tapered radial distribution is commonly used, in which conductors of reduced size are installed as the distance from a substation increases 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks This arrangement provides a very flexible system in which a complete substation  can be taken out of service, while the area normally supplied from it is fed from link boxes of the surrounding substations. Moreover, short lengths of distributor (between two link boxes) can be isolated for fault-location and repair. Where the load density requires it, the substations are more closely spaced, and transformers up to 1,500 kVA are sometimes necessary. Other forms of urban LV network, based on free-standing LV distribution pillars, placed above ground at strategic points in the network, are widely used in areas of lower load density. This scheme exploits the principle of tapered radial distributors in which the distribution cable conductor size is reduced as the number of consumers downstream diminish with distance from the substation. In this scheme a number of large-sectioned LV radial feeders from the distribution board in the substation supply the busbars of a distribution pillar, from which smaller distributors supply consumers immediately surrounding the pillar. Distribution in market towns, villages and rural areas generally has, for many years, been based on bare copper conductors supported on wooden, concrete or steel poles, and supplied from pole-mounted or ground-mounted transformers. In recent years, LV insulated conductors, twisted to form a two-core or 4-core self supporting cable for overhead use, have been developed, and are considered to be safer and visually more acceptable than bare copper lines. This is particularly so when the conductors are fixed to walls (e.g. under-eaves  wiring) where they are hardly noticeable. As a matter of interest, similar principles have been applied at higher voltages, and self supporting “bundled” insulated conductors for MV overhead installations are now available for operation at 24 kV. Where more than one substation supplies a village, arrangements are made at poles on which the LV lines from different substations meet, to interconnect corresponding phases. North and Central American practice differs fundamentally from that in Europe, in that LV networks are practically nonexistent, and 3-phase supplies to premises in residential areas are rare. The distribution is effectively carried out at medium voltage in a way, which again differs from standard European practices. The MV system is, in fact, a 3-phase 4-wire system from which single-phase distribution networks (phase and neutral conductors) supply numerous single-phase transformers, the secondary windings of which are centre-tapped to produce 120/240 V single-phase 3-wire supplies. The central conductors provide the LV neutrals, which, together with the MV neutral conductors, are solidly earthed at intervals along their lengths. Each MV/LV transformer normally supplies one or several premises directly from the transformer position by radial service cable(s) or by overhead line(s). Many other systems exist in these countries, but the one described appears to be the most common. Figure C4   (next page) shows the main features of the two systems. 1.3  The consumer-service connection In the past, an underground cable service or the wall-mounted insulated conductors from an overhead line service, invariably terminated inside the consumer’s premises, where the cable-end sealing box, the utility fuses (inaccessible to the consumer) and meters were installed. A more recent trend is (as far as possible) to locate these service components in a weatherproof housing outside the building. The utility/consumer interface is often at the outgoing terminals of the meter(s) or, in some cases, at the outgoing terminals of the installation main circuit-breaker (depending on local practices) to which connection is made by utility staff, following a satisfactory test and inspection of the installation. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure C5   (next page). In Europe, each utility-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately  300 metres from the substation.North and Central American systems of distribution consist of a MV network from which numerous (small) MV/LV transformers each supply one or several consumers, by direct service cable (or line) from the transformer location Service components and metering equipment were formerly installed inside a consumer’s building. The modern tendency is to locate these items outside in a weatherproof cabinet Improved methods using insulated twisted conductors to form a pole mounted aerial cable are now standard practice in many countries

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C4  : Widely-used American and European-type systems Fig. C5  : Typical service arrangement for TT-earthed systems N 2 N N 1 N 3 N N 2 1 2 3 N 13.8 kV / 2.4-4.16 kV N 3 2 1 2 1 N Ph N } HV  (1) MV  (2) 1 ph MV / 230 Vservice transformerto isolated consumer(s)(rural supplies) For primary voltages 72.5 kV (see note) primary winding may be:- Delta- Earthed star- Earthed zigzagDepending on the country concerned Tertiary delta normally (not always) used if the primary winding is not delta Main 3 ph and neutral MV distributor   (1) 132 kV for example   (2) 11 kV for example Note: At primary voltages greater than 72.5 kV in bulk-supply substations, it is common practice in some European countries to use an earthed-star primary winding and a delta secondary winding. The neutral point on the secondary side is then provided by a zigzag earthing reactor, the star point of which is connected to earth through a resistor. Frequently, the earthing reactor has a secondary winding to provide LV 3-phase supplies for the substation. It is then referredto as an “earthing transformer”. LV distribution network 1    2    3 3 phMV / 230/400 V4-wire distributiontransformer Resistor replaced by a Petersen coil on O/H line systems in somecountries 2.4 kV / 120-240 V1 ph - 3 wiredistributiontransformer  Each MV/LV transformer shownrepresents many similar units CB F A M

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved A MCCB -moulded case circuit-breaker- which incorporates a sensitive residual-current earth-fault protective feature is mandatory at the origin of any LV installation forming part of a TT earthing system. The reason for this feature and related leakage-current tripping levels are discussed in Clause 3 of Chapter G. A further reason for this MCCB is that the consumer cannot exceed his (contractual) declared maximum load, since the overload trip setting, which is sealed by the supply authority, will cut off supply above the declared value. Closing and tripping of the MCCB is freely available to the consumer, so that if the MCCB is inadvertently tripped on overload, or due to an appliance fault, supplies can be quickly restored following correction of the anomaly. In view of the inconvenience to both the meter reader and consumer, the location of meters is nowadays generally outside the premises, either: b  In a free-standing pillar-type housing as shown in Figures C6 and   C7  b  In a space inside a building, but with cable termination and supply authority’s fuses  located in a flush-mounted weatherproof cabinet accessible from the public way, as  shown in Figure C8 next page b  For private residential consumers, the equipment shown in the cabinet in  Figure C5 is installed in a weatherproof cabinet mounted vertically on a metal  frame in the front garden, or flush-mounted in the boundary wall, and accessible to  authorized personnel from the pavement. Figure C9 (next page) shows the general arrangement, in which removable fuse links provide the means of isolation 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks LV consumers are normally supplied according to the TN or TT system, as described in chapters F and G. The installation main circuit-breaker for a TT supply must include a residual current earth-leakage protective device. For a TN service, overcurrent protection by circuit-breaker or switch-fuse is required Fig. C6   : Typical rural-type installation In this kind of installation it is often necessary to place the main installation circuit-breaker some distance from the point of utilization, e.g. saw-mills, pumping stations, etc. CB M F A Fig. C7  : Semi-urban installations (shopping precincts, etc.) The main installation CB is located in the consumer’s premises in cases where it is set to trip if the declared kVA load demand is exceeded. CB M F A

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. C8  : Town centre installations CB M F A The service cable terminates in a flushmounted wall cabinet which contains the  isolating fuse links, accessible from the public way. This method is preferred for esthetic reasons, when the consumer can provide a suitable metering and main-switch location. In the field of electronic metering, techniques have developed which make their  use attractive by utilities either for electricity metering and for billing purposes, the liberalisation of the electricity market having increased the needs for more data collection to be returned from the meters. For example electronic metering can also  help utilities to understand their customers’ consumption profiles. In the same way,  they will be useful for more and more power line communication and radio-frequency applications as well. In this area, prepayment systems are also more and more employed when  economically justified. They are based on the fact that for instance consumers  having made their payment at vending stations, generate tokens to pass the information concerning this payment on to the meters. For these systems the key issues are security and inter-operability which seem to have been addressed successfully now. The attractiveness of these systems is due to the fact they not only replace the meters but also the billing systems, the reading of meters and the administration of the revenue collection. Fig. C9  : Typical LV service arrangement for residential consumers Isolation by fuse links Interface Meter cabinet Meter Main circuit breaker Installation Consumer Utility Service cable

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.4  Quality of supply voltage The quality of the LV network supply voltage in its widest sense implies: b  Compliance with statutory limits of magnitude and frequency b  Freedom from continual fluctuation within those limits b  Uninterrupted power supply, except for scheduled maintenance shutdowns, or as a  result of system faults or other emergencies b  Preservation of a near-sinusoidal wave form In this Sub-clause the maintenance of voltage magnitude only will be discussed. In most countries, power-supply authorities have a statutory obligation to maintain the level of voltage at the service position of consumers within the limits of ± 5% (or in some cases ± 6% or more-see table C1) of the declared nominal value. Again, IEC and most national standards recommend that LV appliances be designed and tested to perform satisfactorily within the limits of ± 10% of nominal voltage. This leaves a margin, under the worst conditions (of minus 5% at the service position, for example) of 5% allowable voltage drop in the installation wiring. The voltage drops in a typical distribution system occur as follows: the voltage at the MV terminals of a MV/LV transformer is normally maintained within a ± 2% band by the action of automatic onload tapchangers of the transformers at bulk-supply substations, which feed the MV network from a higher-voltage subtransmission system. If the MV/LV transformer is in a location close to a bulk-supply substation, the ± 2% voltage band may be centered on a voltage level which is higher than the nominal  MV value. For example, the voltage could be 20.5 kV ± 2% on a 20 kV system. In this case, the MV/LV distribution transformer should have its MV off-circuit tapping switch selected to the + 2.5% tap position. Conversely, at locations remote from bulk supply substations a value of 19.5 kV ± 2% is possible, in which case the off-circuit tapping switch should be selected to the - 5% position. The different levels of voltage in a system are normal, and depend on the system  powerflow pattern. Moreover, these voltage differences are the reason for the term  “nominal” when referring to the system voltage. Practical application With the MV/LV transformer correctly selected at its off-circuit tapping switch, an unloaded transformer output voltage will be held within a band of ± 2% of its no-load voltage output. To ensure that the transformer can maintain the necessary voltage level when fully loaded, the output voltage at no-load must be as high as possible without exceeding the upper + 5% limit (adopted for this example). In present-day practice, the winding ratios generally give an output voltage of about 104% at no-load (1) , when nominal  voltage is applied at MV, or is corrected by the tapping switch, as described above. This would result in a voltage band of 102% to 106% in the present case. A typical LV distribution transformer has a short-circuit reactance voltage of 5%. If it is assumed that its resistance voltage is one tenth of this value, then the voltage drop within the transformer when supplying full load at 0.8 power factor lagging, will be:  V% drop = R% cos  ϕ  + X% sin  ϕ = 0.5 x 0.8 + 5 x 0.6 = 0.4 + 3 = 3.4% The voltage band at the output terminals of the fully-loaded transformer will therefore be (102 - 3.4) = 98.6% to (106 - 3.4) = 102.6%. The maximum allowable voltage drop along a distributor is therefore 98.6 - 95 = 3.6%. This means, in practical terms, that a medium-sized 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire distribution cable of 240 mm 2  copper conductors would be able to supply a total load  of 292 kVA at 0.8 PF lagging, distributed evenly over 306 metres of the distributor. Alternatively, the same load at the premises of a single consumer could be supplied at a distance of 153 metres from the transformer, for the same volt-drop, and so on... As a matter of interest, the maximum rating of the cable, based on calculations derived from IEC 60287 (1982) is 290 kVA, and so the 3.6% voltage margin is not unduly restrictive, i.e. the cable can be fully loaded for distances normally required in LV distribution systems. Furthermore, 0.8 PF lagging is appropriate to industrial loads. In mixed semi-industrial areas 0.85 is a more common value, while 0.9 is generally used for calculations concerning residential areas, so that the volt-drop noted above may be considered as a “worst case” example. 1  Low-voltage utility distribution networks An adequate level of voltage at the consumers supply-service terminals is essential for satisfactory operation of equipment and appliances. Practical values of current, and resulting voltage drops in a typical LV system, show the importance of maintaining a high Power Factor as a means of reducing voltage drop. (1) Transformers designed for the 230/400 V IEC standard will have a no-load output of 420 V, i.e. 105% of the nominal voltage

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network C16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved (1) Ripple control is a system of signalling in which a voice frequency current (commonly at 175 Hz) is injected into the LV mains at appropriate substations. The signal is injected as coded impulses, and relays which are tuned to the signal frequency and which recognize the particular code will operate to initiate a required function. In this way, up to 960 discrete control signals are available. 2  Tariffs and metering No attempt will be made in this guide to discuss particular tariffs, since there appears to be as many different tariff structures around the world as there are utilities. Some tariffs are very complicated in detail but certain elements are basic to all of them and are aimed at encouraging consumers to manage their power consumption in a way which reduces the cost of generation, transmission and distribution. The two predominant ways in which the cost of supplying power to consumers can be reduced, are: b  Reduction of power losses in the generation, transmission and distribution of  electrical energy. In principle the lowest losses in a power system are attained when all parts of the system operate at unity power factor b  Reduction of the peak power demand, while increasing the demand at low-load  periods, thereby exploiting the generating plant more fully, and minimizing plant redundancy Reduction of losses Although the ideal condition noted in the first possibility mentioned above cannot  be realized in practice, many tariff structures are based partly on kVA demand, as well as on kWh consumed. Since, for a given kW loading, the minimum value of kVA occurs at unity power factor, the consumer can minimize billing costs by taking steps to improve the power factor of the load (as discussed in Chapter L). The kVA demand generally used for tariff purposes is the maximum average kVA demand occurring during each billing period, and is based on average kVA demands, over  fixed periods (generally 10, 30 or 60 minute periods) and selecting the highest of  these values. The principle is described below in “principle of kVA maximum-demand metering”. Reduction of peak power demand The second aim, i.e. that of reducing peak power demands, while increasing demand at low-load periods, has resulted in tariffs which offer substantial reduction in the cost of energy at: b  Certain hours during the 24-hour day b  Certain periods of the year The simplest example is that of a residential consumer with a storage-type water heater (or storage-type space heater, etc.). The meter has two digital registers, one of which operates during the day and the other (switched over by a timing device) operates during the night. A contactor, operated by the same timing device, closes the circuit of the water heater, the consumption of which is then indicated on the register to which the cheaper rate applies. The heater can be switched on and off at any time during the day if required, but will then be metered at the normal rate. Large industrial consumers may have 3 or 4 rates which apply at different periods during a 24-hour interval, and a similar number for different periods of the year. In such schemes the ratio of cost per kWh during a period of peak demand for the year, and that for the lowest-load period of the year, may be as much as 10: 1.  Meters It will be appreciated that high-quality instruments and devices are necessary to implement this kind of metering, when using classical electro-mechanical equipment. Recent developments in electronic metering and micro-processors, together with remote ripple-control (1)  from an utility control centre (to change peak-period timing  throughout the year, etc.) are now operational, and facilitate considerably the application of the principles discussed. In most countries, some tariffs, as noted above, are partly based on kVA demand, in addition to the kWh consumption, during the billing periods (often 3-monthly intervals). The maximum demand registered by the meter to be described, is, in fact, a maximum (i.e. the highest) average kVA demand registered for succeeding periods 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 C17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2  Tariffs and metering during the billing interval. Figure C10  shows a typical kVA demand curve over a period of two hours divided  into succeeding periods of 10 minutes. The meter measures the average value of kVA during each of these 10 minute periods. Fig. C10  : Maximum average value of kVA over an interval of 2 hours 0 1 2 hrs t kVA Maximum average valueduring the 2 hour interval  Average valuesfor 10 minuteperiods Principle of kVA maximum demand metering A kVAh meter is similar in all essentials to a kWh meter but the current and voltage  phase relationship has been modified so that it effectively measures kVAh (kilo- volt-ampere-hours). Furthermore, instead of having a set of decade counter dials, as in the case of a conventional kWh meter, this instrument has a rotating pointer. When the pointer turns it is measuring kVAh and pushing a red indicator before it. At the end of 10 minutes the pointer will have moved part way round the dial (it is designed so that it can never complete one revolution in 10 minutes) and is then electrically reset to the zero position, to start another 10 minute period. The red indicator remains at the position reached by the measuring pointer, and that position, corresponds to the number of kVAh (kilo-volt-ampere-hours) taken by the load in 10 minutes. Instead of the dial being marked in kVAh at that point however it can be  marked in units of average kVA. The following figures will clarify the matter. Supposing the point at which the red indicator reached corresponds to 5 kVAh.  It is known that a varying amount of kVA of apparent power has been flowing for  10 minutes, i.e. 1/6 hour. If now, the 5 kVAh is divided by the number of hours, then the average kVA for the period is obtained. In this case the average kVA for the period will be: Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 D17 D - Connecion to the LV publicdistribution network 2  Tariffs and metering Figure D10  shows a typical kVA demand curve over a period of two hours divided into succeeding periods of 10 minutes. The meter measures the average value ofkVA during each of these 10 minute periods. Fig. D10  : Maximum average value of kVA over an interval of 2 hours 0 1 2 hrs t kVA Maximum average valueduring the 2 hour interval  Average valuesfor 10 minuteperiods Principle of kVA maximum demand metering A kVAh meter is similar in all essentials to a kWh meter but the current and voltagephase relationship has been modified so that it effectively measures kVAh (kilo-volt-amphours). Furthermore, instead of having a set of decade counter dials, as in thecase of a conventional kWh meter, this instrument has a rotating pointer. When thepointer turns it is measuring kVAh and pushing a red indicator before it. At the end of10 minutes the pointer will have moved part way round the dial (it is designed so thatit can never complete one revolution in 10 minutes) and is then electrically reset tothe zero position, to start another 10 minute period. The red indicator remains at theposition reached by the measuring pointer, and that position, corresponds to thenumber of kVAh (kilo-volt-ampere-hours) taken by the load in 10 minutes. Instead ofthe dial being marked in kilo-Vahours at that point however it can be marked in unitsof average kVA. The following figures will clarify the matter. Supposing the point at which the red indicator reached corresponds to 5 kVAh. It isknown that a varying amount of kVA of apparent power has been flowing for10 minutes, i.e. 1/6 hour. If now, the 5 kVAh is divided by the number of hours, then the average kVA for theperiod is obtained. In this case the average kVA for the period will be: 5 x  1 =  5 x 6  =  30 kVA 1 6 Every point around the dial will be similarly marked i.e. the figure for average kVAwill be 6 times greater than the kVAh value at any given point. Similar reasoning canbe applied to any other reset-time interval. At the end of the billing period, the red indicator will be at the maximum of all theaverage values occurring in the billing period. The red indicator will be reset to zero at the beginning of each billing period. Electro-mechanical meters of the kind described are rapidly being replaced by electronicinstruments. The basic measuring principles on which these electronic metersdepend however, are the same as those described above. Every point around the dial will be similarly marked i.e. the figure for average kVA will  be 6 times greater than the kVAh value at any given point. Similar reasoning can be applied to any other reset-time interval. At the end of the billing period, the red indicator will be at the maximum of all the average values occurring in the billing period. The red indicator will be reset to zero at the beginning of each billing period. Electro-mechanical meters of the kind described are rapidly being replaced by electronic instruments. The basic measuring principles on which these electronic meters depend however, are the same as those described above.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Chapter D MV & LV architecture selection guide for buildings Contents   S takes of architecture design  D3       Simplified architecture design process  D4   2.1  The architecture design  D4   2.2  The whole process  D5   Electrical installation characteristics   D7   3.1  Sectors of activities   D7   3.2  Site topology  D7   3.3  Layout latitude  D7   3.4  Service reliability  D8   3.5  Maintainability  D8   3.6  Installation flexibility  D8   3.7  Power demand  D9   3.8  Load distribution  D9   3.9  Voltage Interruption Sensitivity  D9   3.10  Disturbance sensitivity  D10   3.11  Disturbance potential of circuits  D10   3.12  Other considerations or constraints  D10   Technological characteristics    D11   4.1  Environment, atmosphere  D11   4.2  Service Index  D11   4.3  Other considerations   D11   Architecture assessment criteria   D12   5.1  On-site work time  D12   5.2  Environmental impact  D12   5.3  Preventive maintenance level  D13   5.4  Availability of electrical power supply  D13   Choice of architecture fundamentals  D14   6.1  Connection to the utility network   D14   6.2  Internal MV circuits  D16   6.3  Number and localisation of MV/LV transformer substations  D17   6.4  Number of MV/LV transformers  D17   6.5  MV back-up generator   D17   Choice of architecture details  D18   7.1  Layout  D18   7.2  Centralized or distributed layout of LV distribution   D19   7.3  Presence of LV back-up generators   D21   7.4  Presence of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)  D22   7.5  Configuration of LV circuits  D22   Choice of equipment   D25       1    2 3    4    5    6    7    8   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 9    10    11     Recommendations for architecture optimization  D26   9.1  On-site work  D26   9.2  Environmental impact  D26   9.3  Preventive maintenance volume  D29   9.4  Electrical power availability  D29   Glossary D30        Example: electrical installation in a printworks  D31   11.1  Brief description   D31   11.2  Installation characteristics   D31   11.3  Technological characteristics   D31   11.4  Architecture assessment criteria   D32   11.5  Choice of technological solutions  D34

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 1  Stakes of architecture design Choice of distribution architecture This chapter is dedicated to electrical architecture design for medium and large  buildings. Despite the various types of buildings (office, hotel, industrial, collective  housing, etc.) the stakes for electrical design rely on a key process with practical considerations described in this chapter. The choice of distribution architecture has a decisive impact on installation performance throughout its lifecycle: b  right from the construction phase, choices can greatly influence the installation  time, possibilities of work rate, required competencies of installation teams, etc. b  there will also be an impact on performance during the operation phase in terms  of quality and continuity of power supply to sensitive loads, power losses in power supply circuits, b  and lastly, there will be an impact on the proportion of the installation that can be  recycled in the end-of-life phase. The Electrical Distribution architecture of an installation involves the spatial  configuration, the choice of power sources, the definition of different distribution  levels, the single-line diagram and the choice of equipment. The choice of the best architecture is often expressed in terms of seeking a  compromise between the various performance criteria that interest the customer who will use the installation at different phases in its lifecycle. The earlier we search for  solutions, the more optimization possibilities exist (see Fig. D1). These topics are now part of IEC60364 standard in chapter 8 (IEC 60364-8-1: Low  voltage electrical installations - Energy Efficiency). Fig. D1  : Optimization potential A successful search for an optimal solution is also strongly linked to the ability for  exchange between the various players involved in designing the various sections of  a project: b  the architect who defines the organization of the building according to user  requirements, b  the designers of different technical sections (lighting, heating, air conditioning,  fluids, etc.), b  the user’s representatives e.g. defining the process. The following paragraphs present the selection criteria as well as the architecture  design process to meet the project performance criteria in the context of industrial  and tertiary buildings (excluding large sites). Preliminary design Potential foroptimization Detailled design Installation Exploitation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2  Simplified architecture design  process 2.1  The architecture design The  architecture design considered in this document starts at the preliminary design stage (see Fig. D3 step1). It generally covers the levels of MV/LV main distribution, LV  power distribution, and exceptionally the terminal distribution level. (see  Fig. D2). In buildings all consumers are connected in low voltage. It means that MV distribution consists in: b  connection to utility, b  distribution to MV/LV substation(s), b  MV/LV substation(s) itself. The  design of an electrical distribution architecture can be described by a 3-stage process, with iterative possibilities. This process is based on taking account of the  installation characteristics and criteria to be satisfied.  Fig. D2  : Example of single-line diagram LV maindistribution LV powerdistribution LV terminaldistribution M M Main MV Substation Connection to the MV Utility network Emergency Generators Internal MV ring

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. D3  : Flow diagram for choosing the electrical distribution architecture  Step 1: Choice of distribution architecture fundamentals This involves defining the general features of the electrical installation. It is based  on taking account of macroscopic characteristics concerning the installation and its usage.These characteristics have an impact on the connection to the upstream network, MV circuits, the number of MV/LV substation, etc.At the end of this step, we may have several distribution schematic diagram solutions, which are used as a starting point for the single-line diagram. The  definitive choice is confirmed at the end of the step 2. 2  Simplified architecture design  process 2.2  The whole process The whole process is described briefly in the following paragraphs and illustrated on  Figure D3. The process described in this document is not intended as the only solution. This document is a guide intended for the use of electrical installation designers. Installation  characteristics See § 3 Optimisation recommendations See § 9 Electrical and service  conditions requirements See § 4 Assessment  criteria See § 5 Definitive  solution ASSESSMENT Preliminary  architecture Step 1 Choice of fundamentals See § 6 Data Deliverable Step Detailed  architecture See § 7 Step  2 Choice of  architecture details Techno.   Solution See § 8 Step  3 Choice of equipment

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Step 2: choice of architecture details This involves defining the electrical installation in more detail. It is based on  the results of the previous step, as well as on satisfying criteria relative to implementation and operation of the installation. The process loops back into step1 if the criteria are not satisfied. An iterative process  allows several assessment criteria combinations to be analyzed.At the end of this step, we have a detailed single-line diagram. Step 3: choice of equipment The choice of equipment to be implemented is carried out in this stage, and results from the choice of architecture. The choices are made from the manufacturer catalogues, in order to satisfy electrical requirements and service conditions. This stage is looped back into step 2 if the characteristics are not satisfied. Assessment This assessment step allows the design office to have figures as a basis for  discussions with the customer and other players.According to the result of these discussions, it may be possible to loop back into steps 1, 2 or 3. 2  Simplified architecture design  process

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Electrical installation  characteristics  These are the main installation characteristics enabling the defining of the  fundamentals and details of the electrical distribution architecture. For each of these  characteristics, we supply a definition and the different categories or possible values. 3.1  Sectors of activities  Definition: Among the definitions proposed by IEC60364-8-1 § 3.4, mainly those listed below  are part of this chapter. Residential buildings b  Premises designed and constructed for private habitation Commercial b  Premises designed and constructed for commercial operations  (1) Industry b  Premises designed and constructed for manufacturing and processing of  operations  (2) Infrastructure b  Systems or premises designed and constructed for the transport and utility operation  (3) 3.2  Site topology Definition: Architectural characteristic of the building(s), taking account of the number of  buildings, number of floors, and of the surface area of each floor. Different categories: b  Single storey building, b  Multi-storey building, b  Multi-building site, b  High-rise building. 3.3  Layout latitude Definition:  Characteristic taking account of constraints in terms of the layout of the electrical equipment in the building: b  aesthetics, b  accessibility, b  presence of dedicated locations, b  use of technical corridors (per floor), b  use of technical ducts (vertical). Different categories: b  Low: the position of the electrical equipment is virtually imposed b  Medium: the position of the electrical equipment is partially imposed, to the  detriment of the criteria to be satisfied b  High: no constraints. The position of the electrical equipment can be defined to  best satisfy the criteria. D - MV & LV architecture selection guide (1) Examples of commercial building: offices, retail, distribution,  public buildings, banks, hotels.   (2) Examples of industrial buildings: factories, workshops,  distribution centers.    (3) Examples of infrastructure: airport, harbours, rails, transport  facilites.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.4  Service reliability Definition: The ability of a power system to meet its supply function under stated conditions for  a specified period of time. Different categories: b  Minimum: this level of service reliability implies risk of interruptions related to  constraints that are geographical (separate network, area distant from power production centers), technical (overhead line, poorly meshed system), or economic  (insufficient maintenance, under-dimensioned generation). b  Standard b  Enhanced: this level of service reliability can be obtained by special measures  taken to reduce the probability of interruption (underground network, strong meshing, dedicated architectures, emergency generators, etc.) 3.5  Maintainability Definition: Features input during design to limit the impact of maintenance actions on the  operation of the whole or part of the installation. Different categories: b  Minimum: the installation must be stopped to carry out maintenance operations. b  Standard: maintenance operations can be carried out during installation  operations, but with deteriorated performance. These operations must be preferably  scheduled during periods of low activity. Example: several transformers with partial  redundancy and load shedding. b  Enhanced: special measures are taken to allow maintenance operations without  disturbing the installation operations. Example: double-ended configuration. 3.6  Installation flexibility Definition: Possibility of easily moving electricity delivery points within the installation, or to  easily increase the power supplied at certain points. Flexibility is a criterion which  also appears due to the uncertainty of the building during the pre-project summary stage. Different categories: b  No flexibility: the position of loads is fixed throughout the lifecycle, due to the high  constraints related to the building construction or the high weight of the supplied process. E.g.: smelting works. b  Flexibility of design: the number of delivery points, the power of loads or their  location are not precisely known. b  Implementation flexibility: the loads can be installed after the installation is  commissioned. b  Operating flexibility: the position of loads will fluctuate, according to process re- organization.  Examples: v  industrial building: extension, splitting and changing usage v  office building: splitting

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Electrical installation  characteristics  3.7  Power demand Definition: It's the maximum power and apparrent power demands actually required to  dimension the installation (see chapter A section 4 for more information): b   630kVA b  from 630 to 1250kVA b  from 1250 to 2500kVA b   2500kVA 3.8  Load distribution Definition: A characteristic related to the uniformity of load distribution (in kVA / m²) over an area or throughout the building. Different categories: b  Uniform distribution: the loads are generally of an average or low unit power and  spread throughout the surface area or over a large area of the building (uniform density).E.g.: lighting, individual workstations  b  intermediate distribution: the loads are generally of medium power, placed in  groups over the whole building surface areaE.g.: machines for assembly, conveying, workstations, modular logistics “sites” b  localized loads: the loads are generally high power and localized in several areas  of the building (non-uniform density).E.g.: HVAC 3.9  Voltage Interruption Sensitivity Definition: The aptitude of a circuit to accept a power interruption. Different categories: b  “Sheddable” circuit: possible to shut down at any time for an indefinite duration b  Long interruption acceptable: interruption time 3 minutes b  Short interruption acceptable: interruption time 3 minutes b  No interruption acceptable. We can distinguish various levels of severity of an electrical power interruption, according to the possible consequences: b  No notable consequence, b  Loss of production, b  Deterioration of the production facilities or loss of sensitive data, b  Causing mortal danger. This is expressed in terms of the criticality of supplying of loads or circuits. b  Non-critical: The  load or the circuit can be “shed” at any time. E.g.: sanitary water heating circuit. b  Low criticality: A power interruption causes temporary discomfort for the occupants of a building,  without any financial consequences. Prolonging of the interruption beyond the critical  time can cause a loss of production or lower productivity. E.g.: heating, ventilation and air conditioning circuits (HVAC). b  Medium criticality A power interruption causes a short break in process or service. Prolonging of the interruption beyond a critical time can cause a deterioration of the production facilities or a cost of starting for starting back up.E.g.: refrigerated units, lifts. b  High criticality Any power interruption causes mortal danger or unacceptable financial losses.    E.g.: operating theatre, IT department, security department. indicative value, supplied by standard EN50160: “Characteristics of the voltage supplied by public distribution networks”. 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.10  Disturbance sensitivity Definition The ability of a circuit to work correctly in presence of an electrical power disturbance. A disturbance can lead to varying degrees of malfunctioning. E.g.: stopping working, incorrect working, accelerated ageing, increase of losses, etcTypes of disturbances with an impact on circuit operations: b  overvoltages b  voltage harmonic distorsion, b  voltage drop, voltage dip b  voltage fluctuation, b  voltage imbalance. Different categories: b  low sensitivity: disturbances in supply voltages have very little effect on operations. E.g.: heating device. b  medium sensitivity: voltage disturbances cause a notable deterioration in  operations.E.g.: motors, lighting. b  high sensitivity: voltage disturbances can cause operation stoppages or even the  deterioration of the supplied equipment.E.g.: IT equipment. The sensitivity of circuits to disturbances determines the design of shared or dedicated power circuits. Indeed it is better to separate “sensitive” loads from “disturbing” loads. E.g.: separating lighting circuits from motor supply circuits.This choice also depends on operating features. E.g.: separate power supply of lighting circuits to enable measurement of power consumption. 3.11  Disturbance potential of circuits Definition The ability of a circuit to disturb the operation of surrounding circuits due to  phenomena such as: harmonics, in-rush current, imbalance, High Frequency  currents, electromagnetic radiation, etc. Different categories b  Non disturbing: no specific precaution to take b  moderate or occasional disturbance: separate power supply may be necessary in  the presence of medium or high sensitivity circuits. E.g.: lighting circuit generating harmonic currents. b  Very disturbing: a dedicated power circuit or ways of attenuating disturbances are  essential for the correct functioning of the installation. E.g.: electrical motor with a  strong start-up current, welding equipment with fluctuating current. 3.12  Other considerations or constraints b  Specific rules E.g.: hospitals, high rise buildings, etc. b  Rule of the Energy Distributor Example: limits of connection power for LV, access to MV substation, etc b  Attachment loads Loads attached to 2 independent circuits for reasons of redundancy. b  Designer experience  Consistency with previous designs or partial usage of previous designs,  standardization of sub-assemblies, existence of an installed equipment base. b  Load power supply constraints Voltage level (230V, 400V, 690V), voltage system (single-phase, three-phase with or without neutral, etc) 3  Electrical installation  characteristics 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Technological characteristics   The technological solutions considered concern the various types of MV and LV equipment, as well as Busbar Trunking Systems .The choice of technological solutions is made following the choice of single-line diagram and according to characteristics given below. 4.1  Environment, atmosphere A notion taking account of all of the environmental constraints (average ambient temperature, altitude, humidity, corrosion, dust, impact, etc.) and bringing together  protection indexes IP and IK. Different categories: b  Standard: no particular environmental constraints b  Enhanced: severe environment, several environmental parameters generate  important constraints for the installed equipment  b  Specific: atypical environment, requiring special enhancements 4.2  Service Index The Service Index (IS), is a tool dedicated to electrical designers in order to specify  LV switchboards with reference to user's need rather than to technical aspects. It  ensures the effective definition of the switchboards according to IEC61439-1 and 2  criteria for any: b  future evolution, b  maintenance, b  operation needs. IS have been defined by the french standard commitee (AFNOR/UTE) in 2002 under  the reference C63-429. The IS is charactered by 3 numbers from 1 to 3, reflecting respectively: b  level of operation needs, b  level of maintenance request, b  level of evolution request. The levels are described in  Fig. D4 Operation (1) : first number Maintenance (2) : second number Evolution (3) : third number Level 1 Full shutdown of the    switchboard is accepted Full shutdown of the    switchboard is accepted Full shutdown of the    switchboard is accepted Level 2 Only shut down of the concerned functional unit (4)   is accepted Only shutdown of the concerned functional unit  (4)  is accepted. But  reconnection of the functional unit requests an action on connections Only shutdown of the concerned functional unit  (4)  is  accepted. Spare functional units are provided Level 3 Only the shutdown of the power of the functional unit  (4)  is accepted (control  circuits are still available) Only shutdown of the concerned functional unit  (4)  is accepted.  Reconnection of the functional unit requests no action on connections Only shutdown of the concerned functional unit  (4)  is  accepted. Evolution does not request  pre-equiped spare functional units. D - MV & LV architecture selection guide Fig. D4  : Definition of Service Index values 4.3  Other considerations  Other considerations have an impact on the choice of technological solutions: b  Previous experience, b  Consistency with past designs or the partial use of past designs, b  Standardization of sub-assemblies, b  The existence of an installed equipment base, b  Utilities requirements, b  Technical criteria: target power factor, backed-up load power, presence of  harmonic generators… These considerations should be taken into account during the detailed electrical  definition phase following the draft design stage. (1)  Operation: set of actions on the switchboard, which can be  done by non-electrician people.    (2)  Maintenance: concerns action of control, diagnostic,  servicing, reparation, refurbishment, made by professionals.   (3)  Evolution:  adaptation of the equipment by addition of  devices, increase of power demand.   (4)  functional unit:  subset of a LV switchboard including all  mechanical and electrical parts dedicated to a specific function  like : incomer, main feeder, auxiliary, etc.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 5  Architecture assessment criteria  Certain decisive criteria are assessed at the end of the 3 stages in defining  architecture, in order to validate the architecture choice. These criteria are listed below with the different allocated levels of priority. 5.1  On-site work time Time for implementing the electrical equipment on the site. Different levels of priority: b  Standard: the on-site work time can be extended, if this gives a reduction in overall  installation costs, b  Special: the on-site work time must be minimized, without generating any  significant excess cost, b  Critical: the on-site work time must be reduced as far as possible, imperatively,  even if this generates a higher total installation cost, 5.2  Environmental impact Taking into consideration environmental constraints in the installation design. This takes account of: consumption of natural resources, Joule losses (related to CO 2   emission), “recyclability” potential, throughout the installation’s lifecycle. Different levels of priority: b  Non significant: environmental constraints are not given any special consideration, b  Minimal: the installation is designed with minimum regulatory requirements, b  Proactive: the installation is designed with a specific concern for protecting the  environment (low ernergy building, green buildings, etc.). The environmental impact of an installation will be determined according to the method carrying out an installation lifecycle analysis, in which we distinguish between the following 3 phases: b  construction, b  operation, b  end of life (dismantling, recycling). In terms of environmental impact, 3 indicators (at least) can be taken into account  and influenced by the design of an electrical installation. Although each lifecycle  phase contributes to the three indicators, each of these indicators is mainly related to one phase in particular: b  Manufacturing phase mainly impact the consumption of natural resources (steel,  copper, aluminium), b  Operation phase impacts mainly the energy consumption (power losses cumulated  during all the operating period).   b  End of life is mainly impacted by the recyclability potential of equipment and  material (presence of hazardous material, quantity of insulation material). The following table details the contributing factors to the 3 environmental indicators (Fig. D5). Indicators Contributors Natural resources consumption Mass and type of conductor material: copper, steel, aluminium Power consumption Joule losses in conductors, transformers, no-load losses of transformers "Recyclability" potential Mass and type of insulation material, presence of hazardous material. Fig. D5  : Contributing factors to the 3 environmental indicators

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Architecture assessment criteria  5.3  Preventive maintenance level Definition: Number of hours and sophistication of maintenance carried out during operations in conformity with manufacturer recommendations to ensure dependable operation of the installation and the maintaining of performance levels (avoiding failure: tripping, down time, etc). Different categories: b  Standard: according to manufacturer recommendations. b  Enhanced: according to manufacturer recommendations, with a severe  environment, b  Specific: specific maintenance plan, meeting high requirements for continuity of  service, and requiring a high level of maintenance staff competency. 5.4  Availability of electrical power supply Definition: This is the probability that an electrical installation be capable of supplying quality  power in conformity with the specifications of the equipment it is supplying. This is  expressed by an availability level: Availability (%) = (1 - MTTR/ MTBF) x 100 MTTR (Mean Time To Repair): the average time to make the electrical system once again operational following a failure (this includes detection of the reason for failure, its repair and re-commissioning), MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure): measurement of the average time for which  the electrical system is operational and therefore enables correct operation of the application. The different availability categories can only be defined for a given type of  installation. E.g.: hospitals, data centers. Example of classification used in data centers: Tier 1: the power supply and air conditioning are provided by one single channel, without redundancy, which allows availability of 99.671%,Tier 2: the power supply and air conditioning are provided by one single channel, with redundancy, which allows availability of 99.741%,Tier 3: the power supply and air conditioning are provided by several channels, with one single redundant channel, which allows availability of 99.982%,Tier 4: the power supply and air conditioning are provided by several channels,  each with redundancy, which allows availability of 99.995%. MTBF MTTR Repair Time OK KO Failure detection, diagnostic Running period Back into  service Beginning of  repair 1st failure ? Fig D6 : Definition of MTBF and MTTR

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 6  Choice of architecture  fundamentals For the installations considered in this guide, the selection of an electrical architecture  can be performed in two stages. b  The first stage is generally dedicated to: v  The selection of the mode of connection of the installation to the utility network, v  The choice of the internal MV distribution including: -  The definition of the number of MV/LV substations, -  The definition of the number of MV/LV transformers, -  The definition of the MV back-up generator when needed.  b  The second stage deals with the principle of supply of the  LV consumers 6.1  Connection to the utility network  The possible solutions for the connection of an installation to the utility network are the following: b  Connection to the LV network for small and medium size installations requiring  less than 400 kVA. Fixing this limit is always under the responsibility of the local  utility managing the LV network b  Above this previous limit, connection to the MV network with either LV or MV metering.  LV metering is generally authorized for installation including a single MV/LV transformer  not exceeding the rated power limit fixed by the utility, generally around 1250 kVA.   The possible connections to a MV utility network are the following, (see  Fig. D8, D9  and D10): v  MV single-line service, v  MV ring-main service, v  MV duplicate supply service, including two load break switches equipped with an  automatic change over, v  MV dual supply service with two independent connections to the utility and two bus  bars connected with a bus tie. The two utility incomers and the bus tie are equipped with an automatic change over. Comparison of this four modes of connection are summarized in Fig. D7 Configuration LV MV Characteristic to consider Single-line Ring-main Duplicate supply Dual supply Activity Any Any Any High tech, sensitive office,  health-care Very sensitive installations Site topology Single building Single building Single or several buildings Single or several buildings Single or several buildings Service reliability Minimal Minimal Standard Enhanced Very high Power demand 400 kVA ≤  1250kVA Any Any Any Other connection constraints  Any Isolated site  Low density urban area  High density urban area Dedicated measures taken  by the utility Fig. D7 : Comparison of the modes of connection

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. D9 : MV connection with MV metering  Fig. D10 : Dual MV connection with MV metering  Fig. D8 : MV connection with LV metering 6  Choice of architecture   fundamentals  Power supply system Service connection MV protection andMV/LV transformation LV meteringand isolation Supplier/consumer interface Transformer LV terminals Protection Protection Duplicate-supply service Single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main)   Single-line service Ring mainservice Permitted Low Voltage  Power distribution Permitted if only one transformer and rated powerlow enough to accomodatethe limitations of fuses  Power supplysystem  Service connection MV protectionand metering  Supplier/consumerinterface Duplicate-supplyservice Ring-mainservice MV Internal distribution Single-line service Single-line service(equipped for extension to form a ring main) Connection to the utility n°1 Connection to the utility n°2 Bus bar n°1 Bus bar n°2 Bus tie Internal MV distribution

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.2  Internal MV circuits Internal MV circuits are dedicated to the supply of the secondary MV/LV substations dispersed in the installation. They are three typical principles commonly used for this purpose (Fig. D11): b  Single feeder b  Dual feeder b  Open ring Fig. D11 : Single feeder, Dual feeder, Open ring Main MV Substation HTA HTA BT BT MV/LV Secondary substation Main MV Substation MV/LV Secondary substation HTA HTA BT BT HTA HTA BT BT Main MV Substation Internal MV ring MV/LV Substations and LV Power distribution MV circuit configuration Characteristic to consider Single feeder Open ring Dual feeder Site topology  Any Single or several buildings Single or several buildings Power demand Any 1250kVA 2500kVA Disturbance sensitivity Long interruption  acceptable Short interruption  acceptable Short interruption not acceptable Comparison of these three typical principles of internal distribution is given Fig D12. Fig. D12  : Comparison of the typical internal circuits

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3  Number and localisation of MV/LV transformer substations The main criteria to consider for determination of the number and the location of the MV/LV substations are the following: b  Number of  buildings b  Surface of each building b  Number of floors per building  b  Repartition and power of the consumers b  Power demand per area, floor, building b  Sensitivity to interruption, need for redundancy To determine the number and the location of the MV/LV substations, we may however give the following basic indications: b  Small and medium size building: One single MV/LV substation b  Large building: One or several MV/LV substations depending on the power and the  repartition of the consumers b  Building with several floors: One or several MV/LV substations depending on  the power and the repartition of the consumers. One MV/LV substation may be  dedicated to each floor b  Large site with several buildings: One MV/LV substation may be dedicated to each  building. 6.4  Number of MV/LV transformers For every MV/LV substation, the definition of the number of MV/LV transformers  takes into account the following criteria: b  Total power supplied by the substation b  Standardization of the rated power to reduce the number of spare transformers b  Limit of the rated power. It is recommended to set this limit at 1250 kVA  in order to  facilitate the handling and the replacement of the transformers b  Scalability of the installation b  Need to separate the loads having a high level of sensitivity to the electrical  perturbations  b  Need to dedicate a transformer to the load generating a high level of perturbation  such as voltage dips, harmonics, flicker b  Need for partial or total redundancy. When required, two transformers each sized  for the full load and equipped with an automatic change-over are installed b  Loads requiring a dedicated neutral system. IT for example to ensure the  continuity of operation in case of phase to earth fault 6.5  MV back-up generator  MV back-up generators are required when in case of the utility failure it is necessary to ensure the supply of the totality of the loads or the major part of them. For all the other situations LV back generators may be enough The main criteria to consider for the implementation of MV back-up generators are the following: b  Site activity  b  Sensitivity of the loads to power interruptions b  Level of availability of the public distribution network b  Process including  a co-generation system b  Need to optimize the energy bill. 6  Choice of architecture  fundamentals 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 7  Choice of architecture details This is the second stage in designing of electrical distribution design. During this stage we carry out the following choices: b  Layout, b  Centralized or decentralized distribution, b  Presence of back-up generators, b  Presence of uninterruptible power supplies, b  Configuration of LV distribution, b  Architecture combinations. 7.1  Layout Position of the main MV and LV equipment on the site or in the building.This layout choice is applied to the results of stage 1.  Selection guide: As recommended in IEC60364-8-1 §6.3, MV/LV substation location can be  determined by using the barycenter method: b  taking into account service conditions: in dedicated premises if the layout in the  workshop is too restrictive (temperature, vibrations, dust, etc.) b  Placing heavy equipment (transformers, generators, etc.) close to walls or to main  exits for ease of maintenance.A layout example is given in the following diagram ( Fig. D13): Fig. D13 : The position of the global load barycentre guides the positioning of power sources Office Office Finishing Finishing Painting Painting Panel shop Panel shop Global loads barycentre Global loads barycentre Main MV substation (see Fig. D11)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7.2  Centralized or distributed layout of LV distribution  In centralized layout, each load is connected directly to the power source. ( Fig. D14 ): In distributed layout, loads are connected to sources via a busway. This type of distribution is well adapted to supply many loads that are spread out, where easy  change is requested or future new connection (need of flexibility) ( Fig D15): MV/LV substation with main LV switchboard Load 1 Load 2 Subdistribution board 1 Fig. D14 : Example of centralized layout with point to point links MV/LV substation with main LV switchboard Load 1 Load 2 Load 3 Subdistribution board 1 Subdistribution board 2 Busway Busway Busway Fig. D15 : Example of distributed layout, with busway  Factors in favour of centralized layout (see summary table in  Fig. D16): b  Installation flexibility: no, b  Load distribution: localized loads (high unit power loads). Factors in favor of distributed layout: b  Installation flexibility: "Implementation" flexibility (moving of workstations, etc…), b  Load distribution: uniform distribution of low or medium unit power loads 7  Choice of architecture details

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Centralized distribution gives greater independence of circuits, reducing the consequences of a failure from power availability point of view. The use of decentralized distribution with busway is a way to merge all the circuits in one: it makes it possible to take into account the diversity factor (ks), which means  cost savings on conductor sizing (See fig. D17). The choice between centralized and  decentralized solutions, according to the diversity factor, allows to find an economic  optimum between investment costs, installation costs and operating costs. These two distribution modes are often combined. Load distribution Flexibility (see § 3.6 for definition  of the flexibility levels) Localized loads Intermediate distribution loads  Uniformly distributed loads No flexibility Centralized Decentralized Flexibility of design Implementation flexibility Centralized Decentralized Operation flexibility  Fig. D16 : Recommendations for centralized or distributed layout Fig. D17 : Example of a set of 14 x 25A loads distributed along 34 meters (for busway, Canalis KS 250A) I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 14 I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 14 .......... .......... Distribution type Insulation material Power losses along life cycle 1 600 Joules 23 kg 2 000 Joules 90 kg Decentralized ks: diversity factor = 0.6 ks: diversity factor = 0.6 Centralized R R R R R ΣI xks ΣI xks R R R R R

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. D18 : Connection of a back-up generator  The main characteristics to consider for implementing LV back-up generator: b  Sensitivity of loads to power interruption (see § 3.9 for definition), b  Availability of the public distribution network (see § 3.4 for the definition), b  Other constraints (e.g.: generators compulsory in hospitals or high buildings) In addition the presence of generators can be decided to reduce the energy bill or due to the opportunity for co-generation. These two aspects are not taken into account in this guide. The  presence of a back-up generator is essential if the loads cannot be shed (only short interruption acceptable) or if the utility network availability is low. Determining the number of back-up generator units is in line with the same criteria as determining the number of transformers, as well as taking account of economic and availability considerations (redundancy, start-up reliability, maintenance facility). Determining the generator apparent power, depends on: b  installation power demand of loads to be supplied, b  transient constraints that can occur by motors inrush current for example. 7.3 Presence of LV back-up generators   (see Fig. D18) LV backup-up generator is the association of an alternator mechanically powered by  a thermal engine. No electrical power can be delivered until the generator has reached its rated speed. This type of device is therefore not suitable for an uninterrupted power supply.Depending, if the generator is sized to supply power to all or only part of the installation, there is either total or partial redundancy. A back-up generator runs generally disconnected from the network. A source changeover and an interlocking system is therefore required (see Fig. D18).The generator back-up time depends on the quantity of available fuel. Emergency  supply LV MV UPS Main supply Q1 Q3 Q2 G Emergency  loads ? UPS Critical loads 7  Choice of architecture details

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7.4  Presence of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) The electrical power from a UPS is supplied from a storage unit: batteries or inertia wheel. This system prevent any power failure. The back-up time of the system is limited: from several minutes to several hours.The simultaneous presence of a back-up generator and a UPS unit is used for permanently supply loads for which no failure is acceptable (Fig. D19). The back-up  time of the battery must be compatible with the maximum time for the generator to  start up and take over the load supply.A UPS unit is also used to supply loads that are sensitive to power quality (generating a “clean” voltage that is independent of the network). Main characteristics to be considered for implementing a UPS: b  Sensitivity of loads to power interruptions (see § 3.9 for definition), b  Sensitivity of loads to disturbances (see § 3.10 for definition). The  presence of a UPS unit is essential if and only if no failure is acceptable. LV Switchboard Non-critical circuit Critical circuit G By-pass Normal ASI Fig. D19 : Example of connection for a UPS  MLVS Fig. D20 : Single feeder configuration   7.5  Configuration of LV circuits Main possible configurations: b   Single feeder configuration (fig.D20): This is the reference configuration and the  most simple. A load is connected to one single source. This configuration provides a  minimum level of availability, since there is no redundancy in case of power source failure. b   Parallel transformers configuration (fig.D21) : The power supply is provided  by more than 1 transformer generally connected in parallel to the same main LV switchboard. b   Variant: Normally open coupled transformers (fig.D22):  In order to increase the  availability it is possible to split the main LV switchboard into 2 parts, with a normally  open bus-coupler (NO). This configuration may require an Automatic Transfer Switch  between the coupler and transformer incomers. These 2 configurations are more often used when power demand is greater than 1 MVA. b   Main LV switchboard interconnected by a busway (fig D23):  Transformers  are physically distant, and operated in parallel. They are connected by a busway, the load can always be supplied in the case of failure of one of the sources. The redundancy can be: v  Total: each transformer being able to supply all of the installation, v  Partial: each transformer only being able to supply part of the installation. In this  case, part of the loads must be disconnected (load-shedding) in the case of one of transformer failure. MLVS NC NC NO Fig. D22 : Normally open coupled transformers MLVS NC NC Fig. D21 : Parallel transformers configuration 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved MLVS MLVS NC NC NC NC Busway Fig. D23 : Main LV switchboard interconnected by a busway Fig. D24 : Ring configuration  or or G UPS NC NC Fig. D25 : Double-ended configuration with automatic transfer switch 1 G 2 3 NC NC NO NC NC NC Busway Fig. D26 : Example of a configuration combination   1: Single feeder, 2: Main LV switchboard interconnected by a busway, 3: Double-ended b   LV ring configuration (fig. D24): This configuration can be considered as an  extension of the previous configuration with interconnection between switchboards.  Typically, 4 transformers connected in parallel to the same MV line, supply a ring using busway. A given load is then supplied by several transformers. This  configuration is well suited to large sites, with high load density (in kVA/m²). If all of  the loads can be supplied by 3 transformers, there is total redundancy in the case of failure of one of the transformers. In fact, each busbar can be fed by one or other of its ends. Otherwise, downgraded operation must be considered (with partial load  shedding). This configuration requires special design of the protection plan in order  to ensure discrimination in all of the fault circumstances.  As the previous configuration this type of installation is commonly used in automotive  industry or large site manufacturing industry. b   Double-ended power supply (fig. D25): This configuration is implemented  in cases where maximum availability is required. The principle involves having 2  independent power sources, e.g.: v  2 transformers supplied by different MV lines, v  1 transformer and 1 generator, v  1 transformer and 1 UPS. An automatic transfer switch (ATS) is used to avoid the sources being parallel  connected. This configuration allows preventive and curative maintenance to be  carried out on all of the electrical distribution system upstream without interrupting the power supply. b   Configuration combinations (fig D.26) : An installation can be made up of  several sub-asssemblies with different configurations, according to requirements for  the availability of the different types of load. E.g.: generator unit and UPS, choice by sectors (some sectors supplied by cables and others by busways). 7  Choice of architecture details MLVS MLVS MLVS MLVS NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC Busway Busway Busway Busway

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D24 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved For the different possible configurations, the most probable and usual set of  characteristics is given in the following table: Configuration Characteristic to be considered Single feeder   (fig. D20) Parallel transformer  or transformers connected via  a coupler (fig. D21-D22) Main LV switchboard interconnected  by a busway (fig D24) LV ring Double-ended Site topology Any Any 1 level 5000 to 25000 m² 1 level 5000 to 25000 m² Any Power demand 2500kVA Any ≥ 2500kVA 2500kVA Any Location latitude  Any Any Medium or high Medium or high Any Load distribution  Localized loads Localized loads Intermediate or uniform load distribution Intermediate or uniform load distribution Localized loads Maintainability Minimal Standard Standard Standard Enhanced Disturbances sensitivity  Low sensitivity High sensitivity High sensitivity High sensitivity High sensitivity Fig. D27 : Recommendations for the configuration of LV circuits 7  Choice of architecture details

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D25 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 8  Choice of equipment  The choice of equipment is step 3 in the design of an electrical installation. The aim of this step is to select equipment from the manufacturers’ catalogues. The choice of technological solutions results from the choice of architecture. List of equipment to consider: b  MV/LV substation, b  MV switchboards, b  Transformers, b  LV switchboards, b  Busway, b  UPS units, b  Power factor correction and filtering equipment. b  Generators Criteria to consider: b  Service conditions (presence of water, dust, etc.), b  Power availability, including service index for LV switchboards, b  Safety (for people using or operating the installation), b  Local regulations, b  Footprint, b  Offer availability per country, b  Utilities requirements, b  Previous architecture choices. The choice of equipment is basically linked to the offer availability in the country. This criterion takes into account the availability of certain ranges of equipment or local technical support. The detailed selection of equipment is out of the scope of this document.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D26 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 9  Recommendations for  architecture optimization These recommendations are intended to guide the designer towards architecture upgrades which allow him to improve assessment criteria. 9.1  On-site work To be compatible with the “special” or “critical” work-site time, it is recommended to limit uncertainties by applying the following recommendations: b  Use of proven solutions and equipment that has been validated and tested by  manufacturers (“functional” switchboard or “manufacturer” switchboard according to the application criticality), b  Prefer the implementation of equipment for which there is a reliable distribution  network and for which it is possible to have local support (supplier well established), b  Prefer the use of factory-built equipment (MV/LV substation, busway), allowing the  volume of operations on site to be limited, b  Limit the variety of equipment implemented for example, when possible harmonize  transformers power, b  Avoid mixing equipment from different manufacturers. 9.2  Environmental impact The optimization of the environmental impact of an installation will involve reducing: b  Power losses at loaded and also no-load conditions during all the period of  operation of the installation, b  Overall, the mass of materials used to build the installation. Taken separately and when looking at only one piece of equipment, these 2 objectives may seem contradictory. However, when applied to whole installation, it is possible to design the architecture to contribute to both objectives. The optimal installation will therefore not be the sum of the optimal equipment taken separately, but the result of an optimization of the overall installation.Figure D28  gives an example of the contribution per equipment category to the  weight and energy dissipation for a 3500 kVA of installed power spread over an area of 10000m².  b  Installation is operating at 50% load on average, with 0,8 power factor b  Site is operating 6500 hours per years : 3 shifts + week ends with reduced activity  at night and week ends and full stop 1 month per year for site maintenance. b  Energy consumption is 9,1 GWh per year. Fig. D28 : Example of the break down of losses and the weight  for each type of equipment Transformers LV cables  and trunking Annual losses: 414 MWh   Total mass of equipment: 18,900 kg LV switchboardand switchgear 75 % 20 % 5 % Losses break down per type of equipment Weight break down per type of equipment 10 % 44 % 46 %

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D27 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Objectives Resources Reducing the length of LV  circuits Placing MV/LV substations as close as possible to the barycenter  of all of the LV loads to be supplied   Clustering LV circuits When the diversity factor of a group of loads to be supplied  is less than 0.7, the clustering of circuits allows us to limit the  volume of conductors supplying power to these loads.In real terms this involves: b  setting up sub-distribution switchboards as close as possible to  the barycenter of the groups of loads if they are localized, b  setting up busbar trunking systems as close as possible to the  barycenter of the groups of loads if they are distributed.The search for an optimal solution may lead to consider several  clustering scenarios.In all cases, reducing the distance between the barycenter of  a group of loads and the equipment that supplies them power  allows to reduce environmental impact. 9  Recommendations for   architecture optimization Fig. D29 :  Environmental optimization : Objectives and Ressources. These data helps to understand and prioritize energy consumption and costs factors. b  Very first factor of power consumption is... energy usage. This can be optimized  with appropriate metering and analysis of loads actual consumption. b  Second is reactive energy. This lead to additional load on upstream electrical  network. and additional energy invoicing. This can be optimized with power factor  correction solutions.  b  Third is wiring system which represent 75% of the installation losses. Cable losses  can be reduced by appropriate organisation and design of site and use of busway  wherever appropriate. b  MV/LV transformers are fourth with approx. 20% of the losses (1% of the site energy  consumption). b  MV and LV switchboards come last with approximately 5% of the losses (0,25% of  the site energy consumption). Generally speaking, LV cables and busway as well as the MV/LV transformers are  the main contributors to losses and weight of equipment used.Environmental optimization of the installation by the architecture design will therefore  involve: b  reducing the length of LV circuits in the installation, as proposed by the barycentre  method in IEC60364-8-1 §6.3, and § 7.1 of this chapter b  clustering LV circuits wherever possible to take advantage of the diversity ks   (see chapter A: General rules of electrical installation design, Subclause  4.3  “Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand”)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D28 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Solution Barycenter position  N°1 N°2 Fig. D30 : Example of barycentres positioning according to load clustering Solution 1: 1 transformer per workshop, 2 x 1600 kVA, 1 x 630 kVA Solution 2: 1 transformer per line of process, 4 x 1000 kVA Storage Workshop 3 Workshop 2 Workshop 1 Workshop 1 Barycenter Workshop 2 Barycenter Workshop 3 Barycenter 1600 kVA 1600 kVA MV/LV substation Storage Workshop 3 Workshop 2 Workshop 1 Barycenter line 1 Barycenter line 2 Barycenter line 3 MV/LV substation Barycenter line 3 As an example  figure D30 shows the impact of clustering circuits on different ways  and the impact on the barycentres of the clustered loads. This example concerns a  mineral water bottling plant for which: b  the installed power is around 4 MVA. In solution No.1, the circuits are clustered by workshop. In solution No. 2, the circuits are clustered by process functions (production lines). In this example 2 different solutions can be used at the MV/LV level: b  solution 1, a MV/LV transformer is moved close to workshop 3 to optimize its place  according to the barycentre of the loads (its more economic to transmit the power in  MV when possible) b  solution 2, all MV/LV transformers are in the same substation, and with the same  size, allowing also a partial operation of the plant (1/2 of the plant).In addition, in the 2 solutions the optimization can also be carried out by the following  points:  b  the setting up of LV power factor correction to limit losses in the transformers and  LV circuits if this compensation is distributed, b  the use of low losses transformers, b  the use of aluminum busway when possible, since natural resources of this metal  are greater.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D29 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 9.3  Preventive maintenance volume Recommendations for reducing the volume of preventive maintenance: b  Use the same recommendations as for reducing the work site time, b  Focus maintenance work on critical circuits, b  Standardize the choice of equipment, b  Use equipment designed for severe atmospheres (requires less maintenance). 9.4  Electrical power availability Recommendations for improving the electrical power availability: b  Reduce the number of feeders per switchboard, in order to limit the effects of a  possible failure of a switchboard, b  Distributing circuits according to availability requirements, b  Using equipment that is in line with requirements (see Service Index, 4.2), b  Follow the selection guides proposed for steps 1 & 2 (see  Fig. D3 page D5). Recommendations to increase the level of availability: b  Change from a radial single feeder configuration to a parallel transformers  configuration, b  Change from a parallel transformers configuration to a double-ended configuration, b  Add to a double-ended configuration a UPS unit and a Static Transfer Switch  b  Increase the level of maintenance (reducing the MTTR, increasing the MTBF) 9  Recommendations for  architecture optimization

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 10  Glossary Architecture: choice of a single-line diagram and technological solutions, from connection to the utility network through load power supply circuits. Main MV/LV distribution: Level upstream of the architecture, from connection to the network utility through to LV distribution equipment on the site (MLVS – or equivalent). MLVS –  Main Low Voltage Switchboard: Main switchboard downstream of the MV/LV transformer, starting point of power distribution circuits in the installation LV power distribution: intermediate level in the architecture, downstream of the main level through to the sub-distribution switchboards (spatial and functional distribution of electrical power in the circuits). LV terminal distribution: Downstream level of the architecture, downstream of the sub-distribution switchboards through to the loads. This level of distribution is not dealt with in this guide. Single-line diagram: general electrical schematic diagram to represent the main electrical  equipment and their interconnection. MV substation, transformation substation:  Enclosures grouping together MV  equipment and/or MV/LV transformers. These enclosures can be shared or separate, according to the site layout, or the equipment technology. In certain countries, the MV substation is assimilated with the delivery substation. Technological solution: Resulting from the choice of technology for an installation sub-assembly, from among the different products and equipment proposed by the manufacturer. Characteristics: Technical or environmental data relative to the installation, enabling the best-suited architecture to be selected. Criteria: Parameters for assessing the installation, enabling selection of the architecture that is the best-suited to the needs of the customer.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D31 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved D - MV & LV architecture selection guide 11  Example: electrical installation  in a printworks 11.1  Brief description  Printing of personalized mailshots intended for mail order sales. 11.2  Installation characteristics  Characteristic Category Activity  Mechanical Site topology  single storey building,10000m² (8000m² dedicated to the process, 2000m² for  ancillary areas) Layout latitude  High Service reliability  Standard Maintainability  Standard Installation flexibility b  No flexibility planned: v   HVAC v  Process utilities v  Office power supply b  Possible flexibility: v  finishing, putting in envelopes v  special machines, installed at a later date  v  rotary machines (uncertainty at the draft design stage) Power demand 3500kVA Load distribution  Intermediate distribution  Power interruptions sensitivity b  Sheddable circuits: v  offices (apart from PC power sockets) v  air conditioning, office heating  v  social premises v  maintenance premises b  long interruptions acceptable: v  printing machines  v  workshop HVAC (hygrometric control) v  Finishing, envelope filling v  Process utilities (compressor, recycling of cooled water) b  No interruptions acceptable: v  servers, office PCs Disturbance sensitivity b  Average sensitivity: v  motors, lighting b  High sensitivity: v  IT No special precaution to be taken due to the connection to  the EdF network (low level of disturbance) Disturbance capability Non disturbing Other constraints b  Building with lightning classification: lightning surge  arresters installed b  Power supply by overhead single feeder line  11.3  Technological characteristics  Criteria Category Service conditions b  IP: standard (no dust, no water protection) b  IK: standard (use of technical pits, dedicated premises) b  °C: standard (temperature regulation) Required service index  211 Offer availability by country No problem (project carried out in Europe) Other criteria Not applicable

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 11.4  Architecture assessment criteria  Criteria Category On-site work time Standard (see 5.1) Environmental impact  Minimal: compliance with European standard regulations Preventive maintenance costs Standard (see 5.3) Power supply availability  Pier 1 (see 5.4) Step 1: Architecture fundamentals Choice Main criteria  Solution Connection to upstream network  Isolated site, 3500 kVA MV single-line service MV Circuits  Layout + criticality single feeder Number of transformers Power 2500kVA 2 x 2000kVA Number and distribution of substations Surface area and power distribution 2 possible solutions: 1 substation or 2 substations b  if 1 substations: Normaly open  bus-coupler between MLVS b  if 2 substations:  Main LV switchboard interconnected by a busway  MV Generator Site activity  No MLVS 1 MLVS 2 MLVS 1 MLVS 2 NC NC Main MV substation Main MV substation Busway LV MV LV MV LV MV LV MV NC NC NO NC NC Fig. D31 : Two possible single-line diagrams

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D33 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Step 2: Architecture details Choice Main criteria  Solution Layout  Service conditions Dedicated premises LV circuit configuration  2 transformers, requested  by the power demand  Solution from fig.D22 or D23  are possible Centralized or distributed layout Uniform loads, distributed power, scalability possibilities  Non-uniform loads, direct link from MLVS b  Decentralized with busbar  trunking: v  finishing sector, envelope  filling b  Centralized with cables: v  special machines,  rotary machines, HVAC,  process utilities, offices  (2 switchboards), office air  conditioning, social premises, maintenance Presence of back-up generator Criticality  ≤  low Network availability: standard No back-up generator Presence of UPS Criticality UPS unit for IT devices and  office workstations Fig. D32  : Detailed single-line diagram (1 substation based on fig.D22) Main LV switchboard 1 Busway Machines HVAC Sheddable loads Offices UPS Main LV switchboard 2 LV MV LV MV Main MV substation NC NC NO 11  Example: electrical installation in a printworks Fig. D33  : Detailed single-line diagram (2 substation based on fig.D24) MLVS 1 MLVS 2 Busway Machines HVAC Sheddable Offices LV MV LV MV Main MV substation Busway UPS NC NC NC NC

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 D - MV & LV architecture selection guide D34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 11.5  Choice of technological solutions Choice Main criteria Solution MV/LV substation Service conditions indoor (dedicated premises) MV switchboard Offer availability by country SM6 (installation in Europe) Transformers Service conditions cast resin transfo (avoids constraints related to oil) LV switchboard Service conditions, service  index for LV switchboards MLVS: Prisma P Sub-distribution: Prisma Busway Load distribution Canalis KS (fig.D32 or D33)Canalis KT for main  distribution (fig D33) UPS units Installed power to be supplied, back-up time Galaxy PW   Power factor correction Reactive power to provide for the minimum up to the full load without harmonic (see chapter L for more information), presence of harmonics LV automatic compensation (without detuned reactor). 11  Example: electrical installation in a printworks

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E1 Chapter E LV Distribution   Earthing schemes  E2   1.1  Earthing connections  E2   1.2  Definition of standardised earthing schemes  E3   1.3  Characteristics of TT, TN and IT systems  E6   1.4  Selection criteria for the TT, TN and IT systems  E8   1.5  Choice of earthing method - implementation  E10   1.6  Installation and measurements of earth electrodes  E11   The installation system  E15   2.1  Distribution switchboards  E15   2.2  Cables and busways   E22   2.3  Harmonic currents in the selection of busbar trunking         systems (busways)  E28   External influences   E34   3.1  Definition and reference standards  E34   3.2  Classification  E34   3.3  List of external influences  E34   3.4  Protection provided for enclosed equipment: codes IP and IK   E37 1    2    3    Contents

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E2 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed 1  Earthing schemes 1.1  Earthing connections Definitions National and international standards (IEC 60364) clearly define the various elements of earthing connections. The following terms are commonly used in industry and  in the literature. Bracketed numbers refer to Figure E1: b  Earth electrode (1): A conductor or group of conductors in intimate contact with,  and providing an electrical connection with Earth (cf details in section 1.6 of Chapter E.) b  Earth: The conductive mass of the Earth, whose electric potential at any point is  conventionally taken as zero b  Electrically independent earth electrodes: Earth electrodes located at such   a distance from one another that the maximum current likely to flow through one  of them does not significantly affect the potential of the other(s) b  Earth electrode resistance: The contact resistance of an earth electrode with the  Earth b  Earthing conductor (2): A protective conductor connecting the main earthing  terminal (6) of an installation to an earth electrode (1) or to other means of earthing (e.g. TN systems); b  Exposed-conductive-part: A conductive part of equipment which can be touched  and which is not a live part, but which may become live under fault conditions b  Protective conductor (3): A conductor used for some measures of protection against  electric shock and intended for connecting together any of the following parts: v  Exposed-conductive-parts v  Extraneous-conductive-parts v  The main earthing terminal v  Earth electrode(s) v  The earthed point of the source or an artificial neutral b  Extraneous-conductive-part: A conductive part liable to introduce a potential,  generally earth potential, and not forming part of the electrical installation (4).  For example: v  Non-insulated floors or walls, metal framework of buildings v  Metal conduits and pipework (not part of the electrical installation) for water, gas,  heating, compressed-air, etc. and metal materials associated with them b  Bonding conductor (5): A protective conductor providing equipotential bonding b  Main earthing terminal (6): The terminal or bar provided for the connection   of protective conductors, including equipotential bonding conductors, and conductors for functional earthing, if any, to the means of earthing. Connections The main equipotential bonding systemThe bonding is carried out by protective conductors and the aim is to ensure that, in the event of an incoming extraneous conductor (such as a gas pipe, etc.) being raised to some potential due to a fault external to the building, no difference of potential can occur between extraneous-conductive-parts within the installation.  The bonding must be effected as close as possible to the point(s) of entry into the building, and be connected to the main earthing terminal (6). However, connections to earth of metallic sheaths of communications cables require the authorisation of the owners of the cables. Supplementary equipotential connectionsThese connections are intended to connect all exposed-conductive-parts and all extraneous-conductive-parts simultaneously accessible, when correct conditions for protection have not been met, i.e. the original bonding conductors present an unacceptably high resistance. Connection of exposed-conductive-parts to the earth electrode(s)The connection is made by protective conductors with the object of providing a  low-resistance path for fault currents flowing to earth. In a building, the connection of all metal parts of the building and all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment to an earth electrode prevents the appearance of dangerously high voltages between any two simultaneously accessible metal parts Fig. E1 : An example of a block of flats in which the main  earthing terminal (6) provides the main equipotential connection; the removable link (7) allows an earth-electrode-resistance check Branchedprotectiveconductorsto individualconsumers Extraneousconductiveparts 3 3 3 Mainprotectiveconductor 1 2 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 Heating Water Gas

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E3 Components  (see   Fig. E2) Effective connection of all accessible metal fixtures and all exposed-conductive-parts of electrical appliances and equipment, is essential for effective protection against electric shocks. Fig. E2 : List of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts Component parts to consider: as exposed-conductive-parts   as extraneous-conductive-parts  Cableways   Elements used in building construction  b  Conduits   b  Metal or reinforced concrete (RC):  b  Impregnated-paper-insulated lead-covered   v  Steel-framed structure  cable, armoured or unarmoured   v  Reinforcement rods  b  Mineral insulated metal-sheathed cable  v  Prefabricated RC panels  (pyrotenax, etc.)   b  Surface finishes: Switchgear  v  Floors and walls in reinforced concrete  b  cradle of withdrawable switchgear   without further surface treatment Appliances   v  Tiled surface  b  Exposed metal parts of class 1 insulated   b  Metallic covering:  appliances   v  Metallic wall covering Non-electrical elements   Building services elements other than electrical   b  metallic fittings associated with cableways   b  Metal pipes, conduits, trunking, etc. for gas,  (cable trays, cable ladders, etc.)   water and heating systems, etc.  b  Metal objects:   b  Related metal components (furnaces, tanks,  v  Close to aerial conductors or to busbars  reservoirs, radiators)  v  In contact with electrical equipment.   b  Metallic fittings in wash rooms, bathrooms,    toilets, etc.    b  Metallised papers      Component parts not to be considered: as exposed-conductive-parts   as extraneous-conductive-parts  Diverse service channels, ducts, etc.   b  Wooden-block floors  b  Conduits made of insulating material  b  Rubber-covered or linoleum-covered floors  b  Mouldings in wood or other insulating   b  Dry plaster-block partition  material   b  Brick walls  b  Conductors and cables without metallic sheaths   b  Carpets and wall-to-wall carpeting Switchgear  b  Enclosures made of insulating material Appliances  b  All appliances having class II insulation  regardless of the type of exterior envelope  1.2  Definition of standardised earthing schemes The choice of these methods governs the measures necessary for protection against indirect-contact hazards.The earthing system qualifies three originally independent choices made by the designer of an electrical distribution system or installation: b  The type of connection of the electrical system (that is generally of the neutral  conductor) and of the exposed parts to earth electrode(s) b  A separate protective conductor or protective conductor and neutral conductor  being a single conductor b  The use of earth fault protection of overcurrent protective switchgear which clear  only relatively high fault currents or the use of additional relays able to detect and clear small insulation fault currents to earth.In practice, these choices have been grouped and standardised as explained below. Each of these choices provides standardised earthing systems with three advantages and drawbacks: b  Connection of the exposed conductive parts of the equipment and of the neutral  conductor to the PE conductor results in equipotentiality and lower overvoltages but increases earth fault currents b  A separate protective conductor is costly even if it has a small cross-sectional area  but it is much more unlikely to be polluted by voltage drops and harmonics, etc. than a neutral conductor is. Leakage currents are also avoided in extraneous conductive parts b  Installation of residual current protective relays or insulation monitoring devices are  much more sensitive and permits in many circumstances to clear faults before heavy damage occurs (motors, fires, electrocution). The protection offered is in addition independent with respect to changes in an existing installation. The different earthing schemes (often referred to as the type of power system or system earthing arrangements) described characterise the method of earthing the installation downstream of the secondary winding  of a MV/LV transformer and the means used  for earthing the exposed conductive-parts  of the LV installation supplied from it 1  Earthing schemes

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E4 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed TT system (earthed neutral)  (see Fig. E3) One point at the supply source is connected directly to earth. All exposed- and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to a separate earth electrode at the installation. This electrode may or may not be electrically independent of the source electrode. The two zones of influence may overlap without affecting the operation of protective devices. TN systems (exposed conductive parts connected to the neutral) The source is earthed as for the TT system (above). In the installation, all exposed- and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to the neutral conductor. The several versions of TN systems are shown below. TN-C system   (see Fig. E4) The neutral conductor is also used as a protective conductor and is referred to as a PEN (Protective Earth and Neutral) conductor. This system is not permitted for conductors of less than 10 mm 2  or for portable equipment. The TN-C system requires an effective equipotential environment within the installation with dispersed earth electrodes spaced as regularly as possible since the PEN conductor is both the neutral conductor and at the same time carries phase unbalance currents as well as 3 rd  order harmonic currents (and their multiples). The PEN conductor must therefore be connected to a number of earth electrodes in the installation. Caution: In the TN-C system, the “protective conductor” function has priority over the “neutral function”. In particular, a PEN conductor must always be connected to the earthing terminal of a load and a jumper is used to connect this terminal to the neutral terminal.  TN-S system   (see Fig. E5) The TN-S system (5 wires) is obligatory for circuits with cross-sectional areas less than 10 mm 2  for portable equipment. The protective conductor and the neutral conductor are separate. On underground cable systems where lead-sheathed cables exist, the protective conductor is generally the lead sheath. The use of separate PE and N conductors (5 wires) is obligatory for circuits with cross-sectional areas less than 10 mm 2  for portable  equipment. TN-C-S system   (see Fig. E6 below and Fig. E7 next page) The TN-C and TN-S systems can be used in the same installation. In the TN-C-S system, the TN-C (4 wires) system must never be used downstream of the TN-S (5 wires) system, since any accidental interruption in the neutral on the upstream part would lead to an interruption in the protective conductor in the downstream part and therefore a danger. L1L2L3NPE Rn Neutral Earth Exposed conductive parts Earth Fig. E3 : TT System L1L2L3PEN Rn Neutral Neutral Earth Exposed conductive parts Fig. E4 : TN-C system L1L2L3NPE Rn Fig. E5 : TN-S system L1L2L3NPE Bad Bad 16 mm 2 6 mm 2 16 mm 2 16 mm 2 PEN TN-C scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme 5 x 50 mm 2 PEN PE Fig. E6 : TN-C-S system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E5 IT system (isolated or impedance-earthed neutral) IT system (isolated neutral)No intentional connection is made between the neutral point of the supply source and earth (see Fig. E8).Exposed- and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation are connected  to an earth electrode.In practice all circuits have a leakage impedance to earth, since no insulation is perfect. In parallel with this (distributed) resistive leakage path, there is the distributed capacitive current path, the two paths together constituting the normal leakage impedance to earth (see Fig. E9).Example (see Fig. E10)In a LV 3-phase 3-wire system, 1 km of cable will have a leakage impedance due to C1, C2, C3 and R1, R2 and R3 equivalent to a neutral earth impedance Zct of 3000 to 4000  Ω , without counting the filtering capacitances of electronic devices.  IT system (impedance-earthed neutral)An impedance Zs (in the order of 1000 to 2000  Ω ) is connected permanently  between the neutral point of the transformer LV winding and earth (see Fig. E11). All exposed- and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to an earth electrode. The reasons for this form of power-source earthing are to fix the potential of a small network with respect to earth (Zs is small compared to the leakage impedance) and to reduce the level of overvoltages, such as transmitted surges from the MV windings, static charges, etc. with respect to earth. It has, however, the effect of slightly increasing the first-fault current level. Fig. E7 : Connection of the PEN conductor in the TN-C system L1L2L3PEN 16 mm 2 10 mm 2 6 mm 2 6 mm 2 PEN 2 4 x 95 mm 2 Correct Incorrect Correct Incorrect PEN connected to the neutralterminal is prohibited S 10 mmTNC prohibited N PEN Fig. E8 : IT system (isolated neutral) Fig. E9 : IT system (isolated neutral) Fig. E10 : Impedance equivalent to leakage impedances in an  IT system Fig. E11 : IT system (impedance-earthed neutral) L1L2L3NPE Neutral Isolated orimpedance-earthed Exposed conductive parts Earth R3 R2 R1 C3 C2 C1 MV/LV Zct MV/LV MV/LV Zs 1  Earthing schemes

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E6 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed 1.3  Characteristics of TT, TN and IT systems TT system  (see Fig. E12) The TT system: b  Technique for the protection of persons: the  exposed conductive parts are earthed and residual current devices (RCDs) are used b  Operating technique: interruption for the first  insulation fault The TN system: b  Technique for the protection of persons: v  Interconnection and earthing of exposed  conductive parts and the neutral are mandatory v  Interruption for the first fault using overcurrent  protection (circuit breakers or fuses) b  Operating technique: interruption for the first  insulation fault Fig. E12 : TT system Note: If the exposed conductive parts are earthed at a number of points, an RCD must be installed for each set of circuits connected to a given earth electrode. Main characteristics b  Simplest solution to design and install. Used in installations supplied directly by the  public LV distribution network. b  Does not require continuous monitoring during operation (a periodic check on the  RCDs may be necessary). b  Protection is ensured by special devices, the residual current devices (RCD),  which also prevent the risk of fire when they are set to  y  500 mA. b  Each insulation fault results in an interruption in the supply of power, however the  outage is limited to the faulty circuit by installing the RCDs in series (selective RCDs) or in parallel (circuit selection). b  Loads or parts of the installation which, during normal operation, cause high leakage  currents, require special measures to avoid nuisance tripping, i.e. supply the loads with a separation transformer or use specific RCDs (see section 5.1 in chapter F). TN system  (see   Fig. E13 and Fig. E14 ) Fig. E14 : TN-S system Fig. E13 : TN-C system PEN NPE

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E7 Main characteristics b  Generally speaking, the TN system: v  requires the installation of earth electrodes at regular intervals throughout the  installation v  Requires that the initial check on effective tripping for the first insulation fault  be carried out by calculations during the design stage, followed by mandatory measurements to confirm tripping during commissioning v  Requires that any modification or extension be designed and carried out by   a qualified electrician v  May result, in the case of insulation faults, in greater damage to the windings   of rotating machines v  May, on premises with a risk of fire, represent a greater danger due to the higher  fault currents b  In addition, the TN-C system: v  At first glance, would appear to be less expensive (elimination of a device pole   and of a conductor) v  Requires the use of fixed and rigid conductors v  Is forbidden in certain cases: - Premises with a risk of fire- For computer equipment (presence of harmonic currents in the neutral) b  In addition, the TN-S system: v  May be used even with flexible conductors and small conduits v  Due to the separation of the neutral and the protection conductor, provides a clean  PE (computer systems and premises with special risks). IT system  (see Fig. E15) IT system: b  Protection technique: v  Interconnection and earthing of exposed  conductive parts v  Indication of the first fault by an insulation  monitoring device (IMD) v  Interruption for the second fault using  overcurrent protection (circuit breakers or fuses) b  Operating technique: v  Monitoring of the first insulation fault v  Mandatory location and clearing of the fault v  Interruption for two simultaneous insulation  faults Fig. E15 : IT system IMD Cardew Main characteristics b  Solution offering the best continuity of service during operation b  Indication of the first insulation fault, followed by mandatory location and clearing,  ensures systematic prevention of supply outages b  Generally used in installations supplied by a private MV/LV or LV/LV transformer b  Requires maintenance personnel for monitoring and operation b  Requires a high level of insulation in the network (implies breaking up the network  if it is very large and the use of circuit-separation transformers to supply loads with high leakage currents) b  The check on effective tripping for two simultaneous faults must be carried out by  calculations during the design stage, followed by mandatory measurements during commissioning on each group of interconnected exposed conductive parts b  Protection of the neutral conductor must be ensured as indicated in section 7.2 of  Chapter G. 1  Earthing schemes

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E8 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed  1.4  Selection criteria for the TT, TN and IT systems In terms of the protection of persons, the three system earthing arrangements (SEA) are equivalent if all installation and operating rules are correctly followed. Consequently, selection does not depend on safety criteria. It is by combining all requirements in terms of regulations, continuity of service, operating conditions and the types of network and loads that it is possible to determine the best system(s) (see  Fig. E16 ). Selection is determined by the following factors: b  Above all, the applicable regulations which in some cases impose certain types of  SEA b  Secondly, the decision of the owner if supply is via a private MV/LV transformer  (MV subscription) or the owner has a private energy source (or a separate-winding transformer). If the owner effectively has a choice, the decision on the SEA is taken following discussions with the network designer (design offi ce, contractor).The discussions must cover: b  First of all, the operating requirements (the required level of continuity of service)  and the operating conditions (maintenance ensured by electrical personnel or not, in-house personnel or outsourced, etc.) b  Secondly, the particular characteristics of the network and the loads  (see  Fig. E17  next page). Selection does not depend on safety criteria.The three systems are equivalent in terms of protection of persons if all installation and operating rules are correctly followed.The selection criteria for the best system(s) depend on the regulatory requirements, the required continuity of service, operating conditions and the types of network and loads. Fig. E16 : Comparison of system earthing arrangements   TT  TN-S  TN-C  IT1 (a)   IT2 (b)   Comments   Electrical characteristics              Fault current  -   -   -   -   -   +   -   -   Only the IT system offers virtually negligible fi rst-fault currents Fault voltage  -   -   -   +   -   In the IT system, the touch voltage is very low for the fi rst fault,         but  is  considerable  for  the  second  Touch voltage  + / -   -   -   -   +   -   In the TT system, the touch voltage is very low if system is        equipotential,  otherwise  it  is  high  Protection              Protection of persons against indirect contact  +   +   +   +   +   All SEAs (system earthing arrangement) are equivalent,         if  the  rules  are  followed  Protection of persons with emergency   +   -   -   +   -   Systems where protection is ensured by RCDs are not sensitive generating sets            to a change in the internal impedance of the source  Protection against fi re (with an RCD)  +   +   Not   +   +   All SEAs in which RCDs can be used are equivalent.        allowed       The TN-C system is forbidden on premises where there is a risk of fi re  Overvoltages              Continuous overvoltage  +   +   +   -   +   A phase-to-earth overvoltage is continuous in the IT system              if there is a fi rst insulation fault  Transient overvoltage  +   -   -   +   -   Systems with high fault currents may cause transient overvoltages Overvoltage if transformer breakdown   -   +   +   +   +   In the TT system, there is a voltage imbalance between  (primary/secondary)            the different earth electrodes. The other systems are interconnected        to  a  single  earth  electrode  Electromagnetic compatibility              Immunity to nearby lightning strikes  -   +   +   +   +   In the TT system, there may be voltage imbalances between              the earth electrodes. In the TT system, there is a signifi cant current             loop between the two separate earth electrodes  Immunity to lightning strikes on MV lines  -   -   -   -   -   All SEAs are equivalent when a MV line takes a direct lightning strike Continuous emission of an   +   +   -   +   +   Connection of the PEN to the metal structures of the building is electromagnetic fi eld            conducive to the continuous generation of electromagnetic fi elds Transient non-equipotentiality of the PE  +   -   -   +   -   The PE is no longer equipotential if there is a high fault current Continuity of service              Interruption for fi rst fault  -   -   -   +   +   Only the IT system avoids tripping for the fi rst insulation fault Voltage dip during insulation fault  +   -   -   +   -   The TN-S, TNC and IT (2 nd  fault) systems generate high fault             currents which may cause phase voltage dips  Installation              Special devices  -   +   +   -   -   The TT system requires the use of RCDs. The IT system requires        the  use  of  IMDs  Number of earth electrodes  -   +   +   - / +   - / +   The TT system requires two distinct earth electrodes. The IT system             offers a choice between one or two earth electrodes Number of cables  -   -   +   -   -   Only the TN-C system offers, in certain cases, a reduction in         the  number  of  cables  Maintenance              Cost of repairs  -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   The cost of repairs depends on the damage caused by         the  amplitude  of  the  fault  currents  Installation damage  +   -   -   ++   -   Systems causing high fault currents require a check on         the  installation  after  clearing  the  fault  (a) IT-net when a fi rst fault occurs. (b) IT-net when a second fault occurs.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E9 Fig. E17 : Influence of networks and loads on the selection of system earthing arrangements (1) When the SEA is not imposed by regulations, it is selected according to the level of operating characteristics (continuity of service that is mandatory for safety reasons or desired to enhance productivity, etc.) Whatever the SEA, the probability of an insulation failure increases with the length of the network. It may be a good idea to break up the network, which facilitates fault location and makes it possible to implement the system advised above for each type of application.(2) The risk of flashover on the surge limiter turns the isolated neutral into an earthed neutral. These risks are high for regions with frequent thunder storms or installations supplied by overhead lines. If the IT system is selected to ensure a higher level of continuity of service, the system designer must precisely calculate the tripping conditions for a second fault.(3) Risk of RCD nuisance tripping.(4) Whatever the SEA, the ideal solution is to isolate the disturbing section if it can be easily identified.(5) Risks of phase-to-earth faults affecting equipotentiality.(6) Insulation is uncertain due to humidity and conducting dust.(7) The TN system is not advised due to the risk of damage to the generator in the case of an internal fault. What is more, when generator sets supply safety equipment, the system must not trip for the first fault.(8) The phase-to-earth current may be several times higher than  I n, with the risk of damaging or accelerating the ageing of motor windings, or of  destroying magnetic circuits.(9) To combine continuity of service and safety, it is necessary and highly advised, whatever the SEA, to separate these loads from the rest of the installation (transformers with local neutral connection).(10) When load equipment quality is not a design priority, there is a risk that the insulation resistance will fall rapidly. The TT system with RCDs is the best means to avoid problems.(11) The mobility of this type of load causes frequent faults (sliding contact for bonding of exposed conductive parts) that must be countered. Whatever the SEA, it is advised to supply these circuits using transformers with a local neutral connection.(12) Requires the use of transformers with a local TN system to avoid operating risks and nuisance tripping at the first fault (TT) or a double fault (IT).(12 bis) With a double break in the control circuit.(13) Excessive limitation of the phase-to-neutral current due to the high value of the zero-phase impedance (at least 4 to 5 times the direct impedance). This system must be replaced by a star-delta arrangement.(14) The high fault currents make the TN system dangerous. The TN-C system is forbidden.(15) Whatever the system, the RCD must be set to  Δ n  y  500 mA. (16) An installation supplied with LV energy must use the TT system. Maintaining this SEA means the least amount of modifications on the existing network (no cables to be run, no protection devices to be modified).(17) Possible without highly competent maintenance personnel.(18) This type of installation requires particular attention in maintaining safety. The absence of preventive measures in the TN system means highly qualified personnel are required to ensure safety over time.(19) The risks of breaks in conductors (supply, protection) may cause the loss of equipotentiality for exposed conductive parts. A TT system or a TN-S system with 30 mA RCDs is advised and is often mandatory. The IT system may be used in very specific cases.(20) This solution avoids nuisance tripping for unexpected earth leakage. Type of network    Advised  Possible  Not advised Very large network with high-quality earth electrodes       TT, TN, IT  (1)   for exposed conductive parts (10  Ω  max.)      or mixed    Very large network with low-quality earth electrodes     TN  TN-S  IT  (1)   for exposed conductive parts ( 30  Ω )      TN-C Disturbed area (storms)     TN  TT  IT  (2)   (e.g. television or radio transmitter)        Network with high leakage currents ( 500 mA)    TN  (4)  IT  (4)        TT  (3) (4) Network with outdoor overhead lines    TT  (5)  TN  (5) (6)  IT  (6)  Emergency standby generator set    IT  TT  TN  (7)        Type of loads        Loads sensitive to high fault currents (motors, etc.)    IT  TT  TN  (8)           Loads with a low insulation level (electric furnaces,      TN  (9)  TT  (9)  IT  welding machines, heating elements, immersion heaters,  equipment in large kitchens) Numerous phase-neutral single-phase loads     TT  (10)    IT  (10)   (mobile, semi-fixed, portable)    TN-S    TN-C  (10)   Loads with sizeable risks (hoists, conveyers, etc.)    TN  (11)  TT  (11)  IT  (11)          Numerous auxiliaries (machine tools)    TN-S  TN-C  TT  (12)        IT  (12 bis)      Miscellaneous       Supply via star-star connected power transformer  (13)    TT  IT  IT  (13)         without neutral  with neutral Premises with risk of fire    IT  (15)  TN-S  (15)  TN-C  (14)        TT  (15)      Increase in power level of LV utility subscription,     TT  (16)   requiring a private substation        Installation with frequent modifications    TT  (17)    TN  (18)         IT  (18)   Installation where the continuity of earth circuits is uncertain     TT  (19)  TN-S  TN-C  (work sites, old installations)        IT  (19)   Electronic equipment (computers, PLCs)    TN-S  TT  TN-C  Machine control-monitoring network, PLC sensors and actuators    IT  (20)   TN-S, TT MV/LV LV 1  Earthing schemes

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E10 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed 1.5  Choice of earthing method - implementation After consulting applicable regulations, Figures E16 and E17 can be used as an aid in deciding on divisions and possible galvanic isolation of appropriate sections of  a proposed installation. Division of source This technique concerns the use of several transformers instead of employing one high-rated unit. In this way, a load that is a source of network disturbances (large motors, furnaces, etc.) can be supplied by its own transformer.The quality and continuity of supply to the whole installation are thereby improved.The cost of switchgear is reduced (short-circuit current level is lower).The cost-effectiveness of separate transformers must be determined on a case by case basis. Network islands The creation of galvanically-separated “islands” by means of LV/LV transformers makes it possible to optimise the choice of earthing methods to meet specific requirements (see Fig. E18 and Fig. E19 ). Fig. E18 : TN-S island within an IT system Fig. E19 : IT islands within a TN-S system IMD IT system LV/LV MV/LV TN-S system TN-S system   LV/LV MV/LV TN-S Operating room LV/LV IT IT Hospital IMD IMD Conclusion The optimisation of the performance of the whole installation governs the choice  of earthing system. Including: b  Initial investments, and b  Future operational expenditures, hard to assess, that can arise from insufficient  reliability, quality of equipment, safety, continuity of service, etc. An ideal structure would comprise normal power supply sources, local reserve power supply sources (see section 1.4 of Chapter E) and the appropriate earthing arrangements.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E11 1.6  Installation and measurements  of earth electrodes The quality of an earth electrode (resistance as low as possible) depends essentially on two factors: b  Installation method b  Type of soil. Installation methods Three common types of installation will be discussed: Buried ring (see Fig. E20)This solution is strongly recommended, particularly in the case of a new building. The electrode should be buried around the perimeter of the excavation made for the foundations. It is important that the bare conductor be in intimate contact with the soil (and not placed in the gravel or aggregate hard-core, often forming a base for concrete). At least four (widely-spaced) vertically arranged conductors from the electrode should be provided for the installation connections and, where possible, any reinforcing rods in concrete work should be connected to the electrode. The conductor forming the earth electrode, particularly when it is laid in an excavation for foundations, must be in the earth, at least 50 cm below the hard-core or aggregate base for the concrete foundation. Neither the electrode nor the vertical rising conductors to the ground floor, should ever be in contact with the foundation concrete. For existing buildings, the electrode conductor should be buried around the outside wall of the premises to a depth of at least 1 metre. As a general rule, all vertical connections from an electrode to above-ground level should be insulated for the nominal LV voltage (600-1000 V). The conductors may be: b  Copper: Bare cable ( u  25 mm 2 ) or multiple-strip ( u  25 mm 2  and  u  2 mm thick) b  Aluminium with lead jacket: Cable ( u  35 mm 2 ) b  Galvanised-steel cable: Bare cable ( u  95 mm 2 )   or multiple-strip ( u  100 mm 2  and  u  3  mm thick). The approximate resistance R of the electrode in ohms: R L = 2  ρ  where L = length of the buried conductor in metres ρ  = soil resistivity in ohm-metres whereL = length of conductor in metres ρ  = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see “Influence of the type of soil” next page). Earthing rods (see Fig. E21)Vertically driven earthing rods are often used for existing buildings, and for improving (i.e. reducing the resistance of) existing earth electrodes. The rods may be: b  Copper or (more commonly) copper-clad steel. The latter are generally 1   or 2 metres long and provided with screwed ends and sockets in order to reach considerable depths, if necessary (for instance, the water-table level in areas of high soil resistivity) b  Galvanised (see note (1) next page) steel pipe  u  25 mm diameter  or rod  u  15 mm diameter,  u  2 metres long in each case. A very effective method of obtaining a low-resistance earth connection is to bury a conductor in the form of a closed loop in  the soil at the bottom of the excavation  for building foundations.The resistance R of such an electrode  (in homogeneous soil) is given (approximately)   in ohms by:  R = 2 L ρ  where L = length of the buried conductor in metres ρ  = soil resistivity in ohm-metres Fig. E20 : Conductor buried below the level of the foundations,  i.e. not in the concrete For n rods:  Fig. E21 : Earthing rods Rods connected in parallel 4 L L  1  Earthing schemes R = 1 n L ρ

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E12 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed It is often necessary to use more than one rod, in which case the spacing between them should exceed the depth to which they are driven, by a factor of 2 to 3. The total resistance (in homogeneous soil) is then equal to the resistance of one rod, divided by the number of rods in question. The approximate resistance R obtained is:  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 R n L = 1 ρ whereL = the length of the rod in metres ρ  = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see “Influence of the type of soil” below) n = the number of rods Vertical plates (see  Fig. E43 ) Rectangular plates, each side of which must be  u  0.5 metres, are commonly used as earth electrodes, being buried in a vertical plane such that the centre of the plate isat least 1 metre below the surface of the soil. The plates may be: c  Copper of 2 mm thickness c  Galvanised  (1)  steel of 3 mm thickness The resistance R in ohms is given (approximately), by:   if the distance separating the rods 4 L whereL = the length of the rod in metres ρ  = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see “Influence of the type of soil” below) n = the number of rods. Vertical plates (see Fig. E22)Rectangular plates, each side of which must be  u  0.5 metres, are commonly used as  earth electrodes, being buried in a vertical plane such that the centre of the plate is at least 1 metre below the surface of the soil. The plates may be: b  Copper of 2 mm thickness b  Galvanised  (1)  steel of 3 mm thickness The resistance R in ohms is given (approximately), by: R L = 0.8  ρ (1) Where galvanised conducting materials are used for earthelectrodes, sacrificial cathodic protection anodes may benecessary to avoid rapid corrosion of the electrodes where thesoil is aggressive. Specially prepared magnesium anodes (in aporous sack filled with a suitable “soil”) are available for directconnection to the electrodes. In such circumstances, aspecialist should be consulted Measurements on earth electrodes in similarsoils are useful to determine the resistivity valueto be applied for the design of an earth-electrode system L = the perimeter of the plate in metres ρ  = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see “Influence of the type of soil” below). Influence of the type of soil For a vertical plate electrode:  (1) Where galvanised conducting materials are used for earth electrodes, sacrificial cathodic protection anodes may be necessary to avoid rapid corrosion of the electrodes where  the soil is aggressive. Specially prepared magnesium anodes (in a porous sack filled with a suitable “soil”) are available for direct connection to the electrodes. In such circumstances,  a specialist should be consulted Measurements on earth electrodes in similar soils are useful to determine the resistivity value to be applied for the design of an earth-electrode system Fig. E22 : Vertical plate 2 mm thickness (Cu) Fig. E23 : Resistivity ( Ω m) for different types of soil Fig. E24 : Average resistivity ( Ω m) values for approximate earth-elect Type of soil  Average value of resistivity    in  Ω m  Fertile soil, compacted damp fill  50 Arid soil, gravel, uncompacted non-uniform fill  500 Stoney soil, bare, dry sand, fissured rocks  3000 Type of soil  Mean value of resistivity    in  Ω m  Swampy soil, bogs   1 - 30 Silt alluvium  20 - 100 Humus, leaf mould  10 - 150 Peat, turf   5 - 100 Soft clay   50 Marl and compacted clay   100 - 200 Jurassic marl   30 - 40 Clayey sand   50 - 500 Siliceous sand   200 - 300 Stoney ground  1500 - 3000 Grass-covered-stoney sub-soil  300 - 500 Chalky soil  100 - 300 Limestone  1000 - 5000 Fissured limestone  500 - 1000 Schist, shale   50 - 300 Mica schist  800 Granite and sandstone  1500 - 10000 Modified granite and sandstone  100 - 600 R = 0.8 L ρ

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed E13 Measurement and constancy of the resistance between an earth electrode and the earth The resistance of the electrode/earth interface rarely remains constantAmong the principal factors affecting this resistance are the following: b  Humidity of the soil The seasonal changes in the moisture content of the soil can be significant at depths of up to 2 meters.At a depth of 1 metre the resistivity and therefore the resistance can vary by a ratio of 1 to 3 between a wet winter and a dry summer in temperate regions b  Frost Frozen earth can increase the resistivity of the soil by several orders of magnitude. This is one reason for recommending the installation of deep electrodes, in particular in cold climates b  Ageing The materials used for electrodes will generally deteriorate to some extent for various reasons, for example: v  Chemical reactions (in acidic or alkaline soils) v  Galvanic: due to stray DC currents in the earth, for example from electric railways,  etc. or due to dissimilar metals forming primary cells. Different soils acting on sections of the same conductor can also form cathodic and anodic areas with consequent loss of surface metal from the latter areas. Unfortunately, the most favourable conditions for low earth-electrode resistance (i.e. low soil resistivity) are also those in which galvanic currents can most easily flow. b  Oxidation Brazed and welded joints and connections are the points most sensitive to oxidation. Thorough cleaning of a newly made joint or connection and wrapping with a suitable greased-tape binding is a commonly used preventive measure. Measurement of the earth-electrode resistanceThere must always be one or more removable links to isolate an earth electrode so that it can be tested.There must always be removable links which allow the earth electrode to be isolated from the installation, so that periodic tests of the earthing resistance can be carried out. To make such tests, two auxiliary electrodes are required, each consisting of a vertically driven rod. b  Ammeter method (see Fig. E25). Fig. E25 : Measurement of the resistance to earth of the earth electrode of an installation by  means of an ammeter U A t2 T t1 A R R U i B R R U i C R R U i T t Tt t t t t t T t T = + = = + = = + = 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 When the source voltage U is constant (adjusted to be the same value for each test)then: When the source voltage U is constant (adjusted to be the same value for each test) then: R U i i i T = + − ⎛⎝ ⎜ ⎞⎠ ⎟ 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2  Earthing schemes 1  Earthing schemes

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations E14 © Schneider Electr ic - all r ights reser v ed 1  Earthing schemes In order to avoid errors due to stray earth currents (galvanic -DC- or leakage currents from power and communication networks and so on) the test current should be AC, but at a different frequency to that of the power system or any of its harmonics. Instruments using hand-driven generators to make these measurements usually produce an AC voltage at a frequency of between 85 Hz and 135 Hz. The distances between the electrodes are not critical and may be in different directions from the electrode being tested, according to site conditions. A number  of tests at different spacings and directions are generally made to cross-check the test results. b  Use of a direct-reading earthing-resistance ohmmeter These instruments use a hand-driven or electronic-type AC generator, together with two auxiliary electrodes, the spacing of which must be such that the zone of influence of the electrode being tested should not overlap that of the test electrode (C). The test electrode (C) furthest from the electrode (X) under test, passes a current through the earth and the electrode under test, while the second test electrode (P) picks up a voltage. This voltage, measured between (X) and (P), is due to the test current and is a measure of the contact resistance (of the electrode under test) with earth. It is clear that the distance (X) to (P) must be carefully chosen to give accurate results. If the distance (X) to (C) is increased, however, the zones of resistance of electrodes (X) and (C) become more remote, one from the other, and the curve of potential (voltage) becomes more nearly horizontal about the point (O). In practical tests, therefore, the distance (X) to (C) is increased until readings taken with electrode (P) at three different points, i.e. at (P) and at approximately 5 metres on either side of (P), give similar values. The distance (X) to (P) is generally about 0.68 of the distance (X) to (C). Fig. E26 : Measurement of the resistance to the mass of earth of electrode (X) using an earth- electrode-testing ohmmeter X C P O X P O C voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (X) voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (C) V G V G V G I a) the principle of measurement is based on assumed homogeneous soil conditions. Where the zones of influence of electrodes C and X overlap, the location of test electrode P is difficult to determine for satisfactory results. b) showing the effect on the potential gradient when (X) and (C) are widely spaced. The location of test electrode P is not critical and can be easily determined.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E15 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations 2  The installation system 2.1  Distribution switchboards A distribution switchboard is the point at which an incoming-power supply divides into separate circuits, each of which is controlled and protected by the fuses  or switchgear of the switchboard. A distribution switchboard is divided into a number of functional units, each comprising all the electrical and mechanical elements that contribute to the fulfilment of a given function. It represents a key link in  the dependability chain. Consequently, the type of distribution switchboard must be perfectly adapted to  its application. Its design and construction must comply with applicable standards and working practises. The distribution switchboard enclosure provides dual protection: b  Protection of switchgear, indicating instruments, relays, fusegear, etc. against  mechanical impacts, vibrations and other external influences likely to interfere with operational integrity (EMI, dust, moisture, vermin, etc.) b  The protection of human life against the possibility of direct and indirect electric  shock (see degree of protection IP and the IK index in section 3.3 of Chapter E). 2.1.1  Types of distribution switchboards Distribution switchboards may differ according to the kind of application  and the design principle adopted (notably in the arrangement of the busbars). Distribution switchboards according to specific applications The principal types of distribution switchboards are: b  The main LV switchboard - MLVS - (see Fig. E27a) b  Motor control centres - MCC - (see   Fig. E27b) b  Sub-distribution switchboards (see Fig. E28) b  Final distribution switchboards (see Fig. E29). Distribution switchboards for specific applications (e.g. heating, lifts, industrial processes) can be located: b  Adjacent to the main LV switchboard, or b  Near the application concerned. Sub-distribution and final distribution switchboards are generally distributed throughout the site. Distribution switchboards, including the main  LV switchboard (MLVS), are critical to the  dependability of an electrical installation.  They must comply with well-defined standards  governing the design and construction   of LV switchgear assemblies The load requirements dictate the type   of distribution switchboard to be installed Fig. E27 :  [a]  A main LV switchboard - MLVS - (Prisma Plus P) with incoming circuits in the form  of busways -  [b]  A LV motor control centre - MCC - (Okken) Fig. E28 : A sub-distribution switchboard (Prisma Plus G) Fig. E29 : Final distribution switchboards  [a]  Prisma Plus G Pack;  [b]  Kaedra;  [c]  mini-Pragma a b c a b

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E16 2.1.2  Two technologies of distribution switchboards Traditional distribution switchboardsSwitchgear and fusegear, etc. are normally located on a chassis at the rear  of the enclosure. Indications and control devices (meters, lamps, pushbuttons, etc.) are mounted on the front face of the switchboard.The placement of the components within the enclosure requires very careful study, taking into account the dimensions of each item, the connections to be made to it, and the clearances necessary to ensure safe and trouble-free operation.  Functional distribution switchboardsGenerally dedicated to specific applications, these distribution switchboards  are made up of functional modules that include switchgear devices together with standardised accessories for mounting and connections, ensuring a high level  of reliability and a great capacity for last-minute and future changes.  b  Many advantages The use of functional distribution switchboards has spread to all levels  of LV electrical distribution, from the main LV switchboard (MLVS) to final distribution switchboards, due to their many advantages: v  System modularity that makes it possible to integrate numerous functions in a  single distribution switchboard, including protection, control, technical management and monitoring of electrical installations. Modular design also enhances distribution switchboard maintenance, operation and upgrades v  Distribution switchboard design is fast because it simply involves adding functional  modules v  Prefabricated components can be mounted faster v  Finally, these distribution switchboards are subjected to type tests that ensure   a high degree of dependability. The new Prisma Plus G and P ranges of functional distribution switchboards from Schneider Electric cover needs up to 3200 A and offer: v  Flexibility and ease in building distribution switchboards v  Certification of a distribution switchboard complying with standard IEC 61439   and the assurance of servicing under safe conditions v  Time savings at all stages, from design to installation, operation and modifications  or upgrades v  Easy adaptation, for example to meet the specific work habits and standards   in different countriesFigures E27a, E28 and E29 show examples of functional distribution switchboards ranging for all power ratings and Figure E27b shows a high-power industrial functional distribution switchboard. b  Main types of functional units Three basic technologies are used in functional distribution switchboards. v  Fixed functional units (see Fig. E30) These units cannot be isolated from the supply so that any intervention  for maintenance, modifications and so on, requires the shutdown of the entire distribution switchboard. Plug-in or withdrawable devices can however be used to minimise shutdown times and improve the availability of the rest of the installation. v  Disconnectable functional units (see Fig. E31) Each functional unit is mounted on a removable mounting plate and provided with  a means of isolation on the upstream side (busbars) and disconnecting facilities  on the downstream (outgoing circuit) side. The complete unit can therefore be removed for servicing, without requiring a general shutdown. v  Drawer-type withdrawable functional units (see Fig. E32)  The switchgear and associated accessories for a complete function are mounted  on a drawer-type horizontally withdrawable chassis. The function is generally complex and often concerns motor control.Isolation is possible on both the upstream and downstream sides by the complete withdrawal of the drawer, allowing fast replacement of a faulty unit without de-energising the rest of the distribution switchboard. A distinction is made between: b  Traditional distribution switchboards in which  switchgear and fusegear, etc. are fixed to    a chassis at the rear of an enclosure b  Functional distribution switchboards   for specific applications, based on modular    and standardised design. Fig. E30 : Assembly of a final distribution switchboard with fixed  functional units (Prisma Plus G) Fig. E31 : Distribution switchboard with disconnectable functional  units Fig. E32 : Distribution switchboard with withdrawable functional  units in drawers

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E17 2.1.3  Standards IEC 61439 The IEC standard series 61439 ("Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies") have been developed in order to provide to the End-Users  of switchboards a high level of confidence in terms of safety and power availability. Safety aspects include: b  Safety of people (risk of electrocution), b  Risk of fire, b  Risk of explosion. Power availability is a major issue in many activity sectors, with high possible economical impact in case of long interruption consecutive to a switchboard failure. The standards give the design and verification requirements so that no failure should be expected in case of fault, disturbance, or operation in severe environment conditions. Compliance to the standards shall ensure that the switchboard will operate correctly not only in normal conditions, but also in difficult conditions. Standard structure The IEC 61439 standard series consist in one basic standard giving the general rules, and several other standards referring to different types of assemblies. b  IEC/TR 61439-1: General rules b  IEC 61439-2: Power switchgear and controlgear assemblies b  IEC 61439-3: Distribution boards intended to be operated by ordinary persons  (DBO) b  IEC 61439-4: Particular requirements for assemblies for construction sites (ACS) b  IEC 61439-5: Assemblies for power distribution in public networks b  IEC 61439-6: Busbar trunking systems (busways) b  IEC/TS 61439-7: Assemblies for specific applications such as marinas, camping sites, market squares, electric vehicles charging stations. The first edition (IEC 61439-1 and 2) of these documents has been published  in 2009, with a revision in 2011. Major improvements with IEC61439 standard Compared to the previous series IEC60439, several major improvements have beenintroduced, for the benefit of the End-User. Requirements based on End-User expectationsThe different requirements included in the standards have been introduced in order to fulfil the End-User expectations: b  Capability to operate the electrical installation, b  Voltage stress withstand capability, b  Current carrying capability, b  Short-circuit withstand capability, b  Electro-Magnetic Compatibility, b  Protection against electric shock, b  Maintenance and modifying capabilities, b  Ability to be installed on site, b  Protection against risk of fire, b  Protection against environmental conditions. 2  The installation system Compliance with applicable standards isessential in order to ensure an adequatedegree of dependability Three elements of standards IEC 61439-1 & 2 contribute significantly to dependability: b  Clear definition of functional units b  Forms of separation between adjacent functional units in accordance with userrequirements b  Clearly defined verification tests and routine verification

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E18 Clear definition of responsibilitiesThe role of the different actors has been clearly defined, and can be summarized  by the following Figure E32b. Switchboards are qualified as Assembly, including switching devices, control, measuring, protective, regulating equipment, with all the internal electrical and mechanical interconnections and structural parts. Assembly systems include mechanical and electrical components (enclosures, busbars, functional units, etc.). The original manufacturer is the organization that has carried out the original design and the associated verification of an assembly in accordance with the relevant standard. He is responsible for the Design verifications listed by IEC 61439-2 including many electrical tests. The verification may be supervised by a Certification body, providing certificates to the Original Manufacturer. These certificates can be conveyed to the Specifier  or End-User at their request. The assembly manufacturer, generally a Panel Builder, is the organization takingresponsibility for the completed assembly. The assembly must be completed according to the original manufacturer's instructions. If the assembly manufacturer derivates from the instructions of the original manufacturer he has to carry out again new design verifications.Such deviations should also be submitted to the original manufacturer for validation. At the end of assembly, routine verifications must be carried out by the assembly manufacturer (Panel-builder). The result is a fully tested assembly, for which design verifications have been carried out by the original manufacturer, and routine verifications carried out by the assembly manufacturer. This procedure gives a better visibility to the end-user, compared to the "Partially Type Tested" and "Totally Type Tested" approach proposed by the previous IEC60439 series. Clarifications of design verification, new or updated design requirements    and routine verifications The new IEC61439 standards also include: b  updated or new design requirements (example: new lifting test) b  highly clarified design verifications to be made, and the acceptable methods  which can be used (or not) to do these verifications, for each type of requirement.  See Fig. E32c for more details b  a more detailed list of routine verifications, and more severe requirements for clearances. The following paragraphs provide details on these evolutions. Design requirements For an Assembly System or switchboard to be compliant with the standards, differentrequirements are applicable. These requirements are of 2 types: b  Constructional requirements b  Performance requirements. See Fig. E32c in “design verification” paragraph for the detailed list of requirements.The design of the assembly system must follow these requirements, under the responsibility of the original manufacturer. Design verification Design verification, under the responsibility of the original manufacturer, is intended to verify compliance of the design of an assembly or assembly system with the requirements of this series of standards. Design verification can be carried out by: b  Testing, which should be done on the most onerous variant (worst-case) b  Calculation, including use of appropriate safety margins b  Comparison with a tested reference design. The new IEC61439 standard have clarified a lot the definition of the different verification methods, and specifies very clearly which of these 3 methods can be used for each type of design verification, as shown in Fig. E32c.  Fig. E32b : Main actors and responsibilities, as defined    by the IEC 61439-1&2 standard Certification body Original Manufacturer Assembly system Project Specification Tested assembly Specifier Assembly Manufacturer (Panel Builder) End-user

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E19 2  The installation system No. Characteristic to be verified Clauses or subclauses Verification options available Testing Comparison with  a reference design Assessment 1 Strength of material and parts: 10.2 Resistance to corrosion 10.2.2 YES NO NO Properties of insulatingmaterials: 10.2.3 Thermal stability 10.2.3.1 YES NO NO Resistance to abnormal heat and fire due to internal electric effects 10.2.3.2 YES NO YES Resistance to ultra-violet (UV) radiation 10.2.4 YES NO YES Lifting 10.2.5 YES NO NO Mechanical impact 10.2.6 YES NO NO Marking 10.2.7 YES NO NO 2 Degree of protection of enclosures 10.3 YES NO YES 3 Clearances 10.4 YES NO NO 4 Creepage distances 10.4 YES NO NO 5 Protection against electric shock and integrity of protective circuits: 10.5 Effective continuity between the exposed conductive parts of the ASSEMBLY and the protective circuit 10.5.2 YES NO NO Short-circuit withstand strength of the protective circuit 10.5.3 YES YES NO 6 Incorporation of switching devices and components 10.6 NO NO YES 7 Internal electrical circuits and connections 10.7 NO NO YES 8 Terminals for external conductors 10.8 NO NO YES 9 Dielectric properties: 10.9 Power-frequency withstand voltage 10.9.2 YES NO NO Impulse withstand voltage 10.9.3 YES NO YES 10 Temperature-rise limits 10.10 YES YES YES (1)   11 Short-circuit withstand strength 10.11 YES YES (2) NO 12 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 10.12 YES NO YES 13 Mechanical operation 10.13 YES NO NO (1)  Verification of temperature-rise limits by assessment (e.g. calculation) has been restricted and clarified with IEC61439 standard. As a synthesis: b  For rated current 1600 A, NO CALCULATION, ONLY TESTS PERMITTED b  For rated current 1600 A, CALCULATION is permitted based on IEC60890, but with a mandatory 20 % de-rating of the components. (2)  Verification of short-circuit withstand strength by comparison with a reference design has been clarified with IEC61439 standard. In practice, in most  cases it is mandatory to do this verification by testing (type-testing), and in any case  the comparison with a reference design is only possible for short-circuit  protection devices of the same manufacturer , and provided that all other elements of a very strict comparison checklist are verified (Table 13 – “Short-circuit  verification by comparison with a reference design: check list” of IEC61439-1). Fig. E32c : List of design verifications to be performed, and verification options available (table D.1 of Annex D of IEC61439-1)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E20 Routine verification Routine verification is intended to detect faults in materials and workmanship and  to ascertain proper functioning of the manufactured assemblies. It is under the responsibility of the Assembly Manufacturer or Panel Builder. Routine verification is performed on each manufactured assembly or assembly system. Check to be carried out: A precise approach The new IEC 61439 series introduces a precise approach, intended to give  to switchboards the right level of quality and performance expected by End-Users. Detailed design requirements are given, and a clear verification process is proposed, which differentiates design verification and routine verification. Responsibilities are clearly defined between the original manufacturer, responsible for the design, and assembly manufacturer, responsible for assembly and delivery  to the End-User. Functional units The same standard defines functional units: b  Part of an assembly comprising all the electrical and mechanical elements that  contribute to the fulfilment of the same function b  The distribution switchboard includes an incoming functional unit and one or more  functional units for outgoing circuits, depending on the operating requirements of the installation.What is more, distribution switchboard technologies use functional units that may be fixed, disconnectable or withdrawable (see section 4.2 of Chapter D & Fig. E30, E31, E32). Forms  (see Fig. E33) Separation of functional units within the assembly is provided by forms that are specified for different types of operation.The various forms are numbered from 1 to 4 with variations labelled “a” or “b”. Each step up (from 1 to 4) is cumulative, i.e. a form with a higher number includes the characteristics of forms with lower numbers. The standard distinguishes: b  Form 1: No separation b  Form 2: Separation of busbars from the functional units b  Form 3: Separation of busbars from the functional units and separation of all  functional units, one from another, except at their output terminals b  Form 4: As for Form 3, but including separation of the outgoing terminals of all  functional units, one from another. Fig. E32d : List of routine verifications to be performed Routine verification Visual inspection Tests Degree of protection of enclosures b Clearances b - if D minimum clearance: verification by  an impulse voltage withstand test - if not evident by visual inspection to be larger than the minimum clearance (e.g. if D 1.5 times minimum clearance),  verification shall be by physical  measurement or by an impulse voltage withstand test Creepage distances  b or measurement if visual inspection not applicable Protection against electric shock  and integrity of protective circuits b random verification of tightness of the  connections of protective circuit Incorporation of built-in components b Internal electrical circuits  and connections b or random verification of tightness Terminals for external conductors number, type and identification    of terminals Mechanical operation b effectiveness of mechanical actuating elements locks and interlocks, including those associated with removable parts Dielectric properties power-frequency dielectric test or  verification of insulating resistance (from  250 A) Wiring, operational performance  and function b verification of completeness of information  & markings, inspection of wiring and function test where relevant

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E21 The decision on which form to implement results from an agreement between the manufacturer and the user.The Prima Plus functional range offers solutions for forms 1, 2b, 3b, 4a, 4b. Fig. E33 : Representation of different forms of LV functional distribution switchboards Form 1 Form 2a Form 2b Form 3a Busbar Separation Form 3b Form 4a Form 4b Beyond the standard In spite of the improvement provided by this new standard series, there are still some limitations. In particular, for an Assembly manufacturer or Panel Builder combining equipment and devices from different sources (manufacturers), the design verification cannot be complete. All the different combinations of equipment from different sources cannot be tested at the design stage. With this approach, the compliance with the standard cannot be obtained in all particular configurations. Compliance is limited to a reduced number of configurations. In this situation, End-users are encouraged to ask for test certificates corresponding to their particular configuration, and not only valid for generic configurations. On the other hand, IEC 61439 sets strict limitation to the device substitution by a device from another series, for temperature rise and short-circuit withstand verification in particular. Only substitution of devices of the same make and series, i.e. same manufacturer and with the same or better limitation characteristics (I 2 t,  Ipk), can guarantee that the level of performance is maintained. As a consequence, substitution by another device not of same manufacturer can only be verified  by testing (e.g. “type-testing) to comply to IEC61439 standard and guarantee the safety of the Assembly. By contrast, in addition to the requirements given by the IEC 61439 series, a full system approach as proposed by a manufacturer like Schneider Electric provides a maximum level of confidence. All the different parts of the assembly are provided by the Original Manufacturer. Not only generic combinations are tested, but all the possible combinations permitted by the Assembly design are tested and verified. The high level of performance is obtained through Protection Coordination, where the combined operation of protective and switching devices with internal electrical and mechanical interconnections and structural parts is guaranteed. All these devices have been consistently designed with this objective in mind. All the relevant device combinations are tested. There is less risk left compared with assessment through calculations or based only on catalogued data. (Protection coordination  is further explained in chapter H of this Guide.). Only the full system approach can provide the necessary peace of mind  to the End-user, whatever the possible disturbance in his electrical installation. 2  The installation system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E22 Total accessibility of electrical information and intelligent distribution switchboards are now a reality Two types of distribution are possible: b  By insulated wires and cables b  By busbar trunking (busways) 2.1.4  Remote monitoring and control of the electrical installation Remote monitoring and control are no longer limited to large installations.These functions are increasingly used and provide considerable cost savings. The main potential advantages are: b  Reductions in energy bills b  Reductions in structural costs to maintain the installation in running order b  Better use of the investment, notably concerning optimisation of the installation life  cycle b  Greater satisfaction for energy users (in a building or in process industries) due to  improved power availability and/or quality.The above possibilities are all the more an option given the current deregulation  of the electrical-energy sector.Modbus is increasingly used as the open standard for communication within  the distribution switchboard and between the distribution switchboard and customer power monitoring and control applications. Modbus exists in two forms, twisted pair (RS 485) and Ethernet-TCP/IP (IEEE 802.3).The www.modbus.org site presents all bus specifications and constantly updates the list of products and companies using the open industrial standard.The use of web technologies has largely contributed to wider use by drastically reducing the cost of accessing these functions through the use of an interface that  is now universal (web pages) and a degree of openness and upgradeability that simply did not exist just a few years ago. 2.2  Cables and busways  Distribution by insulated conductors and cables Definitions b  Conductor A conductor comprises a single metallic core with or without an insulating envelope.  b  Cable A cable is made up of a number of conductors, electrically separated, but joined mechanically, generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath. b  Cableway The term cableway refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means  of support and protection, etc. for example : cable trays, ladders, ducts, trenches,  and so on… are all “cableways”. Conductor markingConductor identification must always respect the following three rules: b  Rule 1 The double colour green and yellow is strictly reserved for the PE and PEN protection conductors b  Rule 2 v  When a circuit comprises a neutral conductor, it must be light blue or marked “1”  for cables with more than five conductors v  When a circuit does not have a neutral conductor, the light blue conductor may be  used as a phase conductor if it is part of a cable with more than one conductor b  Rule 3 Phase conductors may be any colour except: v  Green and yellow v  Green v  Yellow v  Light blue (see rule 2).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E23 Number of   Circuit  Fixed cableways  conductors      Insulated conductors    Rigid and flexible multi-    in circuit         conductor  cables     Ph Ph Pn N  PE Ph Ph Ph N  PE  1  Protection  or  earth      G/Y        2  Single-phase between phases  b   b      BL  LB        Single-phase between phase and neutral  b     LB   BL    LB      Single-phase between phase and neutral   b     G/Y   BL    G/Y    + protection conductor    3  Three-phase without neutral  b   b   b      BL  B LB        2 phases + neutral  b   b    LB   BL  B   LB      2 phases + protection conductor  b   b     G/Y  BL  LB    G/Y   Single-phase between phase and neutral   b       LB G/Y  BL     LB G/Y    + protection conductor  4  Three-phase with neutral  b   b   b   LB   BL B  BL LB     Three-phase with neutral + protection conductor  b   b   b    G/Y  BL  B LB    G/Y   2 phases + neutral + protection conductor  b   b     LB G/Y  BL B    LB G/Y   Three-phase with PEN conductor  b   b   b   G/Y   BL  B  LB  G/Y   5  Three-phase + neutral + protection conductor  b   b   b   LB G/Y  BL B  BL LB G/Y 5    Protection conductor: G/Y - Other conductors: BL: with numbering      The number “1” is reserved for the neutral conductor if it exists    G/Y: Green and yellow  BL: Black  b : As indicated in rule 3  LB: Light blue  B: Brown Fig. E34 : Conductor identification according to the type of circuit Fig. E35 : Conductor identification on a circuit breaker with a  phase and a neutral Black conductor N Light blue conductor Heating, etc. Building utilities sub-distribution swichboard  Main LV switchboard (MLVS) Finaldistributionswichboard Floor sub-distributionswichboard Fig. E36 : Radial distribution using cables in a hotel Note: If the circuit includes a protection conductor and if the available cable does  not have a green and yellow conductor, the protection conductor may be: b  A separate green and yellow conductor b  The blue conductor if the circuit does not have a neutral conductor b  A black conductor if the circuit has a neutral conductor. In the last two cases, the conductor used must be marked by green and yellow bands or markings at the ends and on all visible lengths of the conductor. Equipment power cords are marked similar to multi-conductor cables (see Fig. E35). Distribution and installation methods (see Fig. E36)Distribution takes place via cableways that carry single insulated conductors  or cables and include a fixing system and mechanical protection. 2  The installation system Conductors in a cable are identified either by their colour or by numbers (see Fig.  E34).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E24 Busways, also referred to as busbar trunking systems, stand out for their ease of installation,  flexibility and number of possible connection  points Fig. E37 : Busbar trunking system design for distribution of currents from 25 to 4000 A Straight trunking Tap-off points to distribute current Fixing system for ceilings, walls or  raised floor, etc. End piece Power Unit Range of clip-on tap-off units to connect a load (e.g.: a machine) to the busbar trunking Angle Fig. E38 : Radial distribution using busways Busbar trunking (busways) Busbar trunking is intended to distribute power (from 20 A to 5000 A) and lighting (in this application, the busbar trunking may play a dual role of supplying electrical power and physically holding the lights).  Busbar trunking system components  A busbar trunking system comprises a set of conductors protected by an enclosure (see Fig. E37). Used for the transmission and distribution of electrical power, busbar trunking systems have all the necessary features for fitting: connectors, straights, angles, fixings, etc. The tap-off points placed at regular intervals make power available at every point in the installation. The various types of busbar trunking: Busbar trunking systems are present at every level in electrical distribution: from the link between the transformer and the low voltage switch switchboard (MLVS) to the distribution of power sockets and lighting to offices, or power distribution  to workshops. We talk about a distributed network architecture.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E25 There are essentially three categories of busways. b  Transformer to MLVS busbar trunking Installation of the busway may be considered as permanent and will most likely never be modified. There are no tap-off points.Frequently used for short runs, it is almost always used for ratings above 1600 / 2000 A, i.e. when the use of parallel cables makes installation impossible. Busways are also used between the MLVS and downstream distribution switchboards.The characteristics of main-distribution busways authorize operational currents from1000 to 5000 A and short-circuit withstands up to 150 kA. b  Sub-distribution busbar trunking with low or high tap-off densities Downstream of main-distribution busbar trunking, two types of applications must be supplied: v  Mid-sized premises (industrial workshops with injection presses and metalwork  machines or large supermarkets with heavy loads). The short-circuit and currentlevels can be fairly high (respectively 20 to 70 kA and 100 to 1000 A) v  Small sites (workshops with machine-tools, textile factories with small machines, supermarkets with small loads). The short-circuit and current levels are lower (respectively 10 to 40 kA and 40 to 400 A)Sub-distribution using busbar trunking meets user needs in terms of: v  Modifications and upgrades given the high number of tap-off points v  Dependability and continuity of service because tap-off units can be connected under energized conditions in complete safety.The sub-distribution concept is also valid for vertical distribution in the form of 100  to 5000 A risers in tall buildings. b  Lighting distribution busbar trunking Lighting circuits can be distributed using two types of busbar trunking according  to whether the lighting fixtures are suspended from the busbar trunking or not. v  busbar trunking designed for the suspension of lighting fixtures These busways supply and support light fixtures (industrial reflectors, dischargelamps, etc.). They are used in industrial buildings, supermarkets, department storesand warehouses. The busbar trunkings are very rigid and are designed for one  or two 25 A or 40 A circuits. They have tap-off outlets every 0.5 to 1 m. v  busbar trunking not designed for the suspension of lighting fixtures Similar to prefabricated cable systems, these busways are used to supply all typesof lighting fixtures secured to the building structure. They are used in commercialbuildings (offices, shops, restaurants, hotels, etc.), especially in false ceilings. Thebusbar trunking is flexible and designed for one 20 A circuit. It has tap-off outletsevery 1.2 m to 3 m. Busbar trunking systems are suited to the requirements of a large number  of buildings. b  Industrial buildings: garages, workshops, farm buildings, logistic centers, etc. b  Commercial areas: stores, shopping malls, supermarkets, hotels, etc. b  Tertiary buildings: offices, schools, hospitals, sports rooms, cruise liners, etc. Standards Busbar trunking systems must meet all rules stated in IEC 61439-6. This defines the manufacturing arrangements to be complied with in the design of busbar trunking systems (e.g.: temperature rise characteristics, short-circuit withstand, mechanical strength, etc.) as well as test methods to check them.The new standard IEC61439-6 describes in particular the design verifications  and routine verifications required to ensure compliance.By assembling the system components on the site according to the assembly instructions, the contractor benefits from conformity with the standard. The advantages of busbar trunking systems Flexibility b  Easy to change configuration (on-site modification to change production line  configuration or extend production areas).  b  Reusing components (components are kept intact): when an installation is subject  to major modifications, the busbar trunking is easy to dismantle and reuse. b  Power availability throughout the installation (possibility of having a tap-off point  every meter). b  Wide choice of tap-off units. 2  The installation system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E26 Fig. E39 : Example of a set of 14 x 25A loads distributed along 34 meters (for busway, Canalis KS 250A) Simplicity b  Design can be carried out independently from the distribution and layout of current  consumers.  b  Performances are independent of implementation: the use of cables requires   a lot of derating coefficients. b  Clear distribution layout b  Reduction of fitting time: the trunking system allows fitting times to be reduced by  up to 50 % compared with a traditional cable installation. b  Manufacturer’s guarantee. b  Controlled execution times: the trunking system concept guarantees that there are  no unexpected surprises when fitting. The fitting time is clearly known in advance and a quick solution can be provided to any problems on site with this adaptable  and scalable equipment. b  Easy to implement: modular components that are easy to handle, simple and quick  to connect. Dependability b  Reliability guaranteed by being factory-built b  Fool-proof units  b   Sequential assembly of straight components and tap-off units making it impossible  to make any mistakes Continuity of service b   The large number of tap-off points makes it easy to supply power to any new  current consumer. Connecting and disconnecting is quick and can be carried out in complete safety even when energized. These two operations (adding or modifying) take place without having to stop operations. b   Quick and easy fault location since current consumers are near to the line b   Maintenance is non existent or greatly reduced. Major contribution to sustainable development b   Busbar trunking systems allow circuits to be combined. Compared with a  traditional cable distribution system, consumption of raw materials for insulators  is divided by 4 due to the busbar trunking distributed network concept (see Fig. E39). b   Reusable device and all of its components are fully recyclable. b   Does not contain PVC and does not generate toxic gases or waste. b   Reduction of risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields. New functional features for Canalis Busbar trunking systems are getting even better.  Among the new features we can mention: b   Increased performance with a IP55 protection index and new ratings of 160 A  through to 1000 A (Ks). b   New lighting offers with pre-cabled lights and new light ducts.  b   New fixing accessories.  Quick fixing system, cable ducts, shared support with  “VDI” (voice, data, images) circuits. I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 14 I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 14 .......... .......... Distribution type Insulation material Power losses along life cycle 1 600 Joules 23 kg 2 000 Joules 90 kg Decentralized ks: diversity factor = 0.6 ks: diversity factor = 0.6 Centralized R R R R R Σ I xks Σ I xks R R R R R

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E27 Fig. E41 : Rigid busbar trunking able to support light fittings: Canalis KBA or KBB (25 and 40 A) Fig. E43 : A busway for medium power distribution: Canalis KN (40 up to 160 A) Busbar trunking systems are perfectly integrated with the environment: b   white color to enhance the working environment, naturally integrated in a range   of electrical distribution products. b   conformity with European regulations on reducing hazardous materials (RoHS). Examples of Canalis busbar trunking systems 2  The installation system Fig. E44 : A busway for medium power distribution: Canalis KS (100 up to 1000 A) Fig. E45 : A busway for high power distribution: Canalis KT (800 up to 5000 A)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E28 2.3  Harmonic currents in the selection of busbar trunking systems (busways) 2.3.1 Introduction Harmonic current is generated by most modern electronic loads, which can be found in all sectors of Industrial, Commercial, and domestic facilities. These electronic loads use power electronic devices which are responsible for generating harmonic currents. Common non-linear loads: b  Industrial equipment (Soldering machines, Induction furnaces, bridge rectifiers   and battery chargers) b  Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) with AC or DC motors b  Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) b  Information Technology Equipment (computers, monitors, servers, copiers,  printers, etc.) b  Domestic equipment (TV sets, microwave ovens, fluorescent lamps, light dimmers,  etc.). Fig. E46 :  Appearance of a distorted current waveform due to harmonics Distorted wave Fundamental Harmonic Today’s electronic loads share a common element: electronic power supplies.  The benefits of the electronic power supply are its cost, efficiency and the ability  to control its output. For this reason, they are found in a wide variety of common single and three-phase electrical equipment. Harmonic currents are a natural  by-product of the manner in which electronic power supplies draw current. In order  to be more efficient, these devices draw current for only a small portion of the electrical cycle.Installations where these devices can be found in great number are computer centers, banks, Internet Data Centers etc. Harmonic currents generated by these loads present some problems: b  Voltage distortion responsible for failure of some types of electrical equipment b  Increased losses, the rms current being higher than the fundamental design  current b  Risk of resonance when power factor correction capacitors are present. Third harmonic currents (150/180 Hz) or multiple of 3 (triple-n harmonics) are specifically responsible for increased neutral currents in three-phase, four-wire systems.That the reason why it’s important to select optimum busbar design for office buildings, where neutral conductor overload is a major concern.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E29 2.3.2 Neutral current in three-phase, four-wire systems Figure E47 represents the non-linear phase currents and resulting non-linear neutral current, in a three-phase, four-wire system, supplying identical single phase loads. Fig. E47 :  Line and neutral currents absorbed by single-phase  non-linear loads connected between phase and neutral. Fig. E49 :  Typical harmonic phase current spectrum for single- phase non-linear loads Fig. E50 :  Typical harmonic neutral current spectrum for   single-phase non-linear loads The harmonic spectra of the phase and neutral currents are represented  in Figure E49 and Figure E50. It can be seen that the neutral current only includes third or triple-n harmonics (i.e. 3, 9, 15, etc). The amplitude of these currents are equal to three times the amplitude of the phase currents. In the neutral current measurements, third harmonic has the greatest magnitude and the other triple-n’s  (9, 15, 21, etc.) decrease significantly in magnitude so do not contribute significantly to the rms value. In this example, the rms value of the neutral current is equal to 1.732 ( √ 3) times  the rms value of the line current. This theoretical value is only obtained with loads absorbing a current similar to the one represented on   Figure E47. When the loads include partially linear circuits (such as motors, heating devices, incandescent lamps), the rms value of the neutral current is strictly less than  √ 3  times the rms value of the phase currents. Fig. E48 :  Examples of applications where the level of harmonics (THD) is either negligible or  high, depending on the proportion of loads generating harmonics versus classical loads. Workshops supply: b   Mix polluting charges and clean charges  (computer hardware, inverters, fluorescent lighting and motors, pumps, heaters, etc.). - Little probability of harmonic's presence THD 33 % Offices supply: b   A lot of polluting charges (computer  hardware, inverters, fluorescent lighting, etc.). - Strong probability of harmonic's presence THD  u  33 % 2  The installation system 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 (A) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Harmonic order 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Harmonic order (A) t t t (A) 400 200 -200 -400 0 400 200 -200 -400 0 400 200 -200 -400 0 400 200 -200 -400 0 Ir 0.02 0 0.04 Is It In t (s)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E30 2.3.3 Load factor of the neutral conductor Simulations have been carried out to assess the influence of the 3rd harmonic level on the neutral conductor current. Figure E51 represents different line current waveforms for different amounts of non-linear load. The same active power was maintained (linear loads are assumed purely resistive).  The neutral current is then calculated and compared to the line current for different levels of third harmonic. The load factor of the neutral conductor (ratio of the neutral current to the line current) is represented in   Figure E52. In installations where there are a large number of single-phase electronic  non-linear loads connected to the same neutral, a high load factor can be found  in that neutral.  In these installations the neutral current may exceed the phase current  and a special attention must be given to sizing the neutral conductor. This prevents  the installation of a reduced size neutral conductor, and the current in all four wires should be taken into account. The diversified power absorbed by such a group of loads is generally limited,  and even if the neutral current exceeds the line current, then the neutral conductor capacity is only exceeded in extreme circumstances if its size is equal to the line conductor's. A common practice in these conditions is to use a 200 % neutral conductor. This does not form part of the electrical/ building regulations, but is encouraged by organizations such as the Copper Development Association. In high power installations ( 100 kVA or 150 A), various factors contribute to reduce the neutral conductor load factor: b   More and more high quality IT equipment (work stations, servers, routers, PC,  UPS, etc.) include Power Factor Correction circuits, reducing considerably  the generation of 3 rd  harmonic currents Fig. E51 :  Line current for different ratios of non-linear load Fig. E52 :  Neutral conductor load factor as a function   of the 3 rd  harmonic level. b   HVAC equipment in large buildings are supplied by a three-phase network,   and as such do not produce triple-n harmonic currents b   Fluorescent lighting equipment (with magnetic or electronic ballast) generates  triple-n harmonic currents which are phase shifted with harmonic currents generated by PCs, giving a partial vector cancellation. Except in exceptional circumstances, the 3 rd  harmonic level in these  installations does not exceed 33 %, so the neutral current does not exceed the line currents. It is not therefore necessary to use an oversized neutral conductor. Fig. E53:   Double-neutral installation for cable solution is not directly applicable for busway  solution, due to their very different thermal dissipation behaviour. 0 0.01 30% 0.0 100 0 time (s) Line currents (% of the fundamental current ) 60% 100% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 HL Neutral conductor load factor: I   / I

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E31 2.3.4 Effects of harmonic currents on circuit conductors The circulation of harmonic currents produces additional heating within  the conductors for several reasons: b   Heat is produced as a result of the additional high levels of triple-n harmonic  currents, compared with the relatively minimal current flowing in the neutral  for normal balanced linear loads. b   Additional heating of all conductors by increase of the skin effect and eddy current  losses due to the circulation of all harmonic orders. Modeling separately the power losses created by each harmonic order reveals the impact of harmonic currents in busbar trunking systems. Heat measurements performed on busbar trunking systems with circulation of harmonic currents  of different frequencies has been also been considered. The same approach has been used to compare two different type of busbar construction both with the same total cross sectional area (c.s.a.) of active conductors, a 200 % neutral and a standard 100 % neutral. This can be seen  in Figure E55. Placed in the same conditions, a busbar trunking system with 4 identical conductors will have a lower temperature rise than a 200 % busbar with the same total c.s.a.  It is then perfectly adapted to this situation. Of course, the selection of the size  of the conductors must take the possible current flowing through the neutral conductor into account. Fig. E55 :  Cross section architecture of 2 different busbar  systems Fig. E54 :  Illustration of the overheating risk with standard busway sizing in presence of high level  of 3rd harmonics 2  The installation system L1 L2 L3 N L1 L2 L3 N +33% 3rd order  harmonics (150Hz): ih3 Unusual Overheating Unusual Overheating Fundamental frequency (50 Hz): ih1 Fundamental frequency (50 Hz): ih1 200% Neutral Cross Section 100% Neutral Cross Section Fig. E56 :  The most effective solution = reduce the current density in ALL conductors, by  selecting proper busway rating (single-neutral) L1 L2 L3 N L1 L2 L3 N

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E32 2.3.5 Simplified selection procedure The first step in the selection procedure for busbar trunking systems is to assess  the phase currents and 3 rd  harmonic current level. Note: the 3 rd  harmonic current level has an impact on the neutral current,   and consequently on the rating of all components in the installation: b  Switchboard, b  Protection and dispatching switchgear, b  Cables and busbar trunking systems. Depending on the estimated 3 rd  harmonic level, 3 cases are possible: A) 3 rd  harmonic level below 15 % (ih3  ≤  15 %): The neutral conductor is considered as not loaded. The size of the phase conductors is only dependant on the phase currents. According to IEC rules, the neutral conductor size may be smaller than the phase conductors', if the cross section area is higher than 16 mm² for copper, or 25 mm² for aluminum. B) 3 rd  harmonic level between 15 and 33 % (15 ih3  ≤  33 %) The neutral conductor is considered as current-carrying conductor.The practical current shall be reduced by a factor equal to 84 % (or inversely, select a busbar with a practical current equal to the phase current divided by 0.84. Generally, this leads to the selection of a busbar trunking system, which the current rating is immediately superior to the requested capacity.The size of the neutral conductor shall be equal to that of the phases. C) 3 rd  harmonic level higher than 33 % (ih 33 %) The neutral conductor is considered as a current-carrying conductor.The recommended approach is to adopt circuit conductors with equal size  for phase and neutral. The neutral current is predominant in the selection of the size of conductor.Generally, this leads to the selection of a busbar trunking system which current rating is higher than the requested capacity (generally by a factor of two). Rating (A) No harmonic Usual harmonic level Very high level 1000 KTC1000 KTC1000HRB KTC1350HRB 1350 KTC1350 KTC1350HRB KTC1600HRB 1600 KTC1600 KTC1600HRB KTC2000HRB 2000 KTC2000 KTC2000HRB KTC2500HRB 2500 KTC2500 KTC2500HRB KTC3200HRB 3200 KTC3200 KTC3200HRB KTC4000HRB 4000 KTC4000 KTC4000HRB 5000 KTC5000 Example for KT Schneider-Electric offer:

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E33 2.3.6 Conclusions Office buildings are often subject to the circulation of high levels of triple-n harmonics in particular 3 rd  harmonic current. These are responsible for possible overload   of the neutral conductor. The performance of standard construction busbar trunking system with circulation  of harmonic currents has been analyzed in depth.A simplified procedure has been proposed for selection of busbar trunking systems adapted to the circulation of harmonic currents, and particularly in the neutral conductor. A 200 % neutral conductor is not the optimum solution. Busbar trunking systems with equal size for all conductors are perfectly adapted  to harmonic distortion. The design is valid as long as the design for a realistic neutral overload is taken into consideration and is applied to the whole system. The raw material and performance optimization for more guarantees Figue E58 shows the comparison between 2 busway constructions. The test conditions are the same for both cases: b  Phase current: IL = 1600 A b  3rd harmonic level: ih3 = 33% b  Neutral current: IN = 1520 A Placed in the same conditions, a busbar trunking system with 4 identical conductors will have a lower temperature rise than a 200 % busbar with the same total c.s.a.  It is then perfectly adapted to this situation. Of course, the selection of the size  of the conductors must take the possible current flowing through the neutral conductor into account. Coherent system approach The approach on busway dedicated to harmonics network performance is a solution approach. The busway is optimized but completely in accordance with the electrical devices connected on it: b   Tap-off unit b   Circuit breakers b   Number of cables. 200 % Neutral 100 % Neutral Phase conductor c.s.a. (mm²) 960 1200 Neutral c.s.a. (mm²) 1920 1200 Total c.s.a. (mm²) 4800 4800 Temperature rise (°K) 200 % Neutral 100 % Neutral Phase conductor (average) 63.5 41.5 Neutral conductor 56 39 Casing (maximum)  55 39 Fig. E57 :  Cross sectional view of a standard busway  without  and with harmonics Fig. E58:   Comparison between double-neutral busway solution and properly selected   single-neutral solution 2  The installation system Standard solution Overheating of conductors. No harmonics With harmonics Double neutral solution Fig. E59 :  Coherent system approach for all components of the  electrical installation The double neutral  does not deal wih all theadditionnal temperaturerise Even though the total cross-section for all conductors is exactly the same for the 2 busways solutions

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E34 3  External influences  (IEC 60364-5-51) 3.1  Definition and reference standards Every electrical installation occupies an environment that presents a variable degree of risk: b  For people b  For the equipment constituting the installation. Consequently, environmental conditions influence the definition and choice  of appropriate installation equipment and the choice of protective measures for  the safety of persons. The environmental conditions are referred to collectively as “external influences”.Many national standards concerned with external influences include a classification scheme which is based on, or which closely resembles, that of international standard IEC 60364-5-51. 3.2  Classification Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising a group  of two capital letters and a number as follows: First letter (A, B or C)The first letter relates to the general category of external influence: b  A = environment       b  B = utilisation           b  C = construction of buildings. Second letter The second letter relates to the nature of the external influence. Number The number relates to the class within each external influence. Additional letter (optional)Used only if the effective protection of persons is greater than that indicated  by the first IP digit.When only the protection of persons is to be specified, the two digits of the IP code are replaced by the X’s.Example: IP XXB. ExampleFor example the code AC2 signifies:A = environmentAC = environment-altitudeAC2 = environment-altitude 2000 m. 3.3  List of external influences Figure E60 below is from IEC 60364-5-51, which should be referred to if further details are required. External influences shall be taken into account when choosing: b  The appropriate measures to ensure   the safety of persons (in particular in special locations or electrical installations) b  The characteristics of electrical equipment,  such as degree of protection (IP), mechanical withstand (IK), etc. If several external influences appear  at the same time, they can have independent  or mutual effects and the degree of protection must be chosen accordingly Code  External influences          Characteristics required for equipment  A - Environment AA  Ambient temperature (°C)    Low  High          Specially designed equipment or appropriate arrangements AA1  -60 °C  +5 °C      AA2  -40 °C  +5 °C      AA3  -25 °C  +5 °C      AA4  -5° C  +40 °C          Normal (special precautions in certain cases)  AA5  +5  °C  +40  °C      Normal  AA6  +5 °C  +60 °C          Specially designed equipment or appropriate arrangements AA7  -25 °C  +55 °C      AA8  -50 °C  +40 °C      Fig. E60 : List of external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 60364-5-51) (continued on next page) E - Distribution in low-voltage installations

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E35 Code  External influences          Characteristics required for equipment  A - Environment AB  Atmospheric humidity    Air temperature  °C  Relative humidity %  Absolute humidity g/m 3     Low High Low High Low High   AB1  -60 °C  +5 °C  3  100  0.003  7  Appropriate arrangements shall be made  AB2  -40 °C  +5 °C  10  100  0.1  7    AB3  -25 °C  +5 °C  10  100  0.5  7    AB4  -5° C  +40 °C  5  95  1  29  Normal  AB5  +5 °C  +40 °C  5  85  1  25  Normal  AB6  +5 °C  +60 °C  10  100  1  35  Appropriate arrangements shall be made  AB7  -25 °C  +55 °C  10  100  0.5  29    AB8  -50 °C  +40 °C  15  100  0.04  36    AC Altitude  AC1  y   2000  m       Normal  AC2  2000 m             May necessitate precaution (derating factors)  AD  Presence of water  AD1  Negligible     Probability of presence of water is negligible  IPX0  AD2  Free-falling drops  Probability of presence of water is negligible  IPX1 or IPX2  AD3  Sprays    Possibility of water falling as a spray at an angle         up to 60° from the vertical      IPX3  AD4  Splashes    Possibility of splashes from any direction   IPX4  AD5  Jets    Possibility of jets of water from any direction   IPX5  AD6  Waves    Possibility of water waves (seashore locations)  IPX6  AD7  Immersion    Possibility of intermittent partial or total covering      by  water     IPX7 AD8  Submersion    Equipment is permanently and totally covered   IPX8  AE  Presence of foreign solid bodies or dust        Smallest dimension  Example    AE1  Negligible       IP0X  AE2  Small objects   2.5 mm    Tools    IP3X  AE3  Very small objects  1 mm    Wire    IP4X  AE4  Light dust            IP5X if dust penetration is not harmful to functioning AE5  Moderate dust          IP6X if dust should not penetrate  AE6  Heavy  dust       IP6X  AF  Presence of corrosive or polluting substances  AF1  Negligible       Normal  AF2  Atmospheric            According to the nature of the substance  AF3  Intermittent, accidental          Protection against corrosion  AF4  Continuous       Equipment  specially  designed  AG  Mechanical shock AG1  Low severity            Normal, e.g. household and similar equipment  AG2  Medium severity          Standard industrial equipment, where applicable,           or  reinforced  protection AG3  High  severity       Reinforced  protection  AH Vibrations  AH1  Low severity    Household or similar      Normal  AH2  Medium severity  Usual industrial conditions      Specially designed equipment or special arrangements AH3  High severity   Severe industrial conditions    AK  Presence of flora and/or moulds growth  AK1  No  hazard       Normal  AK2  Hazard       Special  protection AL  Presence of fauna  AL1  No  hazard       Normal  AL2  Hazard       Special  protection AM  Electromagnetic, electrostatic or ionising influences / Low frequency electromagnetic phenomena / Harmonics  AM1  Harmonics, interharmonics         Refer to applicable IEC standards  AM2  Signalling voltage    AM3  Voltage amplitude variations    AM4  Voltage unbalance    AM5  Power frequency variations   AM6  Induced low-frequency voltages    AM7  Direct current in a.c. networks    AM8  Radiated magnetic fields    AM9  Electric field    AM21  Induced oscillatory voltages or currents    Fig. E60 : List of external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 60364-5-51) (continued on next page) 3  External influences  (IEC 60364-5-51)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E36 Fig. E60 : List of external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 60364-5-51) (concluded) Code  External influences          Characteristics required for equipment  A - Environment AM22  Conducted unidirectional transients of the nanosecond time scale    Refer to applicable IEC standards AM23  Conducted unidirectional transients of the microsecond to the millisecond    time scale    AM24  Conducted oscillatory transients    AM25  Radiated high frequency phenomena    AM31  Electrostatic discharges    AM41 Ionisation    AN  Solar radiation  AN1  Low       Normal  AN2 Medium    AN3 High    AP  Seismic effect  AP1  Negligible       Normal  AP2  Low severity    AP3  Medium severity    AP4  High severity   AQ Lightning  AQ1  Negligible       Normal  AQ2  Indirect exposure    AQ3  Direct exposure    AR  Movement of air  AR1  Low       Normal  AR2 Medium    AR3 High    AS Wind  AS1  Low       Normal  AS2 Medium    AS3 High    B - Utilization  BA  Capability of persons    BA1  Ordinary       Normal  BA2 Children    BA3  Handicapped   BA4  Instructed   BA5 Skilled    BB  Electrical resistance of human body (under consideration)    BC  Contact of persons with earth potential    BC1  None            Class of equipment according to IEC61140  BC2 Low    BC3 Frequent   BC4  Continuous   BD  Condition of evacuation in case of emergency    BD1  Low density / easy exit          Normal  BD2  Low density / difficult exit    BD3  High density / easy exit    BD4  High density / difficult exit    BE  Nature of processed or stored materials    BE1  No  significant  risks      Normal  BE2  Fire risks    BE3  Explosion risks    BE4  Contamination risks    C - Construction of building  CA  Construction materials    CA1  Non  combustible      Normal  CA2  Combustible   CB  Building design    CB1  Negligible  risks      Normal  CB2  Propagation of fire    CB3  Movement   CB4  Lexible or unstable

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E37 3.4  Protection provided for enclosed equipment: codes IP and IK  IP code definition  (see Fig. E61) The degree of protection provided by an enclosure is indicated in the IP code, recommended in IEC 60529. Protection is afforded against the following external influences: b  Penetration by solid bodies b  Protection of persons against access to live parts b  Protection against the ingress of dust b  Protection against the ingress of liquids. Note: the IP code applies to electrical equipment for voltages up to and including 72.5 kV. Elements of the IP Code and their meanings A brief description of the IP Code elements is given in the following chart  (see Fig. E62). Fig. E61 : IP Code arrangement  IP 2 3 C H Code letters(International Protection) First characteristic numeral(numerals 0 to 6, or letter X) Second characteristic numeral(numerals 0 to 6, or letter X) Additional letter (optional)(letters A, B, C, D) Supplementary letter (optional)(letters H, M, S, W) Where a characteristic numeral is not required to be specified, it shall be replaced by the letter "X" ("XX" if both numerals are omitted). Additional letters and/or supplementary letters may be omitted without replacement. Code letters Element Numeralsor letters Meaning for the protection  of equipment Meaning for the protection of persons Firstcharacteristicnumeral 0123456 IP Against ingress of solid foreign objects (non-protected)u 50 mm diameter u 12.5 mm diameter u 2.5 mm diameter u 1.0 mm diameter Dust-protected Dust-tight Against access tohazardous parts with (non-protected) Back of hand  Finger Tool Wire Wire Wire Additional letter(optional) ABCD Against access tohazardous parts with back of hand  Finger Tool Wire Supplementaryletter (optional) H M S W Supplementary information specific to: High-voltage apparatus Motion during water test Stationary during water test Weather conditions Secondcharacteristicnumeral 012345678 Against ingress of water with harmful effects (non-protected) Vertically dripping Dripping (15° tilted) Spraying Splashing Jetting Powerful jetting Temporary immersion Continuous immersion 9 High pressure and temperature water jet Fig. E62 : Elements of the IP Code 3  External influences  (IEC 60364-5-51)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 E - Distribution in low-voltage installations © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved E38 IK Code definition Standard IEC 62262 defines an IK code that characterises the aptitude of equipment to resist mechanical impacts on all sides (see Fig. E63).  Fig. E63 : Elements of the IK Code IK code  Impact energy   AG code    (in Joules)   00   0    01  y  0.14    02  y  0.20   AG1  03  y  0.35    04   y  0.50    05   y  0.70    06  y  1    07  y  2   AG2  08  y  5  AG3  09  y  10    10  y  20   AG4 IP and IK code specifications for distribution switchboards The degrees of protection IP and IK of an enclosure must be specified as a function of the different external influences defined by standard IEC 60364-5-51, in particular: b  Presence of solid bodies (code AE) b  Presence of water (code AD) b  Mechanical stresses (no code) b  Capability of persons (code BA) b  … Prisma Plus switchboards are designed for indoor installation.Unless the rules, standards and regulations of a specific country stipulate otherwise, Schneider Electric recommends the following IP and IK values (see Fig. E64 and Fig. E65) IP recommendations Fig. E64 : IP recommendations Fig. E65 : IK recommendations IK recommendations IP codes according to conditions    Normal without risk of vertically falling water   Technical rooms  30 Normal with risk of vertically falling water  Hallways  31 Very severe with risk of splashing water   Workshops  54/55  from all directions IK codes according to conditions    No risk of major impact  Technical rooms  07 Significant risk of major impact that could   Hallways  08 (enclosure   damage devices    with door) Maximum risk of impact that could damage   Workshops  10  the enclosure 3  External influences  (IEC 60364-5-51)

F1 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Contents   General F2   1.1  Electric shock  F2   1.2  Protection against electric shock  F3   1.3  Direct and indirect contact  F3   Protection against direct contact  F 4   2.1  Measures of protection against direct contact  F4   2.2  Additional measure of protection against direct contact  F5   Protection against indirect contact  F6   3.1  Measures of protection: two levels  F6   3.2  Automatic disconnection for TT system   F7   3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems  F8   3.4  Automatic disconnection on a second fault in an IT system  F10   3.5  Measures of protection against direct or indirect contact    without automatic disconnection of supply  F13   Protection of goods in case of insulation fault  F17   4.1  Measures of protection against fire risk with RCDs  F17   4.2  Ground Fault Protection (GFP)  F17   Implementation of the TT system  F19   5.1  Protective measures  F19   5.2  Coordination of residual current protective devices  F20   Implementation of the TN system  F23   6.1  Preliminary conditions  F23   6.2  Protection against indirect contact  F23   6.3   High-sensitivity RCDs  (see Fig. F31)    F27   6.4  Protection in high fire-risk location  F28   6.5  When the fault current-loop impedance is particularly high   F28   Implementation of the IT system  F29   7.1  Preliminary conditions  F29   7.2  Protection against indirect contact  F30   7.3  High-sensitivity RCDs  F34   7.4  Protection in high fire-risk locations  F35   7.5  When the fault current-loop impedance is particularly high   F35   Residual current devices (RCDs)  F36   8.1  Description of RCDs  F36   8.2  Types of RCDs  F36   8.3  Sensitivity of RCDs to disturbances  F37   Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD) F43   9.1  Fires of electrical origin  F43   9.2  Causes of fires of electrical origin  F43   9.3  Arc fault detectors  F45   9.4  Installation of arcing detectors  F45 Chapter F Protection against electric shocks  and electric fires 1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F2 F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1  General 1.1  Electric shock An electric shock is the pathophysiological effect of an electric current through the  human body. Its passage affects essentially the muscular, circulatory and respiratory functions   and sometimes results in serious burns. The degree of danger for the victim    is a function of the magnitude of the current, the parts of the body through which    the current passes, and the duration of current flow.IEC publication 60479-1 updated in 2005 defines four zones of current-magnitude/ time-duration, in each of which the pathophysiological effects are described  (see   Fig. F1). Any person coming into contact with live metal risks an electric shock. Curve C1 shows that when a current greater than 30 mA passes through a human  being from one hand to feet, the person concerned is likely to be killed, unless the  current is interrupted in a relatively short time. The point 500 ms/100 mA close to the curve C1 corresponds to a probability of heart  fibrillation of the order of 0.14 %.The protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided  in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations, codes  of practice, official guides and circulars, etc. Relevant IEC standards include:  IEC 60364 series, IEC 60479 series, IEC 60755, IEC 61008 series, IEC 61009 series   and IEC 60947-2.  Fig. F1 : Zones time/current of effects of AC current on human body when passing from left hand to feet Body current I s  (mA)  10 20 50 100 200 500 1,000 5,000 10,000 2,000 C 1 C 2 C 3 Duration of current flow  I  (ms) A B AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1,000 2,000 5,000 10,000 AC-1 AC-4.1 AC-4.2 AC-4.3 AC-1 zone: ImperceptibleAC-2 zone: PerceptibleAC-3 zone : Reversible effects: muscular contractionAC-4 zone: Possibility of irreversible effectsAC-4-1 zone: Up to 5 % probability of heart fibrillationAC-4-2 zone: Up to 50 % probability of heart fibrillationAC-4-3 zone: More than 50 % probability of heart fibrillation When a current exceeding 30 mA passes through a part of a human body, the person concerned is in serious danger if the current  is not interrupted in a very short time. The protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards  statutory regulations, codes of practice, official  guides and circulars etc.Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 60364, IEC 60479 series, IEC 61008, IEC 61009 and IEC 60947-2. A curve: Threshold of perception of current  B curve: Threshold of muscular reactions C 1  curve: Threshold of 0 % probability of ventricular  fibrillation C 2  curve: Threshold of 5 % probability of ventricular  fibrillation C 3  curve: Threshold of 50 % probability of ventricular  fibrillation

F3 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.2  Protection against electric shock The fundamental rule of protection against electric shock is provided by the  document IEC 61140 which covers both electrical installations and electrical  equipment. Hazardous-live-parts shall not be accessible and accessible conductive parts shall  not be hazardous. This requirement needs to apply under: b  Normal conditions, and b  Under a single fault condition. Various measures are adopted to protect against this hazard, and include: b  Automatic disconnection of the power supply to the connected electrical equipment b  Special arrangements such as: v  The use of class II insulation materials, or an equivalent level of insulation v  Non-conducting location, out of arm’s reach or interposition of barriers v  Equipotential bonding v  Electrical separation by means of isolating transformers. 1.3  Direct and indirect contact Direct contact A direct contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductor which is live in normal circumstances (see Fig. F2). IEC 61140 standard has renamed “protection against direct contact” with the term  “basic protection”. The former name is at least kept for information. Indirect contact An indirect contact refers to a person coming into contact with an exposed- conductive-part which is not normally alive, but has become alive accidentally (due  to insulation failure or some other cause). The fault current raise the exposed-conductive-part to a voltage liable to be  hazardous which could be at the origin of a touch current through a person coming  into contact with this exposed-conductive-part (see Fig. F3). IEC 61140 standard has renamed “protection against indirect contact” with the term  “fault protection”. The former name is at least kept for information. Two measures of protection against direct contact hazards are often required, since, in  practice, the first measure may not be infallible Standards and regulations distinguish two kinds of dangerous contact, b  Direct contact b  Indirect contact and corresponding protective measures Busbars I s : Touch current 1 2 3 N I s Insulation failure 1 2 3 PE I d I d : Insulation fault current I s Fig. F2 : Direct contact Fig. F3 : Indirect contact 1  General

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 2  Protection against direct contact Two complementary measures are commonly used as protection against the dangers of direct contact: b  The physical prevention of contact with live parts by barriers, insulation,  inaccessibility, etc. b  Additional protection in the event that a direct contact occurs, despite or due to  failure of the above measures. This protection is based on residual-current operating  device with a high sensitivity ( IΔ n  y  30 mA) and a low operating time. These devices  are highly effective in the majority of case of direct contact. 2.1  Measures of protection against direct contact Protection by the insulation of live parts This protection consists of an insulation which complies with the relevant standards (see Fig. F4). Paints, lacquers and varnishes do not provide an adequate protection. IEC and national standards frequently distinguish two protections: b  Complete (insulation, enclosures) b  Partial or particular Fig. F4 : Inherent protection against direct contact by insulation of a 3-phase cable   with outer sheath Fig. F5 : Example of isolation by envelope  Protection by means of barriers or enclosures This measure is in widespread use, since many components and materials are  installed in cabinets, assemblies, control panels and distribution boards (see  Fig. F5).  To be considered as providing effective protection against direct contact hazards,  these equipment must possess a degree of protection equal to at least IP 2X or  IP XXB (see chapter E sub-clause 3.4).Moreover, an opening in an enclosure (door, front panel, drawer, etc.) must only be  removable, open or withdrawn: b  By means of a key or tool provided for this purpose, or b  After complete isolation of the live parts in the enclosure, or b  With the automatic interposition of another screen removable only with a key or  a tool. The metal enclosure and all metal removable screen must be bonded to the  protective earthing conductor of the installation. Partial measures of protection b  Protection by means of obstacles, or by placing out of arm’s reach This protection is reserved only to locations to which skilled or instructed persons only have access. The erection of this protective measure is detailed   in IEC 60364-4-41. Particular measures of protection b  Protection by use of extra-low voltage SELV (Safety Extra-Low Voltage)    or by limitation of the energy of discharge. These measures are used only in low-power circuits, and in particular  circumstances, as described in section 3.5.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.2  Additional measure of protection against  direct contact All the preceding protective measures are preventive, but experience has shown  that for various reasons they cannot be regarded as being infallible. Among these  reasons may be cited: b  Lack of proper maintenance b  Imprudence, carelessness b  Normal (or abnormal) wear and tear of insulation; for instance flexure and abrasion  of connecting  leads b  Accidental contact b  Immersion in water, etc. A situation in which insulation is no longer effective. In order to protect users in such circumstances, highly sensitive fast tripping  devices, based on the detection of residual currents to earth (which may or may  not be through a human being or animal) are used to disconnect the power  supply automatically, and with sufficient rapidity to prevent injury to, or death by  electrocution, of a normally healthy human being  (see Fig. F6). These devices operate on the principle of differential current measurement, in which  any difference between the current entering a circuit and that leaving it (on a system  supplied from an earthed source) be flowing to earth, either through faulty insulation  or through contact of an earthed part, such as a person, with a live conductor. Standardised residual-current devices, referred to as RCDs, sufficiently sensitive for  protection against direct contact are rated at 30 mA of differential current. According to IEC 60364-4-41, additional protection by means of high sensitivity  RCDs ( I ∆n y 30 mA) must be provided for circuits supplying socket-outlets with    a rated current  y  20 A in all locations, and for circuits supplying mobile equipment  with a rated current  y  32 A for use outdoors. This additional protection is required in certain countries for circuits supplying socket- outlets rated up to 32 A, and even higher if the location is wet and/or temporary  (such as work sites for instance). It is also recommended to limit the number of socket-outlets protected by a RCD  (e.g. 10 socket-outlets for one RCD).Chapter P section 3 itemises various common locations in which RCDs of  high sensitivity are obligatory (in some countries), but in any case, are highly  recommended as an effective protection against both direct and indirect contact  hazards. An additional measure of protection against the hazards of direct contact is provided by the use of residual current operating device, which operate at 30 mA or less, and are referred to as RCDs of high sensitivity Fig. F6 : High sensitivity RCD 2  Protection against direct contact

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 3  Protection against indirect  contact Exposed-conductive-parts used in the manufacturing process of an electrical  equipment is separated from the live parts of the equipment by the “basic insulation”.  Failure of the basic insulation will result in the exposed-conductive-parts being alive.Touching a normally dead part of an electrical equipment which has become live due  to the failure of its insulation, is referred to as an indirect contact. 3.1  Measures of protection: two levels Two levels of protective measures exist: b  1 st  level: The earthing of all exposed-conductive-parts of electrical equipment in  the installation and the constitution of an equipotential bonding network (see chapter  G section 6). b  2 sd  level: Automatic disconnection of the supply of the section of the installation  concerned, in such a way that the touch-voltage/time safety requirements    are respected for any level of touch voltage Uc (1)  (see Fig. F7). (1) Touch voltage Uc is the voltage existing (as the result of  insulation failure) between an exposed-conductive-part and  any conductive element within reach which is at a different (generally earth) potential. Protection against indirect contact hazards can be achieved by automatic disconnection  of the supply if the exposed-conductive-parts  of equipment are properly earthed Uc Earth connection Fig. F7 : Illustration of the dangerous touch voltage Uc  Fig. F8 : Maximum safe duration of the assumed values of AC touch voltage (in seconds) Uo (V)     50 Uo y 120  120 Uo y 230  230 Uo y 400  Uo 400 System  TN  or  IT  0.8   0.4   0.2   0.1    TT  0.3   0.2   0.07   0.04  The greater the value of Uc, the greater the rapidity of supply disconnection required  to provide protection (see Fig. F8 ). The highest value of Uc that can be tolerated  indefinitely without danger to human beings is 50 V CA. Reminder of the theoretical disconnecting-time limits

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.2  Automatic disconnection for TT system  Principle In this system all exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts of  the installation must be connected to a common earth electrode. The neutral point  of the supply system is normally earthed at a pint outside the influence area of  the installation earth electrode, but need not be so. The impedance of the earth- fault loop therefore consists mainly in the two earth electrodes (i.e. the source and installation electrodes) in series, so that the magnitude of the earth fault current is generally too small to operate overcurrent relay or fuses, and the use of a residual current operated device is essential. This principle of protection is also valid if one common earth electrode only is used,  notably in the case of a consumer-type substation within the installation area, where  space limitation may impose the adoption of a TN system earthing, but where all  other conditions required by the TN system cannot be fulfilled.Protection by automatic disconnection of the supply used in TT system is by RCD    of sensitivity:  F7 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock 3.2  Automatic disconnection for TT system Principle In this system all exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts of theinstallation must be connected to a common earth electrode. The neutral point of thesupply system is normally earthed at a pint outside the influence area of theinstallation earth electrode, but need not be so. The impedance of the earth-faultloop therefore consists mainly in the two earth electrodes (i.e. the source andinstallation electrodes) in series, so that the magnitude of the earth fault current isgenerally too small to operate overcurrent relay or fuses, and the use of a residualcurrent operated device is essential. This principle of protection is also valid if one common earth electrode only is used,notably in the case of a consumer-type substation within the installation area, wherespace limitation may impose the adoption of a TN system earthing, but where allother conditions required by the TN system cannot be fulfilled. Protection by automatic disconnection of he supply used in TT system is by RCD of sensitivity:     I ∆ n R i 50 A whereR A  is the resistance of the earth electrode for the installation I ∆ n  is the rated residual operating current  of the RCD For temporary supplies (to work sites, …) and agricultural and horticultural premises,the value of 50 V is replaced by 25 V. Example (see  Fig. F9 ) c  The resistance of the earth electrode of substation neutral R n  is 10  Ω . c  The resistance of the earth electrode of the installation  R A  is 20  Ω . c  The earth-fault loop current  I d  = 7.7 A. c  The fault voltage U t  =  I d  x R A  = 154 V and therefore dangerous, but I ∆ n  = 50/20 = 2.5 A so that a standard 300 mA RCD will operate in about 30 ms (see Fig. F10 ) without intentional time delay and will clear the fault where a fault voltage exceeding appears on an exposed-conductive-part. Fig. F10 : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 123NPE R n  = 10  Ω Substationearthelectrode Installationearthelectrode R A  = 20  Ω U f Fig. F9 : Automatic disconnection of supply for TT system Automatic disconnection for TT system isachieved by RCD having a sensitivity of    I ∆ n R i 50 A  where R A  is the resistance of the installation earth electrode 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V) T (s) 50 Uo  i  120 0.3 120   Uo  i  230 0.2 230   Uo  i  400 0.07 Uo 400 0.04 Specified maximum disconnection time The tripping times of RCDs are generally lower than those required in the majority ofnational standards; this feature facilities their use and allows the adoption of aneffective discriminative protection. The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devicesused in TT system for the protection against indirect contact: c  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in Figure F10 c  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 1s. This limit enables discrimination between RCDs when installed on distribution circuits.RCD is a general term for all devices operating on the residual-current principle.RCCB (Residual Current Circuit-Breaker) as defined in IEC 61008 series is aspecific class of RCD. Type G (general) and type S (Selective) of IEC 61008 have a tripping time/currentcharacteristics as shown in  Figure F11 next page. These characteristics allow a certain degree of selective tripping between the several combination of ratings and types, asshown later in sub-clause 4.3. Type industrial RCD according to IEC 60947-2provide more possibilities of discrimination due to their flexibility of time-delaying. where R A  is the resistance of the earth electrode for the installation I Δ n  is the rated residual operating current of the RCD For temporary supplies (to work sites, …) and agricultural and horticultural premises,  the value of 50 V is replaced by 25 V. Example (see Fig. F9) b  The resistance of the earth electrode of substation neutral R n  is 10  Ω . b  The resistance of the earth electrode of the installation R A  is 20  Ω . b  The earth-fault loop current  I d  = 7.7 A. b  The fault voltage U f  =  I d  x R A  = 154 V and therefore dangerous, but   I Δ n  = 50/20 = 2.5 A so that a standard 300 mA RCD will operate in about 30 ms  without intentional time delay and will clear the fault where a fault voltage exceeding appears on an exposed-conductive-part.  Fig. F10 : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 1 2 3 N PE R n  = 10  Ω Substation earth electrode Installation earth electrode R A  = 20  Ω U f Fig. F9 : Automatic disconnection of supply for TT system Automatic disconnection for TT system  is achieved by RCD having a sensitivity of    R Ι 50 A n y ∆ where R A  is the resistance   of the installation earth electrode  3  Protection against indirect  contact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V)  T (s) 50 Uo    120  0.3 120 Uo y  230  0.2 230 Uo y  400  0.07 Uo 400   0.04 Specified maximum disconnection time The tripping times of RCDs are generally lower than those required in the majority    of national standards; this feature facilitates their use and allows the adoption    of an effective discriminative protection. The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devices  used in TT system for the protection against indirect contact: b  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum  disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in Figure F10 b  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 1 s. This limit  enables discrimination between RCDs when installed on distribution circuits.   RCD is a general term for all devices operating on the residual-current principle.  RCCB (Residual Current Circuit Breaker) as defined in IEC 61008 series is a specific  class of RCD.Type G (general) and type S (Selective) of IEC 61008 have a tripping time/current  characteristics as shown in Figure F11 next page. These characteristics allow a certain  degree of selective tripping between the several combination of ratings and types, as  shown later in sub-clause 4.3. Industrial type RCD according to IEC 60947-2 provide  more possibilities of discrimination due to their flexibility of time-delaying.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation are  connected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors.As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 1.2, the way in which this direct connection is  carried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementing  the TN principle is used. In Figure F12  the method TN-C is shown, in which the  neutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. In  all TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.  High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touch  voltages exceeding 50 % of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position during  the short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed at  regular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, while the consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance.  On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises are  often provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-rise  apartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protective  conductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-fault current  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F8 F - Protection against electric shock 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation areconnected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 2.2, the way in which this direct connection iscarried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementingthe TN principle is used. In figure F12 the method TN-C is shown, in which theneutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. Inall TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touchvoltages exceeding 50% of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position duringthe short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed atregular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, whilethe consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises areoften provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-riseapartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protectiveconductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-faultcurrent    I I d  or 0.8 Uo Zc a = Uo Zs u  where c  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage c  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductorsfrom the fault position back to the source c  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note: The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. c   I d = the fault current c   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified Example (see  Fig. F12 ) The fault voltage  Uf = = 230 2 115 V  and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs=Z AB  + Z BC  + Z DE  + Z EN  + Z NA . If Z BC  and Z DE  are predominant, then: Zs L S = = 2 64 3 ρ .  m Ω , so that I d = = 230 64.3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NS 160 circuit-breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit-breaker is many timeless than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possibletime is assured. Note: Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltagedrop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. This method, which is recommended is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2“conventional method” and in this example will give an estimated fault current of 230 x 0.8 x 10 64.3 2,816 A 3 =  ( ≈  18  I n). The automatic disconnection for TN system isachieved by overcurrent protective device orResidual Current Devices Fig. F12  : Automatic disconnection in TN system 123PEN NS160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 Fig. F11 : Maximum operating time of RCD’s x  I ∆ n 1 2 5   5 Domestic Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Type S 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Industrial Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Time-delay (0.06) 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Time-delay (other) According to manufacturer 3  Protection against indirectcontact  must be higher or equal to  I a, where: b  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage b   I d = the fault current b   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time  specified b  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of  the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductors  from the fault position back to the source b  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note : The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)  much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. Example (see Fig. F12) The fault voltage  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F8 F - Protection against electric shock 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation areconnected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 2.2, the way in which this direct connection iscarried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementingthe TN principle is used. In figure F12 the method TN-C is shown, in which theneutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. Inall TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touchvoltages exceeding 50% of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position duringthe short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed atregular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, whilethe consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises areoften provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-riseapartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protectiveconductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-faultcurrent    I I d  or 0.8 Uo Zc a = Uo Zs u  where c  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage c  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductorsfrom the fault position back to the source c  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note: The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. c   I d = the fault current c   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified Example (see  Fig. F12 ) The fault voltage  Uf = = 230 2 115 V  and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs=Z AB  + Z BC  + Z DE  + Z EN  + Z NA . If Z BC  and Z DE  are predominant, then: Zs L S = = 2 64 3 ρ .  m Ω , so that I d = = 230 64.3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NS 160 circuit-breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit-breaker is many timeless than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possibletime is assured. Note: Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltagedrop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. This method, which is recommended is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2“conventional method” and in this example will give an estimated fault current of 230 x 0.8 x 10 64.3 2,816 A 3 =  ( ≈  18  I n). The automatic disconnection for TN system isachieved by overcurrent protective device orResidual Current Devices Fig. F12  : Automatic disconnection in TN system 123PEN NS160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 Fig. F11 : Maximum operating time of RCD’s x  I ∆ n 1 2 5   5 Domestic Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Type S 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Industrial Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Time-delay (0.06) 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Time-delay (other) According to manufacturer 3  Protection against indirectcontact and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs = Z ab  + Z bc  + Z de  + Z en  + Z na . If Z bc  and Z de  are predominant, then: Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F8 F - Protection against electric shock 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation areconnected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 2.2, the way in which this direct connection iscarried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementingthe TN principle is used. In figure F12 the method TN-C is shown, in which theneutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. Inall TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touchvoltages exceeding 50% of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position duringthe short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed atregular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, whilethe consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises areoften provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-riseapartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protectiveconductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-faultcurrent    I I d  or 0.8 Uo Zc a = Uo Zs u  where c  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage c  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductorsfrom the fault position back to the source c  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note: The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. c   I d = the fault current c   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified Example (see  Fig. F12 ) The fault voltage  Uf = = 230 2 115 V  and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs=Z AB  + Z BC  + Z DE  + Z EN  + Z NA . If Z BC  and Z DE  are predominant, then: Zs L S = = 2 64 3 ρ .  m Ω , so that I d = = 230 64.3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NS 160 circuit-breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit-breaker is many timeless than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possibletime is assured. Note: Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltagedrop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. This method, which is recommended is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2“conventional method” and in this example will give an estimated fault current of 230 x 0.8 x 10 64.3 2,816 A 3 =  ( ≈  18  I n). The automatic disconnection for TN system isachieved by overcurrent protective device orResidual Current Devices Fig. F12  : Automatic disconnection in TN system 123PEN NS160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 Fig. F11 : Maximum operating time of RCD’s x  I ∆ n 1 2 5   5 Domestic Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Type S 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Industrial Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Time-delay (0.06) 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Time-delay (other) According to manufacturer 3  Protection against indirectcontact , so that  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F8 F - Protection against electric shock 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation areconnected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 2.2, the way in which this direct connection iscarried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementingthe TN principle is used. In figure F12 the method TN-C is shown, in which theneutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. Inall TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touchvoltages exceeding 50% of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position duringthe short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed atregular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, whilethe consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises areoften provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-riseapartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protectiveconductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-faultcurrent    I I d  or 0.8 Uo Zc a = Uo Zs u  where c  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage c  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductorsfrom the fault position back to the source c  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note: The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. c   I d = the fault current c   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified Example (see  Fig. F12 ) The fault voltage  Uf = = 230 2 115 V  and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs=Z AB  + Z BC  + Z DE  + Z EN  + Z NA . If Z BC  and Z DE  are predominant, then: Zs L S = = 2 64 3 ρ .  m Ω , so that I d = = 230 64.3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NS 160 circuit-breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit-breaker is many timeless than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possibletime is assured. Note: Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltagedrop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. This method, which is recommended is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2“conventional method” and in this example will give an estimated fault current of =  ( ≈  18  I n). The automatic disconnection for TN system isachieved by overcurrent protective device orResidual Current Devices Fig. F12  : Automatic disconnection in TN system 123PEN NS160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 Fig. F11 : Maximum operating time of RCD’s x  I ∆ n 1 2 5   5 Domestic Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Type S 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Industrial Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Time-delay (0.06) 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Time-delay (other) According to manufacturer 3  Protection against indirectcontact I d = 230 64.3 x10 -3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NSX160 circuit breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit breaker is many time  less than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possible  time is assured. Note : Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltage  drop of 20 % occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE.This method, which is recommended, is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2 “conventional method” and in this  example will give an estimated fault current of Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F8 F - Protection against electric shock 3.3  Automatic disconnection for TN systems Principle In this system all exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation areconnected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. As noted in Chapter E Sub-clause 2.2, the way in which this direct connection iscarried out depends on whether the TN-C, TN-S, or TN-C-S method of implementingthe TN principle is used. In figure F12 the method TN-C is shown, in which theneutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. Inall TN systems, any insulation fault to earth results in a phase to neutral short-circuit.High fault current levels allow to use overcurrent protection but can give rise to touchvoltages exceeding 50% of the phase to neutral voltage at the fault position duringthe short disconnection time. In practice for utility distribution network, earth electrodes are normally installed atregular intervals along the protective conductor (PE or PEN) of the network, whilethe consumer is often required to install an earth electrode at the service entrance. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises areoften provided, in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In high-riseapartment blocks, all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protectiveconductor at each level. In order to ensure adequate protection, the earth-faultcurrent    I I d  or 0.8 Uo Zc a = Uo Zs u  where c  Uo = nominal phase to neutral voltage c  Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance, equal to the sum of the impedances of the source, the live phase conductors to the fault position, the protective conductorsfrom the fault position back to the source c  Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see “conventional method” Sub-clause 6.2) Note: The path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally)much higher impedance values than those listed above, and need not be considered. c   I d = the fault current c   I a = current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified Example (see  Fig. F12 ) The fault voltage  Uf = = 230 2 115 V  and is hazardous; The fault loop impedance Zs=Z AB  + Z BC  + Z DE  + Z EN  + Z NA . If Z BC  and Z DE  are predominant, then: Zs L S = = 2 64 3 ρ .  m Ω , so that I d = = 230 64.3 3,576 A  ( ≈  22  I n based on a NS 160 circuit-breaker). The “instantaneous” magnetic trip unit adjustment of the circuit-breaker is many timeless than this short-circuit value, so that positive operation in the shortest possibletime is assured. Note: Some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltagedrop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. This method, which is recommended is explained in chapter F sub-clause 6.2“conventional method” and in this example will give an estimated fault current of 230 x 0.8 x 10 64.3 2,816 A 3 =  ( ≈  18  I n). The automatic disconnection for TN system isachieved by overcurrent protective device orResidual Current Devices Fig. F12  : Automatic disconnection in TN system 123PEN NS160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 Fig. F11 : Maximum operating time of RCD’s x  I ∆ n 1 2 5   5 Domestic Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Type S 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Industrial Instantaneous 0.3 0.15 0.04 0.04 Time-delay (0.06) 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.15 Time-delay (other) According to manufacturer 3  Protection against indirectcontact  ( ≈  18  I n).  Fig. F12   : Automatic disconnection in TN system 1 2 3 PEN NSX160 A F N E D C B U f 35 mm 2 50 m 35 mm 2 Fig. F11  : Maximum operating time of RCD’s (in seconds) x  I Δ n    1 2 5    5  Domestic Instantaneous  0.3  0.15  0.04  0.04   Type  S  0.5 0.2 0.15  0.15 Industrial  Instantaneous  0.3  0.15  0.04  0.04   Time-delay  (0.06)  0.5 0.2 0.15  0.15    Time-delay (other)  According to manufacturer  The automatic disconnection for TN system is achieved by overcurrent protective devices or RCD’s

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Specified maximum disconnection time The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devices  used in TN system for the protection against indirect contact: b  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum  disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in Figure F13 b  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 5 s. This limit  enables discrimination between protective devices installed on distribution circuits Note : The use of RCDs may be necessary on TN-earthed systems. Use of RCDs  on TN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductor  must (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. This separation is commonly  made at the service entrance. Fig. F13  : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 1 1: Short-time delayed trip2: Instantaneous trip I m Uo/Zs I 2 t I a Uo/Zs t tc = 0.4 s I If the protection is to be provided by a  circuit breaker, it is sufficient to verify that the  fault current will always exceed the current-setting level of the instantaneous or short-time delay tripping unit ( I m) I a can be determined from the fuse  performance curve. In any case, protection cannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zs or Zc exceeds a certain value Fig. F14 : Disconnection by circuit breaker for a TN system Fig. F15 : Disconnection by fuses for a TN system 3  Protection against indirect  contact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V)  T (s) 50 Uo y  120  0.8 120 Uo y  230  0.4 230 Uo y  400  0.2 Uo 400   0.1 Protection by means of circuit breaker  (see Fig. F14) The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth in  less than 0.1 second. In consequence, automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time will  always be assured, since all types of trip unit, magnetic or electronic, instantaneous  or slightly retarded, are suitable:  I a =  I m. The maximum tolerance authorised by  the relevant standard, however, must always be taken into consideration. It is sufficient therefore that the fault c urrent  F9 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock Specified maximum disconnection time The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devicesused in TN system for the protection against indirect contact: c  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in  Figure F13 c  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 5s. This limit enables discrimination between protective devices installed on distribution circuits Note: The use of RCDs may be necessary on TN-earthed systems. Use of RCDs onTN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductormust (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. This separation is commonlymade at the service entrance. Fig. F13 : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 1 1: Instantaneous trip2: Short-time delayed time I m Uo/Zs I 2 t I a Uo/Zs t tc = 0.4 s I If the protection is to be provided by a circuitbreaker, it is sufficient to verify that the faultcurrent will always exceed the current-settinglevel of the instantaneous or short-time delaytripping unit ( I m) I a can be determined from the fuse performance curve. In any case, protectioncannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zsor Zc exceeds a certain value Fig. F14 : Disconnection by circuit-breaker for a TN system Fig. F15 : Disconnection by fuses for a TN system 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V) T (s) 50 Uo  i  120 0.8 120   Uo  i  230 0.4 230   Uo  i  400 0.2 Uo 400 0.1 Protection by means of circuit-breaker  (see  Fig. F14 ) The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth inless than 0.1 second. In consequence, automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time willalways be assured, since all types of trip unit, magnetic or electronic, instantaneousor slightly retarded, are suitable:  I a =  I m. The maximum tolerance authorised by the relevant standard, however, must always be taken into consideration. It is sufficient therefore that the fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  determined by calculation (or estimated on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current, or than the very short-time tripping threshold level, to be sure of tripping within the permitted time limit. Protection by means of fuses  (see  Fig. F15 ) The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can beascertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. The fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as determined above, must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The condition to observe therefore is that  I a  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as indicated in Figure F15.  determined by calculation  (or estimated on site) be greater than  the instantaneous trip-setting current, or than  the very short-time tripping threshold level, to be sure of tripping within the permitted  time limit. Protection by means of fuses  (see Fig. F15) The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can be  ascertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned.  The fault current  F9 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock Specified maximum disconnection time The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devicesused in TN system for the protection against indirect contact: c  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in  Figure F13 c  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 5s. This limit enables discrimination between protective devices installed on distribution circuits Note: The use of RCDs may be necessary on TN-earthed systems. Use of RCDs onTN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductormust (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. This separation is commonlymade at the service entrance. Fig. F13 : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 1 1: Instantaneous trip2: Short-time delayed time I m Uo/Zs I 2 t I a Uo/Zs t tc = 0.4 s I If the protection is to be provided by a circuitbreaker, it is sufficient to verify that the faultcurrent will always exceed the current-settinglevel of the instantaneous or short-time delaytripping unit ( I m) I a can be determined from the fuse performance curve. In any case, protectioncannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zsor Zc exceeds a certain value Fig. F14 : Disconnection by circuit-breaker for a TN system Fig. F15 : Disconnection by fuses for a TN system 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V) T (s) 50 Uo  i  120 0.8 120   Uo  i  230 0.4 230   Uo  i  400 0.2 Uo 400 0.1 Protection by means of circuit-breaker  (see  Fig. F14 ) The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth inless than 0.1 second. In consequence, automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time willalways be assured, since all types of trip unit, magnetic or electronic, instantaneousor slightly retarded, are suitable:  I a =  I m. The maximum tolerance authorised by the relevant standard, however, must always be taken into consideration. It is sufficient therefore that the fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  determined by calculation (or estimated on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current, or than the very short-time tripping threshold level, to be sure of tripping within the permitted time limit. Protection by means of fuses  (see  Fig. F15 ) The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can beascertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. The fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as determined above, must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The condition to observe therefore is that  I a  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as indicated in Figure F15.  as determined above, must largely exceed that  necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The condition to observe  therefore is that  F9 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock Specified maximum disconnection time The IEC 60364-4-41 specifies the maximum operating time of protective devicesused in TN system for the protection against indirect contact: c  For all final circuits with a rated current not exceeding 32 A, the maximum disconnecting time will not exceed the values indicated in  Figure F13 c  For all other circuits, the maximum disconnecting time is fixed to 5s. This limit enables discrimination between protective devices installed on distribution circuits Note: The use of RCDs may be necessary on TN-earthed systems. Use of RCDs onTN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductormust (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. This separation is commonlymade at the service entrance. Fig. F13 : Maximum disconnecting time for AC final circuits not exceeding 32 A 1 1: Instantaneous trip2: Short-time delayed time I m Uo/Zs I 2 t I a Uo/Zs t tc = 0.4 s I If the protection is to be provided by a circuitbreaker, it is sufficient to verify that the faultcurrent will always exceed the current-settinglevel of the instantaneous or short-time delaytripping unit ( I m) I a can be determined from the fuse performance curve. In any case, protectioncannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zsor Zc exceeds a certain value Fig. F14 : Disconnection by circuit-breaker for a TN system Fig. F15 : Disconnection by fuses for a TN system 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1) Uo is the nominal phase to earth voltage Uo (1)  (V) T (s) 50 Uo  i  120 0.8 120   Uo  i  230 0.4 230   Uo  i  400 0.2 Uo 400 0.1 Protection by means of circuit-breaker  (see  Fig. F14 ) The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth inless than 0.1 second. In consequence, automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time willalways be assured, since all types of trip unit, magnetic or electronic, instantaneousor slightly retarded, are suitable:  I a =  I m. The maximum tolerance authorised by the relevant standard, however, must always be taken into consideration. It is sufficient therefore that the fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  determined by calculation (or estimated on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current, or than the very short-time tripping threshold level, to be sure of tripping within the permitted time limit. Protection by means of fuses  (see  Fig. F15 ) The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can beascertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. The fault current  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as determined above, must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The condition to observe therefore is that  I a  Uo Zs  or 0.8 Uo Zc  as indicated in Figure F15.  as indicated in Figure F15.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Example: The nominal phase to neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and  the maximum disconnection time given by the graph in  Figure F15 is 0.4 s.  The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph. Using the voltage (230 V)  and the current  I a, the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can  be calculated  from  Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F10 F - Protection against electric shock Example: The nominal phase to neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and themaximum disconnection time given by the graph in Figure F15 is 0.4 s.The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph. Using the voltage (230 V)and the current  I a, the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can be calculated from  Zs a a = = 230 I I  or Zc 0.8 230 . This impedance value must never be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuseoperation. Protection by means of Residual Current Devices forTN-S circuits Residual Current Devices must be used where: c  The loop impedance cannot be determined precisely (lengths difficult to estimate, presence of metallic substances close to the wiring) c  Where the fault current is so low that the disconnecting time cannot be met by using overcurrent protective devices The reason is that the fault current level is always higher than their rated trippingcurrent which is in the order of some amps. In practice, they are often installed in the the LV sub distribution and in manycountries, the automatic disconnection of final circuits shall be achieved by ResidualCurrent Devices. 3.4  Automatic disconnection on a second fault in anIT system In this type of system: c  The installation is isolated from earth, or the neutral point of its power-supply source is connected to earth through a high impedance c  All exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts are earthed via an installation earth electrode. First fault On the occurrence of a true fault to earth, referred to as a “first fault”, the faultcurrent is very low, such that the rule  I d x RA  i  50 V (see F3.2) is fulfilled and no dangerous fault voltages can occur. In practice the current  I d is low, a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel, nor harmful to the installation. However, in this system: c  A permanent monitoring of the insulation to earth must be provided, coupled with an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights, etc.) operating in the event of a firstearth fault (see  Fig. 16 ) c  The rapid location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the IT system are to be realised. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded bythe system. For a network formed from 1 km of new conductors, the leakage (capacitive)impedance to earth ZF is of the order of 3500  Ω  per phase. In normal operation, the capacitive current (1)  to earth is therefore: Uo Zf = = 230 3,500 66 mA  per phase. During a phase to earth fault, as indicated in  Figure F17 opposite page, the current passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitivecurrents in the two healthy phases. The voltages of the healthy phases have(because of the fault) increased to  e  the normal phase voltage, so that the capacitive currents increase by the same amount. These currents are displaced, one from theother by 60 ° , so that when added vectorially, this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA, i.e. in the present example. The fault voltage Uf is therefore equal to 198 x 5 x 103 = 0.99 V, which is obviouslyharmless. The current through the short-circuit to earth is given by the vector sum of theneutral-resistor current  I d1 (=153 mA) and the capacitive current  I d2 (198 mA). Since the exposed-conductive-parts of the installation are concerned directly toearth, the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touchvoltages to earth. In IT system the first fault to earth should notcause any disconnection Fig. F16 : Phases to earth insulation monitoring device obligatory in IT system (1) Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation isassumed to be negligibly small in the example. 3  Protection against indirectcontact . This impedance value must never  be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuse  operation. Protection by means of Residual Current Devices  for TN-S circuits Residual Current Devices must be used where: b  The loop impedance cannot be determined precisely (lengths difficult to estimate,  presence of metallic material close to the wiring) b  The fault current is so low that the disconnecting time cannot be met by using  overcurrent protective devices The rated tripping current of RCDs being in the order of a few amps, it is well below  the fault current level. RCDs are consequently well adapted to this situation.In practice, they are often installed in the LV sub distribution and in many countries,  the automatic disconnection of final circuits shall be achieved by Residual Current  Devices. 3.4  Automatic disconnection on a second fault  in an IT system In this type of system: b  The installation is isolated from earth, or the neutral point of its power-supply  source is connected to earth through a high impedance b  All exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts are earthed via an installation earth  electrode. First fault situation On the occurrence of a true fault to earth, referred to as a “first fault”, the fault current  is very low, such that the rule  I d x R A   y  50 V (see F3.2) is fulfilled and no dangerous  fault voltages can occur. In practice the current  I d is low, a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel,  nor harmful to the installation. However, in this system: b  A permanent monitoring of the insulation to earth must be provided, coupled with  an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights, etc.) operating in the event of a first  earth fault (see Fig. F16) b  The location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the  IT system are to be realised. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded    by the system. As continuity of service is provided, it is not mandatory to repair the  fault immediatly avoiding to operate under stress and urgency. For a network formed from 1 km of new conductors, the leakage (capacitive) impedance to earth Zf is of the order of 3500  Ω  per phase. In normal operation, the  capacitive current (1)  to earth is therefore:   Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F10 F - Protection against electric shock Example: The nominal phase to neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and themaximum disconnection time given by the graph in Figure F15 is 0.4 s.The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph. Using the voltage (230 V)and the current  I a, the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can be calculated from  Zs a a = = 230 I I  or Zc 0.8 230 . This impedance value must never be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuseoperation. Protection by means of Residual Current Devices forTN-S circuits Residual Current Devices must be used where: c  The loop impedance cannot be determined precisely (lengths difficult to estimate, presence of metallic substances close to the wiring) c  Where the fault current is so low that the disconnecting time cannot be met by using overcurrent protective devices The reason is that the fault current level is always higher than their rated trippingcurrent which is in the order of some amps. In practice, they are often installed in the the LV sub distribution and in manycountries, the automatic disconnection of final circuits shall be achieved by ResidualCurrent Devices. 3.4  Automatic disconnection on a second fault in anIT system In this type of system: c  The installation is isolated from earth, or the neutral point of its power-supply source is connected to earth through a high impedance c  All exposed and extraneous-conductive-parts are earthed via an installation earth electrode. First fault On the occurrence of a true fault to earth, referred to as a “first fault”, the faultcurrent is very low, such that the rule  I d x RA  i  50 V (see F3.2) is fulfilled and no dangerous fault voltages can occur. In practice the current  I d is low, a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel, nor harmful to the installation. However, in this system: c  A permanent monitoring of the insulation to earth must be provided, coupled with an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights, etc.) operating in the event of a firstearth fault (see  Fig. 16 ) c  The rapid location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the IT system are to be realised. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded bythe system. For a network formed from 1 km of new conductors, the leakage (capacitive)impedance to earth ZF is of the order of 3500  Ω  per phase. In normal operation, the capacitive current (1)  to earth is therefore: Uo Zf = = 230 3,500 66 mA  per phase. During a phase to earth fault, as indicated in  Figure F17 opposite page, the current passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitivecurrents in the two healthy phases. The voltages of the healthy phases have(because of the fault) increased to  e  the normal phase voltage, so that the capacitive currents increase by the same amount. These currents are displaced, one from theother by 60 ° , so that when added vectorially, this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA, i.e. in the present example. The fault voltage Uf is therefore equal to 198 x 5 x 103 = 0.99 V, which is obviouslyharmless. The current through the short-circuit to earth is given by the vector sum of theneutral-resistor current  I d1 (=153 mA) and the capacitive current  I d2 (198 mA). Since the exposed-conductive-parts of the installation are concerned directly toearth, the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touchvoltages to earth. In IT system the first fault to earth should notcause any disconnection Fig. F16 : Phases to earth insulation monitoring device obligatory in IT system (1) Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation isassumed to be negligibly small in the example. 3  Protection against indirectcontact per phase. During a phase to earth fault, as indicated in Figure F17 opposite page, the current  passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitive  currents in the two healthy phases. The voltages of the healthy phases have  (because of the fault) increased to 3  the normal phase voltage, so that the capacitive  currents increase by the same amount. These currents are displaced, one from the  other by 60°, so that when added vectorially, this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA,    in the present example. The fault voltage Uf is therefore equal to 198 x 5 x 10 -3  = 0.99 V, which is obviously  harmless. The current through the short-circuit to earth is given by the vector sum of the  neutral-resistor current  I d1 (=153 mA) and the capacitive current  I d2 (198 mA). Since the exposed-conductive-parts of the installation are connected directly to earth, the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touch voltages to earth. In IT system the first fault to earth should not  cause any disconnection (1) Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation is  assumed to be negligibly small in the example. Fig. F16 : Phases to earth insulation monitoring device  obligatory in IT system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault, on a different phase, or on a neutral conductor,  a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. Fault clearance is carried out differently    in each of the following cases:1 st  case It concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded    to a common PE conductor, as shown in Figure F18. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path, so that a high level of fault current is assured, and conventional overcurrent protective devices   are used, i.e. circuit breakers and fuses.The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation,  while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation.For this reason, it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit, when  calculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). Where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors, the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults is from the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in an IT scheme). In four-wire IT installations, therefore, the phase-to-neutral voltage must  be used to calculate short-circ uit protective levels i.e.  F11 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock Second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault, on a different phase, or on a neutral conductor,a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. Fault clearance is carried out differentlyin each of the following cases: 1 st  case c  It concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded to a common PE conductor, as shown in Figure F18. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path, so that a highlevel of fault current is assured, and conventional overcurrent protective devices areused, i.e. circuit breakers and fuses. The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation,while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation. For this reason, it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit, whencalculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). c  Where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors, the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults isfrom the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in anIT scheme). In four-wire IT installations, therefore, the phase-to-neutral voltage must be used to calculate short-circuit protective levels i.e.     0.8 Uo 2 Zc a u I (1)  where Uo = phase to neutral voltageZc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see F3.3)Ia = current level for trip setting c  If no neutral conductor is distributed, then the voltage to use for the fault-current calculation is the phase-to-phase value, i.e.     0.8 3 Uo 2 Zc a u I (1) Maximum tripping times Disconnecting times for IT system depends on how are interconnected the differentinstallation and substation earth electrodes. c  For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding 32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts bonded with the substation earthelectrode, the maximum tripping is given in table F8. For the other circuits within thesame group of interconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximumdisconnecting time is 5 s. This is due to the fact that any double fault situation withinthis group will result in a short-circuit current as in TN system. c  For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding 32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts connected to an independent earthelectrode electrically separated from the substation earth electrode, the maximumtripping is given in Figure F11. For the other circuits within the same group of noninterconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximum disconnecting time is 1s.This is due to the fact that any double fault situation resulting from one insulationfault within this group and another insulation fault from another group will generate afault current limited by the different earth electrode resistances as in TN system. Fig. F17 : Fault current path for a first fault in IT system 1 I d2 I d1 I d1 +  I d2 23NPE R nA  = 5  Ω Z ct  = 1,500  Ω Zf B U f Ω The simultaneous existence of two earth faults(if not both on the same phase) is dangerous,and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic (1) Based on the “conventional method” noted in the firstexample of Sub-clause 3.3. Circuit breaker tripping depends on the type ofearth-bonding scheme, and whether separateearthing electrodes are used or not, in theinstallation concerned 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1)  where Uo = phase to neutral voltage Zc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see F3.3)Ia = current level for trip setting  If no neutral conductor is d istributed, then the voltage to use for the fault-current  calculation is the phase-to-phase value, i.e.  F11 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock Second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault, on a different phase, or on a neutral conductor,a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. Fault clearance is carried out differentlyin each of the following cases: 1 st  case c  It concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded to a common PE conductor, as shown in Figure F18. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path, so that a highlevel of fault current is assured, and conventional overcurrent protective devices areused, i.e. circuit breakers and fuses. The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation,while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation. For this reason, it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit, whencalculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). c  Where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors, the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults isfrom the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in anIT scheme). In four-wire IT installations, therefore, the phase-to-neutral voltage must be used to calculate short-circuit protective levels i.e.     0.8 Uo 2 Zc a u I (1)  where Uo = phase to neutral voltageZc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see F3.3)Ia = current level for trip setting c  If no neutral conductor is distributed, then the voltage to use for the fault-current calculation is the phase-to-phase value, i.e.     0.8 3 Uo 2 Zc a u I (1) Maximum tripping times Disconnecting times for IT system depends on how are interconnected the differentinstallation and substation earth electrodes. c  For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding 32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts bonded with the substation earthelectrode, the maximum tripping is given in table F8. For the other circuits within thesame group of interconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximumdisconnecting time is 5 s. This is due to the fact that any double fault situation withinthis group will result in a short-circuit current as in TN system. c  For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding 32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts connected to an independent earthelectrode electrically separated from the substation earth electrode, the maximumtripping is given in Figure F11. For the other circuits within the same group of noninterconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximum disconnecting time is 1s.This is due to the fact that any double fault situation resulting from one insulationfault within this group and another insulation fault from another group will generate afault current limited by the different earth electrode resistances as in TN system. Fig. F17 : Fault current path for a first fault in IT system 1 I d2 I d1 I d1 +  I d2 23NPE R nA  = 5  Ω Z ct  = 1,500  Ω Zf B U f Ω The simultaneous existence of two earth faults(if not both on the same phase) is dangerous,and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic (1) Based on the “conventional method” noted in the firstexample of Sub-clause 3.3. Circuit breaker tripping depends on the type ofearth-bonding scheme, and whether separateearthing electrodes are used or not, in theinstallation concerned 3  Protection against indirectcontact (1) b   Maximum tripping times Disconnecting times for IT system depends on how the different installation and  substation earth electrodes are interconnected.For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding   32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts bonded with the substation earth  electrode, the maximum tripping time is given in table F8. For the other circuits  within the same group of interconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximum  disconnecting time is 5 s. This is due to the fact that any double fault situation within  this group will result in a short-circuit current as in TN system. For final circuits supplying electrical equipment with a rated current not exceeding   32 A and having their exposed-conductive-parts connected to an independent earth  electrode electrically separated from the substation earth electrode, the maximum  tripping time is given in Figure F13. For the other circuits within the same group of non interconnected exposed-conductive-parts, the maximum disconnecting time is  1 s. This is due to the fact that any double fault situation resulting from one insulation  fault within this group and another insulation fault from another group will generate a  fault current limited by the different earth electrode resistances as in TT system. b  Protection by circuit breaker The simultaneous existence of two earth faults (if not both on the same phase) is dangerous, and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic circuit breaker tripping depends on the type of earth-bonding scheme, and whether separate earthing electrodes are used or not, in the installation concerned (1) Based on the “conventional method” noted in the first  example of Sub-clause 3.3. 3  Protection against indirect  contact Fig. F17 : Fault current path for a first fault in IT system 1 I d2 I d1 I d1 +  I d2 2 3 N PE R nA  = 5  Ω Z ct  = 1,500  Ω Zf B U f Ω

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires In the case shown in Figure F18, the adjustments of instantaneous and short-time  delay overcurrent trip unit must be decided. The times recommended here above  can be readily complied with. The short-circuit protection provided by the NSX160  circuit breaker is suitable to clear a phase to phase short-circuit occurring at the load  ends of the circuits concerned. Reminder: In an IT system, the two circuits involved in a phase to phase short-circuit  are assumed to be of equal length, with the same cross sectional area conductors,  the PE conductors being the same cross sectional area as the phase conductors.    In such a case, the impedance of the circuit loop when using the “conventional  method” (sub clause 6.2) will be twice that calculated for one of the circuits in the TN  case, shown in Chapter F sub clause 3.3. The resistance of circuit loop FGHJ = 2R JH  = Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F12 F - Protection against electric shock Example (see  Fig. 18 ) The current levels and protective measures depends on the switchgear and fusesconcerned. Fig. F18 : Circuit-breaker tripping on double fault situation when exposed-conductive-parts are connected to a common protective conductor 1 I d 23NPE NS160160  Ω 50 m35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 R nA  = 5  Ω R A Z ct  = 1,500  Ω E D H G B A K F J C Ω c  Circuit-breaker In the case shown in Figure F18, the adjustments of instantaneous and short-timedelay overcurrent trip unit must be decided. The times recommended here abovecan be readily complied with. Example: From the case shown in Figure F18, selection and erection of the short-circuit protection provided by the NS 160 circuit-breaker suitable to clear a phase tophase short-circuit occurring at the load ends of the circuits concerned. Reminder: In an IT system, the two circuits involved in a phase to phase short-circuitare assumed to be of equal length, with the same cross sectional area conductors,the PE conductors being the same cross sectional area as the phase conductors. Insuch a case, the impedance of the circuit loop when using the “conventional method”(sub clause 6.2) will be twice that calculated for one of the circuits in the TN case,shown in Chapter F sub clause 3.3. So that the resistance of circuit 1 loop  FGHJ RJH L a = = 2 2    in m ρ Ω  where: ρ  = resistance in m Ω  of copper rod 1 meter long of cross sectional area 1 mm 2 L = length of the circuit in metersa = cross sectional area of the conductor in mm 2 FGHJ = 2 x 22.5 x 50/35 = 64.3 m Ω and the loop resistance B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J will be 2 x 64.3 = 129 m Ω . The fault current will therefore be 0.8 x  e  x 230 x 103/129 = 2470 A. c  Fuses The current Ia for which fuse operation must be assured in a time specifiedaccording to here above can be found from fuse operating curves, as described infigure F15. The current indicated should be significantly lower than the fault currents calculatedfor the circuit concerned. c  RCCBs In particular cases, RCCBs are necessary. In this case, protection against indirectcontact hazards can be achieved by using one RCCB for each circuit. 2 nd  case c  It concerns exposed conductive parts which are earthed either individually (each part having its own earth electrode) or in separate groups (one electrode for each group). If all exposed conductive parts are not bonded to a common electrode system, thenit is possible for the second earth fault to occur in a different group or in a separatelyearthed individual apparatus. Additional protection to that described above forcase 1, is required, and consists of a RCD placed at the circuit breaker controllingeach group and each individually-earthed apparatus. 3  Protection against indirectcontact  where:  ρ  = resistance of copper rod 1 meter long of cross sectional area 1 mm 2 , in m Ω L = length of the circuit in metersa = cross sectional area of the conductor in mm 2   FGHJ = 2 x 23.7 x 50/35 = 67.7 m Ω and the loop resistance B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J will be 2 x 67.7 = 135 m Ω . The fault current will therefore be 0.8 x 3  x 230 x 10 3 /135 = 2361 A. b  Protection by fuses The current  I a  for which fuse operation must be assured in a time specified  according to here above can be found from fuse operating curves, as described in  Figure F15. The current indicated should be significantly lower than the fault currents calculated  for the circuit concerned. b  Protection by Residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs) For low values of short-circuit current, RCCBs are necessary. Protection against  indirect contact hazards can be achieved then by using one RCCB for each circuit. 2 nd  case b  It concerns exposed conductive parts which are earthed either individually (each part  having its own earth electrode) or in separate groups (one electrode for each group). If all exposed conductive parts are not bonded to a common electrode system, then  it is possible for the second earth fault to occur in a different group or in a separately  earthed individual apparatus. Additional protection to that described above for  case 1, is required, and consists of a RCD placed at the circuit breaker controlling  each group and each individually-earthed apparatus. The reason for this requirement is that the separate-group electrodes are “bonded”  through the earth so that the phase to phase short-circuit current will generally be  limited when passing through the earth bond by the electrode contact resistances  with the earth, thereby making protection by overcurrent devices unreliable.  Fig. F18 : Circuit breaker tripping on double fault situation when exposed-conductive-parts are  connected to a common protective conductor 1 I d 23NPE NSX160160 A50 m35 mm 2 50 m35 mm 2 R A E D H G B A K F J C

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. F19 : Correspondence between the earth leakage capacitance and the first fault current Groupearth Case 1 PIM Ω N R A R n RCD Groupearth 2 Groupearth 1 Case 2 PIM Ω N R A1 R n R A2 RCD RCD RCD Fig. F20 : Application of RCDs when exposed-conductive-parts are earthed individually or by group on IT system  Leakage capacitance  First fault current     (µF)  (A)  1 0.07 5 0.36 30 2.17 Note: 1 µF is the 1 km typical leakage capacitance for  4-conductor cable. The more sensitive RCDs are therefore necessary, but the operating current of the  RCDs must evidently exceed that which occurs for a first fault (see  Fig. F19). For a second fault occurring within a group having a common earth-electrode  system, the overcurrent protection operates, as described above for case 1. 3  Protection against indirect  contact Extra-low voltage is used where the risks are great: swimming pools, wandering-lead hand lamps, and other portable appliances for outdoor use, etc. Note 1 : See also Chapter G Sub-clause 7.2, protection of the neutral conductor. Note 2: In 3-phase 4-wire installations, protection against overcurrent in the neutral  conductor is sometimes more conveniently achieved by using a ring-type current  transformer over the single-core neutral conductor (see Fig. F20). 3.5  Measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without automatic disconnection of supply The use of SELV (Safety Extra-Low Voltage) Safety by extra low voltage SELV is used in situations where the operation of electrical   equipment presents a serious hazard (swimming pools, amusement parks, etc.).  This measure depends on supplying power at extra-low voltage from the secondary windings of isolating transformers especially designed according to national or to  international (IEC 60742) standard. The impulse withstand level of insulation between   the primary and secondary windings is very high, and/or an earthed metal screen  is sometimes incorporated between the windings. The secondary voltage never  exceeds 50 V rms. Three conditions of exploitation must be respected in order to provide satisfactory  protection against indirect contact: b  No live conductor at SELV must be connected to earth b  Exposed-conductive-parts of SELV supplied equipment must not be connected to  earth, to other exposed conductive parts, or to extraneous-conductive-parts b  All live parts of SELV circuits and of other circuits of higher voltage must be  separated by a distance at least equal to that between the primary and secondary  windings of a safety isolating transformer. 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires These measures require that: b   SELV circuits must use conduits exclusively provided for them, unless cables which   are insulated for the highest voltage of the other circuits are used for the SELV circuits b  Socket outlets for the SELV system must not have an earth-pin contact. The  SELV circuit plugs and sockets must be special, so that inadvertent connection to a  different voltage level is not possible. Note: In normal conditions, when the SELV voltage is less than 25 V, there is no  need to provide protection against direct contact hazards. Particular requirements  are indicated in Chapter P, Clause 3: “special locations”. The use of PELV (Protection by Extra Low Voltage)  (see Fig. F21) This system is for general use where low voltage is required, or preferred for safety  reasons, other than in the high-risk locations noted above. The conception is similar  to that of the SELV system, but the secondary circuit is earthed at one point.IEC 60364-4-41 defines precisely the significance of the reference PELV. Protection  against direct contact hazards is generally necessary, except when the equipment  is in the zone of equipotential bonding, and the nominal voltage does not exceed  25 V rms, and the equipment is used in normally dry locations only, and large-area  contact with the human body is not expected. In all other cases, 6 V rms is the  maximum permitted voltage, where no direct contact protection is provided.  Fig. F21 : Low-voltage supplies from a safety isolating transformer Fig. F22 : Safety supply from a class II separation transformer 230 V / 24 V  FELV system (Functional Extra-Low Voltage) Where, for functional reasons, a voltage of 50 V or less is used, but not all of the  requirements relating to SELV or PELV are fulfilled, appropriate measures described  in IEC 60364-4-41 must be taken to ensure protection against both direct and  indirect contact hazards, according to the location and use of these circuits.  Note : Such conditions may, for example, be encountered when the circuit contains  equipment (such as transformers, relays, remote-control switches, contactors)  insufficiently insulated with respect to circuits at higher voltages. The electrical separation of circuits  (see Fig. F22) The principle of the electrical separation of circuits (generally single-phase circuits)  for safety purposes is based on the following rationale. The two conductors from the unearthed single-phase secondary winding  of a separation transformer are insulated from earth. If a direct contact is made with one conductor, a very small current only will flow into  the person making contact, through the earth and back to the other conductor, via  the inherent capacitance of that conductor with respect to earth. Since the conductor  capacitance to earth is very small, the current is generally below the level of perception.   As the length of circuit cable increases, the direct contact current will progressively  increase to a point where a dangerous electric shock will be experienced.Even if a short length of cable precludes any danger from capacitive current, a low  value of insulation resistance with respect to earth can result in danger, since the  current path is then via the person making contact, through the earth and back to the  other conductor through the low conductor-to-earth insulation resistance. For these reasons, relatively short lengths of well insulated cables are essential in  separation systems. Transformers are specially designed for this duty, with a high degree of insulation  between primary and secondary windings, or with equivalent protection, such as an  earthed metal screen between the windings. Construction of the transformer is to  class II insulation standards. The electrical separation of circuits is suitable for relatively short cable lengths and high levels of insulation resistance. It is preferably used for an individual appliance 230 V/230 V

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Protection against indirect  contact (1) It is recommended in IEC 364-4-41 that the product of the  nominal voltage of the circuit in volts and length in metres of the wiring system should not exceed 100000, and that the length of the wiring system should not exceed 500 m. As indicated before, successful exploitation of the principle requires that:  b  No conductor or exposed conductive part of the secondary circuit must be  connected to earth, b   The length of secondary cabling must be limited to avoid large capacitance values (1) , b   A high insulation-resistance value must be maintained for the cabling and appliances. These conditions generally limit the application of this safety measure to  an individual appliance. In the case where several appliances are supplied from a separation transformer, it  is necessary to observe the following requirements: b  The exposed conductive parts of all appliances must be connected together    by an insulated protective conductor, but not connected to earth, b  The socket outlets must be provided with an earth-pin connection. The earth-pin  connection is used in this case only to ensure the interconnection (bonding) of all  exposed conductive parts. In the case of a second fault, overcurrent protection must provide automatic disconnection in the same conditions as those required for an IT system of power system earthing. Class II equipment These appliances are also referred to as having “double insulation” since in class  II appliances a supplementary insulation is added to the basic insulation (see  Fig. F23).  No conductive parts of a class II appliance must be connected to a protective conductor: b  Most portable or semi-fixed equipment, certain lamps, and some types of  transformer are designed to have double insulation. It is important to take particular  care in the exploitation of class II equipment and to verify regularly and often that the  class II standard is maintained (no broken outer envelope, etc.). Electronic devices,  radio and television sets have safety levels equivalent to class II, but are not formally  class II appliances b  Supplementary insulation in an electrical installation: IEC 60364-4-41(Sub-clause  413-2) and some national standards such as NF C 15-100 (France) describe in  more detail the necessary measures to achieve the supplementary insulation during installation work. Class II equipment symbol: Fig. F23 : Principle of class II insulation level Active part Basic insulation Supplementary insulation   A simple example is that of drawing a cable into a PVC conduit. Methods are also  described for distribution switchboards. b  For ASSEMBLIES, IEC 61439-1 describes a set of requirements, for what is  referred to as “total insulation”, equivalent to class II equipment b   Some cables are recognised as being equivalent to class II by many national  standards. Out-of-arm’s reach or interposition of obstacles By these means, the probability of touching a live exposed-conductive-part, while at  the same time touching an extraneous-conductive-part at earth potential, is extremely low (see Fig. F24   next page). In practice, this measure can only be applied in a dry  location, and is implemented according to the following conditions: b  The floor and the wall of the chamber must be non-conducting, i.e. the resistance  to earth at any point must be: v   50 k Ω  (installation voltage  y  500 V) v   100 k Ω  (500 V installation voltage  y  1000 V) Resistance is measured by means of “MEGGER” type instruments (hand-operated  generator or battery-operated electronic model) between an electrode placed on the  floor or against the wall, and earth (i.e. the nearest protective earth conductor). The  electrode contact area pressure must be evidently be the same for all tests. Different instruments suppliers provide electrodes specific to their own product,    so that care should be taken to ensure that the electrodes used are those supplied  with the instrument. In principle, safety by placing simultaneously-accessible conductive parts out-of-reach, or by interposing obstacles, requires also a non- conducting floor, and so is not an easily applied  principle

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Earth-free equipotential chambers In this scheme, all exposed-conductive-parts, including the floor  (1)  are bonded by  suitably large conductors, such that no significant difference of potential can exist  between any two points. A failure of insulation between a live conductor and the  metal envelope of an appliance will result in the whole “cage” being raised to phase- to-earth voltage, but no fault current will flow. In such conditions, a person entering  the chamber would be at risk (since he/she would be stepping on to a live floor).  Suitable precautions must be taken to protect personnel from this danger (e.g. non- conducting floor at entrances, etc.). Special protective devices are also necessary    to detect insulation failure, in the absence of significant fault current. Fig. F24 : Protection by out-of arm’s reach arrangements and the interposition of non-conducting obstacles Electricalapparatus Electricalapparatus 2 m  Electricalapparatus Insulatedwalls Insulatedobstacles 2 m  Insulated floor 2.5 m     3  Protection against indirect  contact Earth-free equipotential chambers are associated with particular installations (laboratories, etc.) and give rise to a number   of practical installation difficulties b  The placing of equipment and obstacles must be such that simultaneous contact  with two exposed-conductive-parts or with an exposed conductive-part and an  extraneous-conductive-part by an individual person is not possible. b  No exposed protective conductor must be introduced into the chamber concerned. b  Entrances to the chamber must be arranged so that persons entering are not at  risk, e.g. a person standing on a conducting floor outside the chamber must not be  able to reach through the doorway to touch an exposed-conductive-part, such as a  lighting switch mounted in an industrial-type cast-iron conduit box, for example. (1) Extraneous conductive parts entering (or leaving) the  equipotential space (such as water pipes, etc.) must be  encased in suitable insulating material and excluded from the  equipotential network, since such parts are likely to be bonded  to protective (earthed) conductors elsewhere in the installation. Fig. F25 : Equipotential bonding of all exposed-conductive-parts simultaneously accessible Insulating material Conductive floor M

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Protection of goods  in case of insulation fault The standards consider the damage (mainly fire) of goods due to insulation faults  to be high. Therefore, for location with high risk of fire, 300 mA Residual Current  Devices must be used. For the other locations, some standards relies on technique  called "Ground Fault Protection" (GFP).  4.1  Measures of protection against fire risk    with RCDs RCDs are very effective devices to provide protection against fire risk due to  insulation fault. This type of fault current is actually too low to be detected by the  other protection (overcurrent, reverse time). For TT, IT TN-S systems in which leakage current can  appear, the use of 300 mA  sensitivity RCDs provides a good protection against fire risk due to this type of fault.An investigation has shown that the cost of the fires in industrial and tertiary  buildings can be very great. The analysis of the phenomena shows that fire risk due to electicity is linked to  overheating due to a bad coordination between the maximum rated current    of the cable (or isolated conductor) and the overcurrent protection setting. Overheating can also be due to the modification of the initial method of installation  (addition of cables on the same support).This overheating can be the origin of electrical arc in humid environment. These  electrical arcs evolve when the fault current-loop impedance is greater than 0.6  Ω  and exist only when an insulation fault occurs. Some tests have shown that a  300 mA fault current can induce a real risk of fire (see  Fig. F26). 4.2  Ground Fault Protection (GFP) Different type of ground fault protections  (see Fig. F27) Three types of GFP are possible dependind on the measuring device installed : b  “Residual Sensing” RS The “insulation fault” current is calculated using the vectorial sum of currents    of current transformers secondaries. The current transformer on the neutral  conductor is often outside the circuit breaker. b  “Source Ground Return” SGR The « insulation fault current » is measured in the neutral – earth link of the  LV transformer. The current transformer is outside the circuit breaker.  b   “Zero Sequence” ZS The « insulation fault » is directly measured at the secondary of the current transformer using the sum of currents in live conductors. This type of GFP  is only used with low fault current values. RCDs are very effective devices to provide  protection against fire risk due to insulation  fault because they can detect leakage current (ex : 300 mA) wich are too low for the other  protections, but sufficient to cause a fire Fig. F26 : Origin of fires in buildings Beginning of fire Humid dust I d 300 mA Some tests have shown that a very low leakage current (a few mA) can evolve and, from 300 mA,  induce a fire in humid and dusty environment. L1L2L3N R L1 L2 L3 N PE R L1L2L3N R RS system SGR system ZS system Fig. F27 : Different types of ground fault protections  F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Positioning GFP devices in the installation 4  Protection of goods  in case of insulation fault Type / installation level  Main-distribution  Sub-distribution  Comments Source Ground Return  v     Used   (SGR)Residual Sensing (RS)  v   b   Often used  (SGR) Zero Sequence  v   b   Rarely used   (SGR) v  Possible b  Recommended or required

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Implementation of the TT system 5.1  Protective measures Protection against indirect contact General case Protection against indirect contact is assured by RCDs, the sensitivity  IΔ n of which  complies with the condition    I∆ n  50 V R y A (1) The choice of sensitivity of the residual current device is a function of the resistance  R A  of the earth electrode for the installation, and is given in   Figure F28.  Fig. F28 : The upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be  exceeded, for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at U L  voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V Case of distribution circuits (see   Fig. F29) IEC 60364-4-41 and a number of national standards recognize a maximum tripping  time of 1 second in installation distribution circuits (as opposed to final circuits). This  allows a degree of selective discrimination to be achieved: b    At level A: RCD time-delayed, e.g. “S” type b    At level B: RCD instantaneous. Case where the exposed conductive parts of an appliance, or group of appliances, are connected to a separate earth electrode (see Fig. F30) Protection against indirect contact by a RCD at the circuit breaker level protecting  each group or separately-earthed individual appliance. In each case, the sensitivity must be compatible with the resistance of the earth  electrode concerned. High-sensitivity RCDs  (see Fig. F31)   According to IEC 60364-4-41, high sensitivity RCDs (y 30 mA) must be used for  protection of socket outlets with rated current  y  20 A in all locations. The use of such  RCDs is also recommended in the following cases: b  Socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings b  Socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations b  Circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools b  Supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs      See 2.2 and chapter P, section 3. Fig. F29 : Distribution circuits Fig. F30 : Separate earth electrode Fig. F31 : Circuit supplying socket-outlets A B RCD RCD RCD R A1 R A2 Distant location (1) 25 V for work-site installations, agricultural establishments, etc. F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires IΔ n  Maximum resistance of the earth electrode    (50 V)  (25 V) 3 A  16  Ω  8  Ω 1 A  50  Ω  25  Ω 500 mA  100  Ω  50  Ω 300 mA  166  Ω  83  Ω 30 mA  1666  Ω  833  Ω

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires In high fire risk  locations  (see Fig. F32) RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk    is necessary in some locations, and mandatory in many countries. The sensitivity of the RCD must be y 500 mA, but a 300 mA sensitivity    is recommended. Protection when exposed conductive parts are not connected to earth  (see Fig. F33) (In the case of an existing installation where the location is dry and provision of  an earthing connection is not possible, or in the event that a protective earth wire  becomes broken).RCDs of high sensitivity (y 30 mA) will afford both protection against indirect-contact  hazards, and the additional protection against the dangers of direct-contact. Fig. F32 : Fire-risk location Fire-risklocation Fig. F33 : Unearthed exposed conductive parts (A) 5.2  Coordination of residual current protective devices Discriminative-tripping coordination is achieved either by time-delay or by subdivision  of circuits, which are then protected individually or by groups, or by a combination of  both methods.Such discrimination avoids the tripping of any RCD, other than that immediately  upstream of a fault position: b  With equipment currently available, discrimination is possible at three or four  different levels of distribution : v  At the main general distribution board v  At local general distribution boards v  At sub-distribution boards v  At socket outlets for individual appliance protection b  In general, at distribution boards (and sub-distribution boards, if existing) and on  individual-appliance protection, devices for automatic disconnection in the event of  an indirect-contact hazard occurring are installed together with additional protection  against direct-contact hazards. Discrimination between RCDs The general specification for achieving total discrimination between two RCDs    is as follow: b  The ratio between the rated residual operating currents must be 2 b  Time delaying the upstream RCD Discrimination is achieved by exploiting the several levels of standardized sensitivity:  30 mA, 100 mA, 300 mA and 1 A and the corresponding tripping times, as shown opposite page in Figure F34.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Implementation of the TT system Discrimination at 2 levels  (see Fig. F35) Protection b  Level A: RCD time-delayed setting  I  (for industrial device) or type S (for domestic  device) for protection against indirect contacts b  Level B: RCD instantaneous, with high sensitivity on circuits supplying socket- outlets or appliances at high risk (washing machines, etc.) See also Chapter P  Clause 3. Schneider Electric solutions b  Level A: Compact or Acti 9 circuit breaker with adaptable RCD module  (Vigicompact NSX160), setting I or S type b  Level B: Circuit breaker with integrated RCD module (DPN Vigi) or adaptable  RCD module (e.g. Vigi iC60) or Vigicompact NSX Note : The setting of upstream RCCB must comply with selectivity rules and take into  account all the downstream earth leakage currents. Discrimination at 3 or 4 levels  (see Fig. F36) Protection b  Level A: RCD time-delayed (setting III) b  Level B: RCD time-delayed (setting II) b  Level C: RCD time-delayed (setting I) or type S b  Level D: RCD instantaneous Schneider Electric solutions b  Level A: Circuit breaker associated with RCD and separate toroidal transformer  (Vigirex RH) b  Level B: Vigicompact NSX or Vigirex b  Level C: Vigirex, Vigicompact NSX or Vigi iC60 b  Level D: v  Vigicompact NSX or v  Vigirex or v  Acti 9 with integrated or adaptable RCD module : Vigi iC60 or DPN Vigi Note : The setting of upstream RCCB must comply with selectivity rules and take into  account all the downstream earth leakage currents Discriminative protection at three levels  (see Fig. F37) Fig. F34 : Total discrimination at 2 levels t (ms)  40 10 60 100 130 150 200 250 500 1,000 300 10,000 15 Current (mA) 30 100 150 60 300 500 600 1,000 1 1.5 10 100 500 1,000 (A) I II selective RCDsdomestic    and industrial(settings I and II) RCD 30 mAgeneral domesticand industrial setting 0  S Fig. F35 : Total discrimination at 2 levels A B RCD 300 mAtype S RCD30 mA Fig. F36 : Total discrimination at 3 or 4 levels A B C D Relay with separatetoroidal CT 3 Adelay time 500 ms RCCB 1 Adelay time 250 ms RCCB30 mA RCCB 300 mAdelay time 50 msor type S

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 5  Implementation of the TT system Fig. F37 : Typical 3-level installation, showing the protection of distribution circuits in a TT-earthed system. One motor is provided with specific protection     Vigilohm IM9-OL Alarm Test Vigilohm  IM 9 Test ON Std    Fail sa fe 5 10 25 50 100 250 1 2.5 10 20 50 100 200 500 2 5 Pre-Ala rm Alarm Relay QZ-2009-W13-1-000 1 110-415 V 50-60 Hz Masterpact MV/LV Vigi NG125300 mAselective ReflexiC60 diff.30 mA Vigi NG125 LMAinstantaneous300 mA Leakage currentof the filter: 20 mA Terminalboard Discont. VigicompactNSX100Setting 1300 mA NSX100 MA NSX400 Leakage current equal to 3.5 mA per socket outlet (Information technology equipement): max 4 sockets outlets.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6  Implementation of the TN system 6.1  Preliminary conditions At the design stage, the maximum permitted lengths of cable downstream    of a protective circuit breaker (or set of fuses) must be calculated, while during    the installation work certain rules must be fully respected.Certain conditions must be observed, as listed below and illustrated in  Figure F38. 1.  PE conductor must be regularly connected to earth as much as possible. 2. The PE conductor must not pass through ferro-magnetic conduit, ducts, etc. or  be mounted on steel work, since inductive and/or proximity effects can increase the  effective impedance of the conductor. 3. In the case of a PEN conductor (a neutral conductor which is also used   as a protective conductor), connection must be made directly to the earth terminal    of an appliance (see 3 in Figure F38 ) before being looped to the neutral terminal    of the same appliance. 4. Where the conductor  y  6 mm 2  for copper or 10 mm 2  for aluminium, or where   a cable is movable, the neutral and protective conductors should be separated    (i.e. a TN-S system should be adopted within the installation). 5.  Earth faults may be cleared by overcurrent-protection devices, i.e. by fuses    and circuit breakers.The foregoing list indicates the conditions to be respected in the implementation    of a TN scheme for the protection against indirect contacts. Fig. F38 : Implementation of the TN system of earthing Notes: b  The TN scheme requires that the LV neutral of the MV/LV transformer, the exposed  conductive parts of the substation and of the installation, and the extraneous conductive  parts in the substation and installation, all be earthed to a common earthing system. b  For a substation in which the metering is at low-voltage, a means of isolation is required    at the origin of the LV installation, and the isolation must be clearly visible. b  A PEN conductor must never be interrupted under any circumstances. Control and  protective switchgear for the several TN arrangements will be: v  3-pole when the circuit includes a PEN conductor, v  Preferably 4-pole (3 phases + neutral) when the circuit includes a neutral with a separate  PE conductor. RpnA PEN TN-C system TN-C-S system PE N 3 4 5 5 2 2 5 1 Three methods of calculation are commonly used: b  The method of impedances, based on the  trigonometric addition of the system resistances and inductive reactances b  The method of composition b  The conventional method, based on an  assumed voltage drop and the use of prepared tables 6.2  Protection against indirect contact Methods of determining levels of short-circuit current In TN-earthed systems, a short-circuit to earth will, in principle, always provide  sufficient current to operate an overcurrent device.  The source and supply mains impedances are much lower than those of the installation circuits, so that any restriction in the magnitude of earth-fault currents will  be mainly caused by the installation conductors (long flexible leads to appliances  greatly increase the “fault-loop” impedance, with a corresponding reduction of short- circuit current). The most recent IEC recommendations for indirect-contact protection on TN earthing  systems only relates maximum allowable tripping times to the nominal system  voltage (see Fig. F12  in Sub-clause 3.3). F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F24 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires The reasoning behind these recommendations is that, for TN systems, the current  which must flow in order to raise the potential of an exposed conductive part to 50 V  or more is so high that one of two possibilities will occur: b  Either the fault path will blow itself clear, practically instantaneously, or  b  The conductor will weld itself into a solid fault and provide adequate current   to operate overcurrent devices. To ensure correct operation of overcurrent devices in the latter case, a reasonably  accurate assessment of short-circuit earth-fault current levels must be determined    at the design stage of a project. A rigorous analysis requires the use of phase-sequence-component techniques  applied to every circuit in turn. The principle is straightforward, but the amount    of computation is not considered justifiable, especially since the zero-phase- sequence impedances are extremely difficult to determine with any reasonable  degree of accuracy in an average LV installation. Other simpler methods of adequate accuracy are preferred. Three practical methods are: b  The “ method of impedances ”, based on the summation of all the impedances  (positive-phase-sequence only) around the fault loop, for each circuit b  The “ method of composition ”, which is an estimation of short-circuit current at  the remote end of a loop, when the short-circuit current level at the near end  of the loop is known b  The “ conventional method ” of calculating the minimum levels of earth-fault  currents, together with the use of tables of values for obtaining rapid results.These methods are only reliable for the case in which the cables that make up the  earth-fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and not separated by  ferro-magnetic materials. Method of impedances This method summates the positive-sequence impedances of each item (cable, PE  conductor, transformer, etc.) included in the earth-fault loop circuit from which the short-circuit earth-fault current is calculated, using the formula: I = ( ) + ( ) ∑ ∑ Uo R X 2 2 where( Σ R)  2  = (the sum of all resistances in the loop) 2  at the design stage of a project. and ( Σ X)  2  = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)  2 and U = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage. The application of the method is not always easy, because it supposes a knowledgeof all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. In manycases, a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. Method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end of a loopfrom the known value of short-circuit at the sending end, by means of theapproximate formula: where ( Σ R)  2  = (the sum of all resistances in the loop) 2  at the design stage of a project. and ( Σ X)  2  = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)  2 and Uo = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage.The application of the method is not always easy, because it supposes a knowledge  of all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. In many cases, a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. Method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end   of a loop from the known value of short-circuit at the sending end, by means    of the approximate formula: Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F26 F - Protection against electric shock The reasoning behind these recommendations is that, for TN systems, the currentwhich must flow in order to raise the potential of an exposed conductive part to 50 Vor more is so high that one of two possibilities will occur: c  Either the fault path will blow itself clear, practically instantaneously, or c  The conductor will weld itself into a solid fault and provide adequate current to operate overcurrent devices To ensure correct operation of overcurrent devices in the latter case, a reasonablyaccurate assessment of short-circuit earth-fault current levels must be determined atthe design stage of a project. A rigorous analysis requires the use of phase-sequence-component techniquesapplied to every circuit in turn. The principle is straightforward, but the amount ofcomputation is not considered justifiable, especially since the zero-phase-sequenceimpedances are extremely difficult to determine with any reasonable degree ofaccuracy in an average LV installation. Other simpler methods of adequate accuracy are preferred. Three practical methodsare: c  The “method of impedances”, based on the summation of all the impedances (positive-phase-sequence only) around the fault loop, for each circuit c  The “method of composition”, which is an estimation of short-circuit current at the remote end of a loop, when the short-circuit current level at the near end of theloop is known c  The “conventional method” of calculating the minimum levels of earth-fault currents, together with the use of tables of values for obtaining rapid results These methods are only reliable for the case in which the cables that make up theearth-fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and not separated byferro-magnetic materials. Method of impedances This method summates the positive-sequence impedances of each item (cable, PEconductor, transformer, etc.) included in the earth-fault loop circuit from which theshort-circuit earth-fault current is calculated, using the formula: I = U where( Σ R)  2  = (the sum of all resistances in the loop) 2  at the design stage of a project. and ( Σ X)  2  = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)  2 and U = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage. The application of the method is not always easy, because it supposes a knowledgeof all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. In manycases, a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. Method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end of a loopfrom the known value of short-circuit at the sending end, by means of theapproximate formula: I I I sc sc Uo = U + Zs  where I sc = upstream short-circuit current I  = end-of-loop short-circuit current U = nominal system phase voltageZs = impedance of loop Note: in this method the individual impedances are added arithmetically (1)  as opposed to the previous “method of impedances” procedure. Conventional method This method is generally considered to be sufficiently accurate to fix the upper limitof cable lengths. Principle The principle bases the short-circuit current calculation on the assumption that thevoltage at the origin of the circuit concerned (i.e. at the point at which the circuitprotective device is located) remains at 80% or more of the nominal phase to neutralvoltage. The 80% value is used, together with the circuit loop impedance, tocompute the short-circuit current. For calculations, modern practice is to usesoftware agreed by National Authorities, andbased on the method of impedances, such asEcodial 3. National Authorities generally alsopublish Guides, which include typical values,conductor lengths, etc. (1) This results in a calculated current value which is less thanthat which would actually flow. If the overcurrent settings arebased on this calculated value, then operation of the relay, orfuse, is assured. 6  Implementation ofthe TN system I U + Zs. sc I sc where I sc = upstream short-circuit current I  = end-of-loop short-circuit current Uo = nominal system phase voltage Zs = impedance of loop Note: in this method the individual impedances are added arithmetically (1)  as  opposed to the previous “method of impedances” procedure. Conventional method This method is generally considered to be sufficiently accurate to fix the upper limit  of cable lengths. Principle The principle bases the short-circuit current calculation on the assumption that the  voltage at the origin of the circuit concerned (i.e. at the point at which the circuit  protective device is located) remains at 80 % or more of the nominal phase to neutral  voltage. The 80 % value is used, together with the circuit loop impedance,    to compute the short-circuit current. For calculations, modern practice is to use software agreed by National Authorities, and based on the method of impedances, such as Ecodial. National Authorities generally also publish Guides, which include typical values, conductor lengths, etc. (1) This results in a calculated current value which is less than  that it would actually flow. If the overcurrent settings are based  on this calculated value, then operation of the relay, or fuse, is assured.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F25 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6  Implementation of the TN system This coefficient takes account of all voltage drops upstream of the point considered.  In LV cables, when all conductors of a 3-phase 4-wire circuit are in close proximity  (which is the normal case), the inductive reactance internal to and between  conductors is negligibly small compared to the cable resistance.This approximation is considered to be valid for cable sizes up to 120 mm 2 . Above that size, the resistance value R is increased as follows: The maximum length of any circuit of a   TN-earthed installation is:  m a 0.8 Uo Sph + ( ) ρ 1 Ι Fig. F39 : Calculation of L max. for a TN-earthed system, using  the conventional method Core size (mm 2 )  Value of resistance S = 150 mm 2   R+15 % S = 185 mm 2   R+20 % S = 240 mm 2   R+25 % I magn I d L C PE SPE Sph A B The maximum length of a circuit in a TN-earthed installation is given by the formula: L m a max 0.8 Uo Sph = + ( ) ρ 1 I where:Lmax = maximum length in metresUo = phase volts = 230 V for a 230/400 V system ρ  = resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm 2 /metre (= 22.5 10 -3  for copper; = 36 10 -3   for aluminium) I a = trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker, or I a = the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned, in the specified time. where:Lmax = maximum length in metres Uo = phase volts = 230 V for a 230/400 V system ρ  = resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm 2 /metre   (= 23.7 10 -3  for copper; = 37.6 10 -3   for aluminium) I a = trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker, or   I a = the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned, in the  specified time. m Sph SPE = Sph = cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm 2 SPE = cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm 2 . Tables The following tables, applicable to TN systems, have been established according tothe “conventional method” described above. The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of theconductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below thatrequired to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit, withsufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. Correction factor m Figure F44  indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in  Figures F45 to  F48  next pages, according to the ratio Sph/SPE, the type of circuit, and the conductor materials. The tables take into account: c  The type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses c  Operating-current settings c  Cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors c  Type of system earthing (see  Fig. F49 page F29) c  Type of circuit breaker (i.e. B, C or D) The tables may be used for 230/400 V systems. Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Multi 9 circuit breakers (MerlinGerin) are included in the relevant catalogues. Fig. F44 : Correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables F44 to F47 for Sph = cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm 2 SPE = cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm 2 . (see Fig. F39) Tables The following tables, applicable to TN systems, have been established according to  the “conventional method” described above.The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of the  conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that  required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit, with  sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. Correction factor mFigure F40 indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in Figures F41 to   F44  next pages, according to the ratio Sph/SPE, the type of circuit, and the  conductor materials. The tables take into account: b  The type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses b  Operating-current settings b  Cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors b  Type of system earthing (see   Fig. F45 page F27) b  Type of circuit breaker (i.e. B, C or D) (1) The tables may be used for 230/400 V systems.Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Acti 9 circuit breakers  (Schneider Electric) are included in the relevant catalogues.Circuits protected by general purpose circuit breakers (Fig. F41) Fig. F40  : Correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables F41 to F44 for TN systems Circuit  Conductor  m = Sph/SPE (or PEN)    material  m = 1  m = 2  m = 3  m = 4 3P + N or P + N  Copper  1  0.67  0.50  0.40   Aluminium  0.62 0.42 0.31 0.25 The following tables give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded, in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices (1) For the definition of type B, C, D circuit breakers, refer to  chapter H, clause 4.2

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F26 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Circuits protected by Compact or Acti 9   circuit breakers for industrial  Nominal    Instantaneous or short-time-delayed tripping current  I m (amperes)  cross-      sectional area of  conductors mm 2   50  63  80  100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 560 630 700 800 875 1000 1120 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000  12500 1.5 100  79 63 50 40 31 25 20 16 13 10 9  8  7  6  6  5  4  4 2.5 167  133  104  83 67 52 42 33 26 21 17 15 13 12 10 10 8  7  7  5  4 4  267  212  167  133  107  83 67 53 42 33 27 24 21 19 17 15 13 12 11 8  7  5  4 6  400  317  250  200  160  125  100  80 63 50 40 36 32 29 25 23 20 18 16 13 10 8  6  5  4 10     417  333  267  208  167  133  104  83 67 60 53 48 42 38 33 30 27 21 17 13 10 8  7  5  4 16         427  333  267  213  167  133  107  95 85 76 67 61 53 48 43 33 27 21 17 13 11 8  7  5  4 25             417  333  260  208  167  149  132  119  104  95 83 74 67 52 42 33 26 21 17 13 10 8  7 35               467  365  292  233  208  185  167  146  133  117  104  93 73 58 47 36 29 23 19 15 12 9 50                  495 396 317 283 251 226 198 181 158 141 127 99  79  63  49  40  32  25  20  16  13 70                        417 370 333 292 267 233 208 187 146 117 93  73  58  47  37  29  23  19 95               452  396  362  317  283  263  198  158  127  99  79  63  50  40  32  25 120                 457  400  357  320  250  200  160  125  100  80  63  50  40  32 150                  435  388  348  272  217  174  136  109  87  69  54  43  35 185                   459  411  321  257  206  161  128  103  82  64  51  41 240                     400  320    256  200  160  128  102  80  64  51 or domestic use (Fig. F42 to Fig. F44)Example Fig. F41 : Maximum circuit lengths (in metres) for different sizes of copper conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers  in 230/400 V TN system with m = 1 Sph  Rated current (A)               mm 2   1  2  3  4  6  10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100  125 1.5 1200  600  400  300  200  120  75 60 48 37 30 24 19 15 12 10 2.5   1000  666  500  333  200  125  100  80 62 50 40 32 25 20 16 4      1066  800 533 320 200 160 128 100 80  64  51  40  32  26 6        1200  800 480 300 240 192 150 120 96  76  60  48  38 10            800 500 400 320 250 200 160 127 100 80  64 16              800 640 512 400 320 256 203 160 128 102 25                  800 625 500 400 317 250 200 160 35           875  700  560  444  350  280  224 50             760  603  475  380  304 Fig. F42 : Maximum circuit lengths (in meters) for different sizes of copper conductor and rated currents for type B  (1)  circuit breakers in a 230/400 V single-phase   or three-phase TN system with m = 1 (1) For the definition of type B and C circuit breakers refer to chapter H clause 4.2. Sph  Rated current (A)               mm 2   1  2  3  4  6  10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100  125 1.5 600  300  200  150  100  60 37 30 24 18 15 12 9  7  6  5 2.5   500  333  250  167  100  62 50 40 31 25 20 16 12 10 8 4      533  400  267  160  100  80 64 50 40 32 25 20 16 13 6        600  400  240  150  120  96 75 60 48 38 30 24 19 10          667 400 250 200 160 125 100 80  63  50  40  32 16            640 400 320 256 200 160 128 101 80  64  51 25              625 500 400 312 250 200 159 125 100 80 35              875 700 560 437 350 280 222 175 140 112 50                  760 594 475 380 301 237 190 152 Fig. F43 : Maximum circuit lengths (in metres) for different sizes of copper conductor and rated currents for type C  (1)  circuit breakers in a 230/400 V single-phase   or three-phase TN system with m = 1

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F27 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6  Implementation of the TN system A 3-phase 4-wire (230/400 V) installation is TN-C earthed. A circuit is protected    by a type B circuit breaker rated at 63 A, and consists of an aluminium cored cable  with 50 mm 2  phase conductors and a neutral conductor (PEN) of 25 mm 2 . What is the maximum length of circuit, below which protection of persons against  indirect-contact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay    of the circuit breaker ? Figure F42 gives, for 50 mm 2  and a 63 A type B circuit breaker, 603 metres, to which  must be applied a factor of 0.42 ( Figure F40 for m Sph SPE =  = 2).. The maximum length of circuit is therefore:  603 x 0.42 = 253 metres. Particular case where one or more exposed conductive part(s) is (are) earthed to a separate earth electrode Protection must be provided against indirect contact by a RCD at the origin of any  circuit supplying an appliance or group of appliances, the exposed conductive parts of which are connected to an independent earth electrode. The sensitivity of the RCD must be adapted to the earth electrode resistance (R A2  in  Figure F45 ). See specifications applicable to TT system. 6.3   High-sensitivity RCDs  (see Fig. F31)   According to IEC 60364-4-41, high sensitivity RCDs (y 30 mA) must be used for  protection of socket outlets with rated current  y  20 A in all locations. The use of such  RCDs is also recommended in the following cases: b  Socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings b  Socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations b  Circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools b  Supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs      See 2.2 and chapter P, al section 3. Sph  Rated current (A)               mm 2   1  2  3  4  6  10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100  125 1.5 429  214  143  107  71 43 27 21 17 13 11 9  7  5  4  3 2.5 714  357  238  179  119  71 45 36 29 22 18 14 11 9  7  6 4    571  381  286  190  114  71 80 46 36 29 23 18 14 11 9 6    857 571 429 286 171 107 120 69  54  43  34  27  21  17  14 10     952  714  476  286  179  200  114  89 71 57 45 36 29 23 16          762 457 286 320 183 143 114 91  73  57  46  37 25            714 446 500 286 223 179 143 113 89  71  57 35              625 700 400 313 250 200 159 125 80  100 50                848 543 424 339 271 215 170 136 109 Fig. F44 : Maximum circuit lengths (in metres) for different sizes of copper conductor and rated currents for type D  (1)  circuit breakers in a 230/400 V single-phase   or three-phase TN system with m = 1 (1) For the definition of type D circuit breaker refer to chapter H  Sub-clause 4.2. Fig. F45 : Separate earth electrode R A1 R A2 Distant location Fig. F46 : Circuit supplying socket-outlets

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F28 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 6.4  Protection in high fire-risk location According to IEC 60364-422-3.10, circuits in high fire-risk locations must be  protected by RCDs of sensitivity y 500 mA. This excludes the TN-C arrangement    and TN-S must be adopted.  A preferred sensitivity of 300 mA is mandatory in some countries (see   Fig. F47). 6.5  When the fault current-loop impedance  is particularly high  When the earth-fault current is limited due to an inevitably high fault-loop impedance,  so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to trip the circuit within the  prescribed time, the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1 (see Fig. F48) b  Install a circuit breaker which has a lower instantaneous magnetic tripping level,  for example: 2 I n  y   I rm  y  4 I n This affords protection for persons on circuits which are abnormally long. It must  be checked, however, that high transient currents such as the starting currents of  motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. b  Schneider Electric solutions v  Type G Compact (2 I m  y   I rm  y  4 I m) v  Type B Acti 9 circuit breaker Suggestion 2 (see Fig. F49) b  Install a RCD on the circuit. The device does not need to be highly-sensitive  (HS) (several amps to a few tens of amps). Where socket-outlets are involved, the  particular circuits must, in any case, be protected by HS (y 30 mA) RCDs; generally  one RCD for a number of socket outlets on a common circuit. b  Schneider Electric solutions v  RCD Vigi NG125 :  IΔ n = 1 or 3 A v  Vigicompact REH or REM:  IΔ n = 3 to 30 A v  Type B Acti 9 circuit breaker Suggestion 3 Increase the size of the PE or PEN conductors and/or the phase conductors, to  reduce the loop impedance.Suggestion 4Add supplementary equipotential conductors. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3, i.e. a reduction in the earth-fault-loop resistance, while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. The effectiveness  of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed  conductive part and the local main protective conductor. For TN-C installations, bonding as shown in  Figure F50 is not allowed, and  suggestion 3 should be adopted. Fig. F47 : Fire-risk location Fire-risklocation Fig. F48 : Circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic  tripping 2  y   I rm  y  4 I n PE or PEN Great length of cable Fig. F49 : RCD protection on TN systems with high earth-fault- loop impedance Fig. F50 : Improved equipotential bonding Phases Neutral PE 6  Implementation of the TN system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F29 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  Implementation of the IT system The basic feature of the IT earthing system is that, in the event of a short-circuit to  earth fault, the system can continue to operate without interruption. Such a fault is  referred to as a “first fault”.  In this system, all exposed conductive parts of an installation are connected via PE conductors to an earth electrode at the installation, while the neutral point  of the supply transformer is:  b  Either isolated from earth  b  Or connected to earth through a high resistance (commonly 1000 ohms or more). This means that the current through an earth fault will be measured in milli-amps,  which will not cause serious damage at the fault position, or give rise to dangerous  touch voltages, or present a fire hazard. The system may therefore be allowed to  operate normally until it is convenient to isolate the faulty section for repair work. This enhances continuity of service.   In practice, the system earthing requires certain specific measures for its satisfactory  exploitation: b  Permanent monitoring of the insulation with respect to earth, which must signal  (audibly or visually) the occurrence of the first fault b  A device for limiting the voltage which the neutral point of the supply transformer  can reach with respect to earth b  A “first-fault” location routine by an efficient maintenance staff. Fault location is  greatly facilitated by automatic devices which are currently available b  Automatic high-speed tripping of appropriate circuit breakers must take place in  the event of a “second fault” occurring before the first fault is repaired. The second  fault (by definition) is an earth fault affecting a different live conductor than that of the  first fault (can be a phase or neutral conductor) (1) . The second fault results in a short-circuit through the earth and/or through  PE bonding conductors. 7.1  Preliminary conditions  (see Fig. F51 and Fig. F52) (1) On systems where the neutral is distributed, as shown in  Figure F56. Minimum functions required  Components and devices  Examples Protection against overvoltages  (1) Voltage limiter  Cardew C   at power frequency Neutral earthing resistor  (2) Resistor  Impedance Zx   (for impedance earthing variation)         Overall earth-fault monitor  (3) Permanent insulation  Vigilohm IM10  with alarm for first fault condition  monitor PIM with alarm feature  or IM400 Automatic fault clearance  (4) Four-pole circuit breakers  Compact circuit breaker   on second fault and  (if the neutral is distributed)  or RCD-MS   protection of the neutral  all 4 poles trip  conductor against overcurrent Location of first fault  (5) With device for fault-location  Vigilohm XGR+XRM or     on live system, or by successive  XD312 or XL308      opening of circuits Fig. F51 : Essential functions in IT schemes and examples with Schneider Electric products Fig. F52 : Positions of essential functions in 3-phase 3-wire IT-earthed system L1L2L3 N HV/LV 4 4 2 1 3 5 4 F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires 7.2  Protection against indirect contact First-fault condition The earth-fault current which flows under a first-fault condition is measured in    milli-amps.  The fault voltage with respect to earth is the product of this current and the resistance of the installation earth electrode and PE conductor (from the faulted component to the electrode). This value of voltage is clearly harmless and could amount to several volts only in the worst case (1000  Ω  earthing resistor will pass 230  mA (1)  and a poor installation earth-electrode of 50 ohms, would give 11.5 V,   for example). An alarm is given by the permanent insulation monitoring device. Principle of earth-fault monitoringA generator of very low frequency a.c. current, or of d.c. current, (to reduce the  effects of cable capacitance to negligible levels) applies a voltage between the  neutral point of the supply transformer and earth. This voltage causes a small current  to flow according to the insulation resistance to earth of the whole installation, plus  that of any connected appliance. Low-frequency instruments can be used on a.c. systems which generate transient  d.c. components under fault conditions. Certain versions can distinguish between  resistive and capacitive components of the leakage current. Modern equipment allow the measurement of leakage-current evolution, so that  prevention of a first fault can be achieved. Examples of equipment b  Manual fault-location (see Fig. F53) The generator may be fixed (example: IM400) or portable (example: XGR permitting  the checking of dead circuits) and the receiver, together with the magnetic clamp- type pick-up sensor, are portable. Modern monitoring systems greatly facilitate  first-fault location and repair (1) On a 230/400 V 3-phase system. Fault-location systems comply with IEC 61157-9 standard Fig. F53 : Non-automatic (manual) fault location XGR XRM IM400

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F31 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  Implementation of the IT system Fig. F54 : Fixed automatic fault location Fig. F55 : Automatic fault location and insulation-resistance data logging XD301 XD301 XD301 XD312 1 to 12 circuits Toroidal CTs IM400 b  Automatic monitoring, logging, and fault location (see Fig. F55) With Vigilohm system connected to a supervision system though Modbus RS485  communication, it is possible for a centralized supervision system to monitor  insulation level and status at global level as well as for every feeder.The central monitor XM300, together with the localization detectors XL308  and XL316, associated with toroidal CTs from several circuits, as shown below    in Fig. F55, provide the means for this automatic exploitation. b  Fixed automatic fault location (see Fig. F54) The PIM IM400, together with the fixed detectors XD301 or XD312 (each connected  to a toroidal CT embracing the conductors of the circuit concerned) provide a system  of automatic fault location on a live installation. Moreover, the level of insulation is indicated for each monitored circuit, and two  levels are checked: the first level warns of unusually low insulation resistance so that  preventive measures may be taken, while the second level indicates a fault condition  and gives an alarm. Upstream supervision can centralize insulation & capacitance levels thanks to the  IM400 embedded modbus communication. XM300 XL308 XL316

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Implementation of permanent insulation-monitoring (PIM) devices b  Connection The PIM device is normally connected between the neutral (or articificial neutral)  point of the power-supply transformer and its earth electrode. b  Supply Power supply to the PIM device should be taken from a highly reliable source. In  practice, this is generally directly from the installation being monitored, through  overcurrent protective devices of suitable short-circuit current rating. b  Level settings Certain national standards recommend a first setting at 20 % below the insulation  level of the new installation. This value allows the detection of a reduction  of the insulation quality, necessitating preventive maintenance measures  in a situation of incipient failure.  The detection level for earth-fault alarm will be set at a much lower level.By way of an example, the two levels might be:  v  New installation insulation level: 100 k Ω v  Leakage current without danger: 500 mA (fire risk at 500 mA) v  Indication levels set by the consumer: - Threshold for preventive maintenance: 0.8 x 100 = 80 k Ω - Threshold for short-circuit alarm: 500  Ω Notes: v  Following a long period of shutdown, during which the whole, or part of the installation  remains de-energized, humidity can reduce the general level of insulation resistance.  This situation, which is mainly due to leakage current over the damp surface of healthy insulation, does not constitute a fault condition, and will improve rapidly as the normal temperature rise of current-carrying conductors reduces the surface humidity. v  Some PIM device (IM20, IM400 & XM300) can measure separately the resistive  and the capacitive current components of the leakage current to earth, thereby  deriving the true insulation resistance from the total permanent leakage current. The case of a second fault A second earth fault on an IT system (unless occurring on the same conductor as  the first fault) constitutes a phase-phase or phase-to-neutral fault, and whether  occurring on the same circuit as the first fault, or on a different circuit, overcurrent  protective devices (fuses or circuit breakers) would normally operate an automatic  fault clearance. The settings of overcurrent tripping relays and the ratings of fuses are the basic  parameters that decide the maximum practical length of circuit that can be  satisfactorily protected, as discussed in Sub-clause 6.2. Note: In normal circumstances, the fault current path is through common  PE conductors, bonding all exposed conductive parts of an installation, and so the  fault loop impedance is sufficiently low to ensure an adequate level of fault current.Where circuit lengths are unavoidably long, and especially if the appliances of a  circuit are earthed separately (so that the fault current passes through two earth  electrodes), reliable tripping on overcurrent may not be possible.In this case, an RCD is recommended on each circuit of the installation.Where an IT system is resistance earthed, however, care must be taken to ensure  that the RCD is not too sensitive, or a first fault may cause an unwanted trip-out.  Tripping of residual current devices which satisfy IEC standards may occur at values  of 0.5  IΔ n to  IΔ n, where  IΔ n is the nominal residual-current setting level.  Methods of determining levels of short-circuit current A reasonably accurate assessment of short-circuit current levels must be carried out  at the design stage of a project. A rigorous analysis is not necessary, since current magnitudes only are important for  the protective devices concerned (i.e. phase angles need not be determined) so that  simplified conservatively approximate methods are normally used. Three practical  methods are: b  The method of impedances , based on the vectorial summation of all the  (positive-phase-sequence) impedances around a fault-current loop b  The method of composition, which is an approximate estimation of short-circuit  current at the remote end of a loop, when the level of short-circuit current at the near  end of the loop is known. Complex impedances are combined arithmetically in this  method b  The conventional method, in which the minimum value of voltage at the origin of  a faulty circuit is assumed to be 80 % of the nominal circuit voltage, and tables are  used based on this assumption, to give direct readings of circuit lengths. Three methods of calculation are commonly used: b  The method of impedances, based on the  trigonometric addition of the system resistances and inductive reactances b  The method of composition b  The conventional method, based on an  assumed voltage drop and the use of prepared tables

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F33 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  Implementation of the IT system These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables which  make up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are not  separated by ferro-magnetic materials. Methods of impedances This method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT and  TN systems of earthing. Methods of composition This method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT and  TN systems of earthing. Conventional method (see   Fig. F56) The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 6.2 for a  TN system : the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceeded   downstream of a circuit breaker or fuses, to ensure protection by overcurrent devices.It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of two  concurrent faults. All cases are covered, however, if the overcurrent trip setting is based on the  assumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned,  while the second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit, as already  mentioned in Sub-clause 3.4. This may result, in general, in one trip-out only  occurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level), thereby leaving the system  in a first-fault situation, but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. b  For the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a  phase/phase short-circuit, so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximum  circuit length is  3  Uo. The maximum circuit length is given by:  F35 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock 7  Implementation of the IT system These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables whichmake up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are notseparated by ferro-magnetic materials. Methods of impedancesThis method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT andTN systems of earthing. Methods of compositionThis method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT andTN systems of earthing. Conventional method (see  Fig. F60 ) The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 6.2 for aTN system : the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceededdownstream of a circuit breaker or fuses, to ensure protection by overcurrent devices. It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of twoconcurrent faults. All cases are covered, however, if the overcurrent trip setting is based on theassumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned, whilethe second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit, as alreadymentioned in Sub-clause 3.4. This may result, in general, in one trip-out onlyoccurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level), thereby leaving the systemin a first-fault situation, but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. c  For the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a phase/phase short-circuit, so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximumcircuit length is  e  Uo. The maximum circuit length is given by: L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1  metres c  For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. In this case, Uo is the value touse for computing the maximum cable length, and L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1  metres i.e. 50% only of the length permitted for a TN scheme  (1) The software Ecodial is based on the “methodof impedance” The maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: c  For a 3-phase 3-wire scheme L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1 c  For a 3-phase 4-wire scheme L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1 (1) Reminder: There is no length limit for earth-fault protectionon a TT scheme, since protection is provided by RCDs of highsensitivity. Fig. F60 : Calculation of Lmax. for an IT-earthed system, showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition I d PE Neutre non distribué C D I d A B N I d PE Neutre distribué I d N  metres          b  For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will  occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. In this case, Uo is the value to  use for computing the maximum cable length, and  F35 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F - Protection against electric shock 7  Implementation of the IT system These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables whichmake up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are notseparated by ferro-magnetic materials. Methods of impedancesThis method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT andTN systems of earthing. Methods of compositionThis method as described in Sub-clause 6.2, is identical for both the IT andTN systems of earthing. Conventional method (see  Fig. F60 ) The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 6.2 for aTN system : the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceededdownstream of a circuit breaker or fuses, to ensure protection by overcurrent devices. It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of twoconcurrent faults. All cases are covered, however, if the overcurrent trip setting is based on theassumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned, whilethe second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit, as alreadymentioned in Sub-clause 3.4. This may result, in general, in one trip-out onlyoccurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level), thereby leaving the systemin a first-fault situation, but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. c  For the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a phase/phase short-circuit, so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximumcircuit length is  e  Uo. The maximum circuit length is given by: L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1  metres c  For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. In this case, Uo is the value touse for computing the maximum cable length, and L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1  metres i.e. 50% only of the length permitted for a TN scheme  (1) The software Ecodial is based on the “methodof impedance” The maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: c  For a 3-phase 3-wire scheme L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1 c  For a 3-phase 4-wire scheme L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ I 1 (1) Reminder: There is no length limit for earth-fault protectionon a TT scheme, since protection is provided by RCDs of highsensitivity. Fig. F60 : Calculation of Lmax. for an IT-earthed system, showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition I d PE Neutre non distribué C D I d A B N I d PE Neutre distribué I d N  metres i.e. 50 % only of the length pe rmitted for a TN scheme  (1) The software Ecodial is based on the “method of impedance” The maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: b  For a 3-phase 3-wire scheme  L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ Ι 1 L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ Ι 1 b  For a 3-phase 4-wire scheme  L a m max 0.8 Uo  3 Sph 2  = + ( ) ρ Ι 1 L a m max 0.8 Uo S1 2  = + ( ) ρ Ι 1 (1) Reminder: There is no length limit for earth-fault protection  on a TT scheme, since protection is provided by RCDs of high  sensitivity. Fig. F56 : Calculation of Lmax. for an IT-earthed system, showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition I d PE Non distributed neutral C D I d A B N I d PE Distributed neutral I d N

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires (1) The tables are those shown in Sub-clause 6.2 ( Figures  F41 to F44 ). However, the table of correction factors  (Figure F57 ) which takes into account the ratio Sph/SPE, and  of the type of circuit (3-ph 3-wire; 3-ph 4-wire; 1-ph 2-wire) as  well as conductor material, is specific to the IT system, and  differs from that for TN. In the preceding formulae:Lmax = longest circuit in metres Uo = phase-to-neutral voltage (230 V on a 230/400 V system) ρ  = resistivity at normal operating temperature (23.7 x 10 -3  ohms-mm 2 /m for copper,  37.6 x 10 -3  ohms-mm 2 /m for aluminium) I a = overcurrent trip-setting level in amps, or  I a = current in amps required to clear  the fuse in the specified time Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2005 F36 F - Protection against electric shock (1) The tables are those shown in Sub-clause 6.2 (Figures F45to F48). However, the table of correction factors (Figure F61)which takes into account the ratio Sph/SPE, and of the type ofcircuit (3-ph 3-wire; 3-ph 4-wire; 1-ph 2-wire) as well asconductor material, is specific to the IT system, and differsfrom that for TN. (2) These cases are treated in detail. In the preceding formulae: Lmax = longest circuit in metresUo = phase-to-neutral voltage (230 V on a 230/400 V system) ρ  = resistivity at normal operating temperature (22.5 x 10 -3  ohms-mm 2 /m for copper, 36 x 10 -3  ohms-mm 2 /m for aluminium) I a = overcurrent trip-setting level in amps, or  I a = current in amps required to clear the fuse in the specified time m Sph SPE = SPE = cross-sectional area of PE conductor in mm 2 S1 = S neutral if the circuit includes a neutral conductorS1 = Sph if the circuit does not include a neutral conductor Tables The following tables have been established according to the “conventional method”described above. The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of theconductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below thatrequired to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit, withsufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. The tables take intoaccount: c  The type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses, operating-current settings c  Cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors c  Type of earthing scheme c  Correction factor:  Figure F61  indicates the correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables F44 to F47, when considering an IT system The following tables (1)  give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded, in order thatpersons be protected against indirect contacthazards by protective devices Fig. F61 : Correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables F45 to F48 for TN systems Circuit Conductor m = Sph/SPE (or PEN) material m = 1 m = 2 m = 3 m = 4 3 phases Copper 0.86 0.57 0.43 0.34 Aluminium 0.54 0.36 0.27 0.21 3ph + N or 1ph + N Copper 0.50 0.33 0.25 0.20 Aluminium 0.31 0.21 0.16 0.12 ExampleA 3-phase 3-wire 230/400 V installation is IT-earthed. One of its circuits is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A, and consists of analuminium-cored cable with 50 mm 2  phase conductors. The 25 mm 2  PE conductor is also aluminum. What is the maximum length of circuit, below which protection ofpersons against indirect-contact hazards is assured by  the instantaneous magnetictripping relay of the circuit breaker?Figure F46 indicates 603 metres, to which must be applied a correction factor of 0.36(m = 2 for aluminium cable).The maximum length is therefore 217 metres. 7.3  High-sensitivity RCDs IEC 60364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity ( i  30 mA) in the following cases (see  Fig. F62  ): c  Socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of  i  32 A at any location (2) c  Socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings  (2) c  Socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations  (2) c  Circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools  (2) c  Supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs  (2) This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits: c  Strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets  u  20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use) c  In some countries, this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated  i  32 A. It is also recommended to limit the number of socket-outlet protected by a RCD (e.g. 10 socket-outlets for a RCD) Fig. F62  : Circuit supplying socket-outlets 7  Implementation of the IT system SPE = cross-sectional area of PE conductor in mm 2 S1 = S neutral if the circuit includes a neutral conductorS1 = Sph if the circuit does not include a neutral conductor. Tables The following tables have been established according to the “conventional method”  described above.The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of  the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below  that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit,  with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. The tables take into  account: b  The type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses, operating-current settings b  Cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors b  Type of earthing scheme b  Correction factor:   Figure F57 indicates the correction factor to apply to the lengths  given in tables F40 to F43, when considering an IT system. The following tables (1)  give the length of circuit  which must not be exceeded, in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices Fig. F57 : Correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables F41 to F44 for  IT systems Circuit  Conductor  m = Sph/SPE (or PEN)    material  m = 1  m = 2  m = 3  m = 4 3 phases  Copper  0.86  0.57  0.43  0.34   Aluminium  0.54 0.36 0.27 0.21 3ph + N or 1ph + N  Copper  0.50  0.33  0.25  0.20   Aluminium  0.31 0.21 0.16 0.12 Example A 3-phase 3-wire 230/400 V installation is IT-earthed.One of its circuits is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A, and consists of an  aluminium-cored cable with 50 mm 2  phase conductors. The 25 mm 2  PE conductor  is also aluminum. What is the maximum length of circuit, below which protection of  persons against indirect-contact hazards is assured by  the instantaneous magnetic  tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Figure F42  indicates 603 metres, to which must be applied a correction factor of  0.36 (m = 2 for aluminium cable). The maximum length is therefore 217 metres. 7.3  High-sensitivity RCDs According to IEC 60364-4-41, high sensitivity RCDs (y 30 mA) must be used for  protection of socket outlets with rated current  y  20 A in all locations. The use of such  RCDs is also recommended in the following cases: b  Socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings b  Socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations b  Circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools b  Supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs      See paragraph 2.2 and chapter Q, section 3. Fig. F58 : Circuit supplying socket-outlets

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F35 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  Implementation of the IT system 7.4  Protection in high fire-risk locations Protection by a RCD of sensitivity y  500 mA at the origin of the circuit supplying the  fire-risk locations is mandatory in some countries (see  Fig. F59). A preferred sensitivity of 300 mA may be adopted. 7.5  When the fault current-loop impedance  is particularly high  When the earth-fault current is restricted due to an inevitably high fault-loop  impedance, so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to trip the circuit  within the prescribed time, the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1 (see Fig. F60) b  Install a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with  an operation level which is lower than the usual setting, for example: 2 I n  y   I rm  y  4 I n This affords protection for persons on circuits which are abnormally long. It must  be checked, however, that high transient currents such as the starting currents of  motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. b  Schneider Electric solutions v  Compact NSX with G trip unit or Micrologic trip unit (2 I m  y   I rm  y  4 I m) v  Type B Acti 9 circuit breaker Suggestion 2 (see Fig. F61) Install a RCD on the circuit. The device does not need to be highly-sensitive (HS)  (several amps to a few tens of amps). Where socket-outlets are involved, the  particular circuits must, in any case, be protected by HS (y 30 mA) RCDs; generally  one RCD for a number of socket outlets on a common circuit. b  Schneider Electric solutions v  RCD Vigi NG125 :  IΔ n = 1 or 3 A v  Vigicompact MH or ME:  IΔ n = 3 to 30 A Suggestion 3 Increase the size of the PE conductors and/or the phase conductors, to reduce the  loop impedance. Suggestion 4 (see Fig. F62)Add supplementary equipotential conductors. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3, i.e. a reduction in the earth-fault-loop resistance, while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. The effectiveness  of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed  conductive part and the local main protective conductor. Fig. F59 : Fire-risk location Fig. F60 : A circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic  trip Fig. F61 : RCD protection  Fig. F62 : Improved equipotential bonding Phases Neutral PE 2  y    I  rm  y   4 I  n PE Great length of cable Fire-risklocation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F36 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Fig. F64 : Industrial-type CB with RCD module 8.1  Description of RCDs Principle The essential features are shown schematically in Figure F63  below. A magnetic core encompasses all the current-carrying conductors of an electric  circuit and the magnetic flux generated in the core will depend at every instant on  the arithmetical sum of the currents; the currents passing in one direction being  considered as positive ( I 1), while those passing in the opposite direction will be  negative ( I 2). In a normally healthy circuit  I 1 +  I 2 = 0 and there will be no flux in the magnetic core,  and zero e.m.f. in its coil. An earth-fault current  I d will pass through the core to the fault, but will return to the  source via the earth, or via protective conductors in a TN-earthed system. The current balance in the conductors passing through the magnetic core therefore  no longer exists, and the difference gives rise to a magnetic flux in the core.The difference current is known as the “residual” current and the principle is referred  to as the “residual current” principle.The resultant alternating flux in the core induces an e.m.f. in its coil, so that a current  I 3 flows in the tripping-device operating coil. If the residual current exceeds the value  required to operate the tripping device either directly or via an electronic relay, then  the associated circuit breaker will trip. 8.2  Types of RCDs Residual current devices (RCD) are commonly incorporated in or associated with the  following components: b  Industrial-type moulded-case circuit breakers (MCCB) and air circuit breakers  (ACB) conforming to IEC 60947-2 and its appendix B and M b  Industrial type miniature circuit breakers (MCB) conforming to IEC 60947-2 and its  appendix B and M b  Household and similar miniature circuit breakers (MCB) complying with IEC  60898, IEC 61008, IEC 61009 b  Residual load switch conforming to particular national standards b  Relays with separate toroidal (ring-type) current transformers, conforming to IEC 60947-2 Appendix MRCDs are mandatorily used at the origin of TT-earthed installations, where their  ability to discriminate with other RCDs allows selective tripping, thereby ensuring the  level of service continuity required. Industrial type circuit breakers with integrated or adaptable RCD module  (see Fig. F64) Industrial circuit breakers with an integrated RCD are covered in IEC 60947-2 and its appendix B Industrial type circuit breaker  Vigi Compact Acti 9 DIN-rail industrial  Circuit breaker with adaptable Vigi RCD module Adaptable residual current circuit breakers, including DIN-rail mounted units (e.g.  Compact or Acti 9), are available, to which may be associated an auxiliary    RCD module (e.g. Vigi). The ensemble provides a comprehensive range of protective functions (isolation,  protection against short-circuit, overload, and earth-fault. 8  Residual current devices (RCDs) Fig. F63 : The principle of RCD operation I 1 I 2 I 3

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F37 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. F65 : Domestic residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs) for earth leakage protection Household or domestic circuit breakers with an integrated RCD are covered in IEC 60898, IEC 61008 and IEC 61009 The incoming-supply circuit  breaker can also have time- delayed characteristics and  integrate a RCD (type S). “Monobloc” Déclic Vigi residual current circuit breakers  intended for protection of terminal socket-outlet circuits in domestic and tertiary sector applications. RCDs with separate toroidal CTs can be used in association with circuit breakers or  contactors. Residual current circuit breakers and RCDs with separate  toroidal current transformer  (see Fig. F66) Residual current load break switches are covered by particular national standards.RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers are standardized in IEC 60947-2 appendix M Fig. F66 : RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers (Vigirex) Household and similar miniature circuit breakers with RCD  (see Fig. F65)   8  Residual current devices (RCDs) 8.3  Sensitivity of RCDs to disturbances In certain cases, aspects of the environment can disturb the correct operation    of RCDs: b  “nuisance” tripping : Break in power supply without the situation being really  hazardous. This type of tripping is often repetitive, causing major inconvenience    and detrimental to the quality of the user's electrical power supply. b  non-tripping, in the event of a hazard.  Less perceptible than nuisance tripping,  these malfunctions must still be examined carefully since they undermine user  safety. This is why international standards define 3 categories of RCDs according to  their immunity to this type of disturbance (see below).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F38 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires t 1.2  s 50  s 0.5U  U  Umax Fig. F68 : Standardized 1.2/50  µ s voltage transient wave t 0.5 0.9 1 0.1 I Fig. F69 : Standardized current-impulse wave 8/20  µ s 10  s (f = 100 kHz) t 100% I 90% 10% ca.0.5  s 60% Fig. F67 : Standardized 0.5  µ s/100 kHz current transient wave Main disturbance types Permanent earth leakage currentsEvery LV installation has a permanent leakage current to earth, which is either due to: b  Unbalance of the intrinsic capacitance between live conductors and earth for  three-phase circuits or b  Capacitance between live conductors and earth for single-phase circuits The larger the installation the greater its capacitance with consequently increased leakage current.  The capacitive current to earth is sometimes increased significantly by filtering  capacitors associated with electronic equipment (automation, IT and computer- based systems, etc.). In the absence of more precise data, permanent leakage current in a given  installation can be estimated from the following values, measured at 230 V 50 Hz:Single-phase or three-phase line: 1.5 mA /100m b  Heating floor: 1mA / kW b  Fax terminal, printer: 1 mA b  Microcomputer, workstation: 2 mA b  Copy machine: 1.5 mA Since RCDs complying with IEC and many national standards may operate under,  the limitation of permanent leakage current to 0.25  IΔ n, by sub-division of circuits  will, in practice, eliminate any unwanted tripping. For very particular cases, such as the extension, or partial renovation of extended  IT-earthed installations, the manufacturers must be consulted. High frequency components  (harmonics, transients, etc.), are generated by  computer equipment power supplies, converters, motors with speed regulators,  fluorescent lighting systems and in the vicinity of high power switching devices and  reactive energy compensation banks.     Part of these high frequency currents may flow to earth through parasitic  capacitances. Although not hazardous for the user, these currents can still cause the  tripping of differential devices. Energization The initial energization of the capacitances mentioned above gives rise to high  frequency transient currents of very short duration, similar to that shown in Figure F67.  The sudden occurrence of a first-fault on an IT-earthed system also causes transient  earth-leakage currents at high frequency, due to the sudden rise of the two healthy  phases to phase/phase voltage above earth. Common mode overvoltages Electrical networks are subjected to overvoltages due to lightning strikes or to abrupt  changes of system operating conditions (faults, fuse operation, switching, etc.). These sudden changes often cause large transient voltages and currents in inductive  and capacitive circuits. Records have established that, on LV systems, overvoltages  remain generally below 6 kV, and that they can be adequately represented by the  conventional 1.2/50 μs impulse wave (see  Fig. F68). These overvoltages give rise to transient currents represented by a current impulse  wave of the conventional 8/20 μs form, having a peak value of several tens of  amperes (see Fig. F69). The transient currents flow to earth via the capacitances of the installation. Non-sinusoidal fault currents: RCDs type AC, A, B Standard IEC 60755 (General requirements for residual current operated protective  devices) defines three types of RCD depending on the characteristics of the fault  current: b  Type AC RCD for which tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents. b  Type A RCD for which tripping is ensured: v   for residual sinusoidal alternating currents, v   for residual pulsating direct currents, b  Type B RCD for which tripping is ensured: v   as for type A, v   for pure direct residual currents which may result from three-phase rectifying  circuits.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F39 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. F70 : External influence classification according to IEC 60364-3 standard Disturbed network Influence of  the electrical network Clean network Super- immunized  residual current protections Type A SI:  k SI  k    Super immunized  residual current protections SI  k    Super immunized  residual current protections + SI  k    Super immunized  residual current protections + Standard  immunized  residual current protections Type AC Appropriate additional protection  (sealed cabinet  or unit) Appropriate additional protection  (sealed cabinet  or unit + overpressure) AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 b  External  influences:  negligible, b  External  influences:  presence of corrosive or polluting atmospheric agents, b  External  influences:  intermittent or accidental action of certain common chemicals, b  External  influences:  permanent action of corrosive or polluting chemicals b  Equipment  characteristics: normal. b  Equipment  characteristics: e.g. conformity with salt mist or atmospheric pollution tests. b  Equipment  characteristics: corrosion protection. b  Equipment  characteristics:  specifically  studied according to the type of products. Examples of exposed sites External influences Iron and steel works. Presence of sulfur, sulfur vapor, hydrogen  sulfide. Marinas, trading ports, boats, sea edges, naval  shipyards. Salt atmospheres, humid outside, low temperatures. Swimming pools, hospitals, food & beverage. Chlorinated compounds. Petrochemicals. Hydrogen, combustion gases, nitrogen  oxides. Breeding facilities, tips. Hydrogen sulfide. 8  Residual current devices (RCDs) Cold:  in the cases of temperatures under - 5 °C, very high sensitivity  electromechanical relays in the RCD may be “welded” by the condensation –  freezing action. Type “Si” devices can operate under temperatures down to - 25 °C. Atmospheres with high concentrations of chemicals or dust: the special alloys  used to make the RCDs can be notably damaged by corrosion. Dust can also block  the movement of mechanical parts.   See the measures to be taken according to the levels of severity defined by  standards in Fig. F70. Regulations define the choice of earth leakage protection and its implementation.  The main reference texts are as follows: b  Standard IEC 60364-3: v  This gives a classification (AFx) for external influences in the presence of corrosive  or polluting substances. v  It defines the choice of materials to be used according to extreme influences.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F40 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Device type Nuisance trippings Non-trippings High frequency leakage current Fault current Low temperatures (down to - 25 °C) Corrosion Dust Rectified  alternating Pure direct AC b A b b b SI b b b b b b B b b b b b b Fig. F71 : Immunity level of Schneider Electric RCDs Immunity to nuisance tripping Type SI RCDs have been designed to avoid nuisance tripping or non-tripping in  case of polluted network, lightning effect, high frequency currents, RF waves, etc.  Figure F72  below indicates the levels of tests undergone by this type of RCDs. Disturbance type Rated test wave Immunity Acti 9 : ID-RCCB, DPN Vigi, Vigi iC60, Vigi C120, Vigi NG125 SI type Continuous disturbances Harmonics 1 kHz Earth leakage current = 8 x  I∆ n Transient disturbances Lightning induced overvoltage 1.2 / 50 µs pulse (IEC/ EN 61000-4-5) 4.5 kV between conductors 5.5 kV  / earth Lightning induced current 8 / 20 µs pulse (IEC/EN  61008) 5 kA peak Switching transient, indirect lightning currents 0.5 µs / 100 kHz “ ring  wave ”    (IEC/EN 61008) 400 A peak Downstream surge arrester operation, capacitance loading 10 ms pulse 500 A Electromagnetic compatibility Inductive load switchings  fluorescent lights, motors, etc.) Repeated bursts (IEC  61000-4-4) 5 kV / 2.5 kHz   4 kV / 400 kHz Fluorescent lights, thyristor controlled circuits, etc. RF conducted waves(level 4 IEC 61000-4-6)(level 4 IEC 61000-4-16) 30 V (150 kHz to 230 MHz)250 mA (15 kHz to 150 kHz) RF waves (TV&  radio, broadcact,  telecommunications,etc.) RF radiated waves 80 MHz to 1 GHz(IEC 61000-4-3) 30 V / m Fig. F72 : Immunity to nuisance tripping tests undergone by Schneider Electric RCDs Immunity level for Schneider Electric residual current devices The Schneider Electric range comprises various types of RCDs allowing earth  leakage protection to be adapted to each application. The table below indicates    the choices to be made according to the type of probable disturbances at the point    of installation.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F41 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Recommendations concerning the installation of RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers The detector of residual current is a closed magnetic circuit (usually circular)   of very high magnetic permeability, on which is wound a coil of wire, the ensemble  constituting a toroidal (or ring-type) current transformer. Because of its high permeability, any small deviation from perfect symmetry    of the conductors encompassed by the core, and the proximity of ferrous material  (steel enclosure, chassis members, etc.) can affect the balance of magnetic forces  sufficiently, at times of large load currents (motor-starting current, transformer  energizing current surge, etc.) to cause unwanted tripping of the RCD.Unless particular measures are taken, the ratio of operating current  IΔ n to maximum  phase current  I ph (max.) is generally less than 1/1000. This limit can be increased substantially (i.e. the response can be desensitized)    by adopting the measures shown in  Figure F73 , and summarized in  Figure F74.  Fig. F73 : Three measures to reduce the ratio  IΔ n / I ph (max.) L L = twice the diameter of the magnetic ring core  Fig. F74 : Means of reducing the ratio IΔn/Iph (max.) Measures  Diameter   Sensitivity    (mm)  diminution factor Careful centralizing of cables through the ring core    3 Oversizing of the ring core    ø50 → ø100  2     ø80 → ø200  2     ø120 → ø300  6 Use of a steel or soft-iron shielding sleeve  ø50  4  b  Of wall thickness 0.5 mm    ø80  3  b  Of length 2 x inside diameter of ring core  ø120  3  b  Completely surrounding the conductors and   ø200  2   overlapp ing the circular core equally at both ends      These measures can be combined. By carefully centralizing the cables in a ring core  of 200 mm diameter, where a 50 mm core would be large enough, and using a sleeve,  the ratio 1/1000 could become 1/30000. 8  Residual current devices (RCDs)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F42 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires Choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker  (RCCB - IEC 61008) Rated current The rated current of a RCCB is chosen according to the maximum sustained load  current it will carry. b  If the RCCB is connected in series with, and downstream of a circuit breaker, the  rated current of both items will be the same, i.e.  I n  u   I n1 (see Fig. F75a) b  If the RCCB is located upstream of a group of circuits, protected by  circuit breakers, as shown in  Figure F75b , then the RCCB rated current will be given  by: I n  u  ku x ks ( I n1 +  I n2 +  I n3 +  I n4) Electrodynamic withstand requirements Protection against short-circuits must be provided by an upstream SCPD ( Short- Circuit Protective D evice) but it is considered that where the RCCB is located in the  same distribution box (complying with the appropriate standards) as the downstream  circuit breakers (or fuses), the short-circuit protection afforded by these (outgoing- circuit) SCPDs is an adequate alternative. Coordination between the RCCB and  the SCPDs is necessary, and manufacturers generally provide tables associating  RCCBs and circuit breakers or fuses. Fig. F75 : Residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs) I n1 I n1 I n2 I n3 I n4 I n I n a b 8  Residual current devices (RCDs)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F43 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. F77 : Illustration of a resistive short circuit 9.1  Fires of electrical origin The European Fire Academy  (http://www.europeanfireacademy.com/)  estimates that  the 2,250,000 fires (total number of fires) that occur in Europe each year represent  more than 4,000 deaths and 100,000 injuries.  The buildings involved are residential buildings in more than 80 % of cases.Electricity is a very regularly identified cause of domestic fires.Depending on the country and the investigation methods, but also depending on the  means of identification, the proportions of electrical fires are: 13 % in the United States  (www.nfpa.org) ; 25 % in France (www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr); 34 % in Germany (www.ifs-kiel.de/); 40 % in Norway ( www.sintef.no). 9.2  Causes of fires of electrical origin Electrical fires are caused by overloads, short circuits and earth leakage currents,  but also by electric arcs in cables and connections. When a cable is locally damaged or an electrical connection comes loose, there are  two phenomena which can initiate a fire due to an arc: 1) Carbonization (see Fig. F76): Whenever a conductor is damaged or a connection is not properly tightened,   a localized hot spot occurs which carbonizes the insulating materials in the vicinity   of that conductor. Carbon being a conductive material, it enables flow of the current which becomes  excessive at various points.  Since the carbon is deposited in a non-homogeneous manner, the currents which  pass through it generate electric arcs to facilitate their paths. Then each arc amplifies  carbonization of the insulating materials, a reaction thus occurs which is maintained  until the quantity of carbon is high enough for an arc to inflame it spontaneously.  2) Resistive short circuit (see Fig. F77): Whenever the insulating materials between two live conductors are damaged, a  significant current can be established between the two conductors, but it is too  weak to be considered as a short circuit by a circuit breaker, and is undetectable by  residual current protective devices as this current does not go to earth. When passing through these insulating materials, these leakage currents optimize  their paths by generating arcs which gradually transform the insulating materials into  carbon. The insulating materials thus carbonized then amplify the current leak between the  two conductors. Thus, a new chain reaction occurs, amplifying the quantity of arc  current and carbon until the first flame appears from the carbon lit by one of the arcs. 9  Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD) Fig. F76 : Example of a carbonized connection

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F44 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved F - Protection against electric shocks and electric fires The common feature of these phenomena is ignition of the fire by arcs which inflame  the carbon: that is why detection of the presence of arcs is one way to prevent them  from turning into a disaster. These dangerous electric arcs are not detected by residual current devices nor by  circuit breakers or fuses. These phenomena can occur in the following situations (see Fig. F78): Fig. F78 : Situation increasing risks of fire Power supply cord subjected  to excessive forces   (by furniture or a position) Power supply cord defective following inappropriate or excessively numerous operations Cable weakened at connection Accidental damage to a cable Power sockets in poor condition Ageing of cable protective  devices Loose connections Cables damaged by their  environment: UV, vibrations,  moisture, rodents.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 F45 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. F79 : Example of an arc fault detector for residential  installations in Europe Fig. F80 : Typical waveform of electric arc. Voltage (black) and current (green)  9.3  Arc fault detectors The arc fault detector (see Fig. F79 ) technology makes it possible to detect  dangerous arcs and thus protect installations. Such devices have been deployed successfully in the United States since the early  2000s, and their installation is required by the National Electric Code.Since 2013, the IEC 62606 international standard defines  Arc Fault Detection  Devices (AFDDs) which detect the presence of dangerous electric arcs and cut off  the circuit's power supply to prevent initiating the first flame.  The arc fault detector monitors in real time numerous electrical parameters  of the circuit that it protects in order to detect information characteristic  of the presence of dangerous electric arcs. For example, distortion of the current signal (sine) at the time of its zero crossing  is characteristic of the presence of an electric arc: the current flows only after the  appearance of an arc which needs a minimum voltage to be created (see  Fig. F80). 9  Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD) 9.4  Installation of Arc Fault Detectors Arc Fault Detection D evices (AFDD) are designed to limit fire risks caused  by the presence of arc fault currents in the final circuits of a fixed installation.They are installed in electrical switchboards, mainly on the circuits supplying    the power sockets of bedrooms and living rooms of residential buildings,    and are especially recommended in cases of renovation. It is also recommended to install them in the following buildings:  b  Buildings with a risk of propagation of fire (e.g. buildings with forced ventilation);  b  Buildings with a high density of occupation (e.g. cinema theatres);  b  Buildings with evacuation difficulties; b  Buildings which store flammable materials or potentially explosive materials    (e.g. buildings storing wood, the paper industry). Since 2014, International Standard IEC 60364 - Electrical installations of buildings -  Part 4-42 recommends the use of AFDDs: Excerpt from the IEC 60364-4-42 standard"It is recommended that special measures be taken to protect against the effects   of arc faults in final circuits: - in premises with sleeping accommodations; - in locations with risks of fire due to the nature of processed or stored materials, i.e.  BE2 locations (e.g. barns, wood-working shops, paper factories);- in locations with combustible constructional materials, i.e. CA2 locations  (e.g. wooden buildings); - in fire propagating structures, i.e. CB2 locations;  - in locations where irreplaceable goods are endangered. In a.c. circuits, the use of arc fault detection devices (AFDDs) in compliance  with IEC 62606 will satisfy the above-mentioned recommendation."

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Contents   General G2   1.1  Methodology and definition  G2   1.2  Overcurrent protection principles  G4   1.3  Practical values for a protective scheme  G4   1.4  Location of protective devices  G6   1.5  Conductors in parallel  G6   Practical method for determining the smallest allowable     cross-sectional area of circuit conductors  G7   2.1  General method for cables  G7   2.2  Recommended simplified approach for cables  G15   2.3  Sizing of busbar trunking systems (busways)  G17   Determination of voltage drop  G19   3.1  Maximum voltage drop limit  G19   3.2  Calculation of voltage drop in steady load conditions  G20   Short-circuit current  G23   4.1  Short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of      a MV/LV distribution transformer  G23   4.2  3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within      a LV installation  G24   4.3  Isc at the receiving end of a feeder as a function of the Isc      at its sending end  G27   4.4  Short-circuit current supplied by a generator or an inverter  G28   Particular cases of short-circuit current  G29   5.1  Calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current  G29   5.2  Verification of the withstand capabilities      of cables under short-circuit conditions  G34   Protective earthing conductor (PE)  G36   6.1  Connection and choice  G36   6.2  Conductor sizing  G37   6.3  Protective conductor between MV/LV transformer and      the main general distribution board (MGDB)  G39   6.4  Equipotential conductor  G40   The neutral conductor  G41   7.1  Sizing the neutral conductor  G41   7.2  Protection of the neutral conductor  G43   7.3  Breaking of the neutral conductor  G43   7.4  Isolation of the neutral conductor   G43   Worked example of cable calculation  G45 Chapter G Sizing and protection of conductors 1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1  General 1.1  Methodology and definition Methodology  (see  Fig. G1 ) Following a preliminary analysis of the power requirements of the installation,    as described in Chapter B Clause 4, a study of cabling (1)  and its electrical protection  is undertaken, starting at the origin of the installation, through the intermediate  stages to the final circuits.The cabling and its protection at each level must satisfy several conditions    at the same time, in order to ensure a safe and reliable installation, e.g. it must: b  Carry the permanent full load current, and normal short-time overcurrents b  Not cause voltage drops likely to result in an inferior performance of certain loads,  for example: an excessively long acceleration period when starting a motor, etc.Moreover, the protective devices (circuit breakers or fuses) must: b  Protect the cabling and busbars for all levels of overcurrent, up to and including  short-circuit currents b  Ensure protection of persons against indirect contact hazards, particularly    in TN- and IT- earthed systems, where the length of circuits may limit the magnitude  of short-circuit currents, thereby delaying automatic disconnection (it may be  remembered that TT- earthed installations are necessarily protected at the origin    by a RCD, generally rated at 300 mA).The cross-sectional areas of conductors are determined by the general method  described in Sub-clause 2 of this Chapter. Apart from this method some national  standards may prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed for reasons  of mechanical endurance. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter N) require that the  cable supplying them be oversized, and that the protection of the circuit be likewise  modified. Fig. G1 : Flow-chart for the selection of cable size and protective device rating for a given circuit (1) The term “cabling” in this chapter, covers all insulated  conductors, including multi-core and single-core cables and  insulated wires drawn into conduits, etc. Component parts of an electric circuit and its protection are determined such that all normal  and abnormal operating conditions are satisfied Power demand: - kVA to be supplied- Maximum load current  I B Conductor sizing: - Selection of conductor type and insulation - Selection of method of installation - Taking account of correction factors for different environment conditions - Determination of cross-sectional areas using tables giving the current carrying capacity Verification of the maximum voltage drop: - Steady state conditions- Motor starting conditions Calculation of short-circuit currents: - Upstream short-circuit power- Maximum values- Minimum values at conductor end Selection of protective devices: - Rated current- Breaking capability- Implementation of cascading- Check of discrimination

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G2 : Calculation of maximum load current  I B Definitions Maximum load current:  I B b  At the final circuits level, this design current (according to IEV " I nternational  E lectrotechnical  V ocabulary" ref 826-11-10) corresponds to the rated kVA of the  load. In the case of motor-starting, or other loads which take a high in-rush current,  particularly where frequent starting is concerned (e.g. lift motors, resistance-type  spot welding, and so on) the cumulative thermal effects of the overcurrents must be  taken into account. Both cables and thermal type relays are affected. b  At all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied,  which takes account of the diversity and utilization factors, ks and ku respectively, as  shown in  Figure G2. Main distribution board Sub-distribution board 80 A 60 A 100 A M Normal load  motor current  50 A Combined diversity  and utilization factors: ks x ku = 0.69 I B  = (80 + 60 + 100 + 50) x 0.69 = 200 A 50 A Maximum permissible current:  I z Current carrying capacity Iz is the maximum permissible that the cabling for the  circuit can carry indefinitely, without reducing its normal life expectancy.The current depends, for a given cross sectional area of conductors, on several  parameters: b  Constitution of the cable and cable-way (Cu or Alu conductors; PVC or EPR etc.  insulation; number of active conductors) b  Ambient temperature b  Method of installation b  Influence of neighbouring circuits. Overcurrents An overcurrent occurs each time the value of current exceeds the maximum load  current  I B  for the load concerned. This current must be cut off with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude, if  permanent damage to the cabling (and appliance if the overcurrent is due to    a defective load component) is to be avoided.Overcurrents of relatively short duration can however, occur in normal operation;    two types of overcurrent are distinguished: b  Overloads These overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits, for example, due to  a number of small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally:  motor starting loads, and so on. If either of these conditions persists however beyond  a given period (depending on protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the circuit will  be automatically cut off. b  Short-circuit currents These currents result from the failure of insulation between live conductors or/and  between live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed  neutrals) in any combination, viz: v  3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not) v  2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not) v  1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth) 1  General

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.2  Overcurrent protection principles A protective device is provided at the origin of the circuit concerned (see  Fig. G3 and  Fig. G4 ). b  Acting to cut-off the current in a time shorter than that given by the  I 2 t  characteristic of the circuit cabling b  But allowing the maximum load current  I B  to flow indefinitely The characteristics of insulated conductors when carrying short-circuit currents  can, for periods up to 5 seconds following short-circuit initiation, be determined  approximately by the formula: I 2 t = k 2  S 2  which shows that the allowable heat generated is proportional to the  squared cross-sectional-area of the condutor.wheret: Duration of short-circuit current (seconds)S: Cross sectional area of insulated conductor (mm 2 ) I : Short-circuit current (A r.m.s.) k: Insulated conductor constant (values of k 2  are given in  Figure G52  ) For a given insulated conductor, the maximum permissible current varies according  to the environment. For instance, for a high ambient temperature ( θ a1   θ a2),  I z1 is  less than  I z2 (see  Fig. G5 ).  θ  means “temperature”. Note :  v   I SC : 3-phase short-circuit current v   I SCB : rated 3-ph. short-circuit breaking current of the circuit breaker v   I r (or  I rth) (1) : regulated “nominal” current level; e.g. a 50 A nominal circuit breaker  can be regulated to have a protective range, i.e. a conventional overcurrent tripping  level (see  Fig. G6  opposite page) similar to that of a 30 A circuit breaker. 1.3  Practical values for a protective scheme The following methods are based on rules laid down in the IEC standards, and are  representative of the practices in many countries. General rules A protective device (circuit breaker or fuse) functions correctly if: b  Its nominal current or its setting current In is greater than the maximum load  current  I B  but less than the maximum permissible current  I z for the circuit, i.e.    I B   y   I n  y   I z corresponding to zone “a” in  Figure G6 b  Its tripping current  I 2 “conventional” setting is less than 1.45  I z which corresponds  to zone “b” in  Figure G6 The “conventional” setting tripping time may be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local  standards and the actual value selected for  I 2. For fuses,  I 2 is the current (denoted  I f) which will operate the fuse in the conventional time. Fig. G3 : Circuit protection by circuit breaker t I I 2 t cable characteristic I B I r I SCB I z Circuit-breaker tripping curve I CU Maximum load current Temporary overload t I I 2 t cable characteristic I B I r c I z I z Fuse curve Temporary overload Fig. G4 : Circuit protection by fuses (1) Both designations are commonly used in different  standards. 1 2 θ a1  θa2  5 s I 2 t = k 2 S 2 I z1   I z2 t I Fig. G5 :  I 2 t characteristic of an insulated conductor at two different ambient temperatures

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1  General Loads Circuit cabling Ma xim um  lo ad  cu rre nt  I z 1.45  I z Ma xim um  loa d cu rren t  I B Protective device 0 zone a zone b zone c I n I 2 I z I B 1.45  I z I sc I SCB No mi na l c urr en t  I n o r its  re gu lat ed  cu rre nt  I r Co nv en tio na l o ve rcu rre nt trip  cu rre nt  I 2 3-p h s ho rt- cir cu it  fau lt-c urr en t b rea kin g r ati ng Fig. G6 : Current levels for determining circuir breaker or fuse characteristics I B   y   I n  y   I z zone a I 2 y 1.45  I z zone b I SCB   u   I SC  zone c b  Its 3-phase short-circuit fault-current breaking rating is greater than the 3-phase  short-circuit current existing at its point of installation. This corresponds to zone “c” in  Figure G6. Applications b  Protection by circuit breaker By virtue of its high level of precision the current  I 2 is always less than 1.45  I n (or  1.45  I r) so that the condition  I 2 y 1.45  I z (as noted in the “general rules” above) will  always be respected. v  Particular case If the circuit breaker itself does not protect against overloads, it is necessary to  ensure that, at a time of lowest value of short-circuit current, the overcurrent device  protecting the circuit will operate correctly. This particular case is examined in    Sub-clause 5.1. b  Protection by fuses The condition  I 2 y 1.45  I z must be taken into account, where  I 2 is the fusing  (melting level) current, equal to k 2  x  I n (k 2  ranges from 1.6 to 1.9) depending on the  particular fuse concerned. A further factor k 3  has been introduced ( k = k 1.45 3 2 ) such that  I 2 y 1.45  I z will be valid if  I n  y   I z/k 3 . For fuses type gG: I n 16 A → k 3  = 1.31 I n  u  16 A → k 3  = 1.10 Moreover, the short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse  I SCF  must exceed  the level of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation of the fuse(s). b  Association of different protective devices The use of protective devices which have fault-current ratings lower than the fault  level existing at their point of installation are permitted by IEC and many national  standards in the following conditions: v  There exists upstream, another protective device which has the necessary short- circuit rating, and v  The amount of energy allowed to pass through the upstream device is less than  that which can be withstood without damage by the downstream device and all  associated cabling and appliances. Criteria for fuses: I B   y   I n  y   I z/k3 and  I SCF   u   I SC . Criteria for circuit breakers: I B   y   I n  y   I z and  I SCB   u   I SC .

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved In pratice this arrangement is generally exploited in: v  The association of circuit breakers/fuses v  The technique known as “cascading” or “series rating” in which the strong   current-limiting performance of certain circuit breakers effectively reduces    the severity of downstream short-circuitsPossible combinations which have been tested in laboratories are indicated in  certain manufacturers catalogues. 1.4  Location of protective devices General rule  (see  Fig. G7a ) A protective device is necessary at the origin of each circuit where a reduction    of permissible maximum current level occurs. Possible alternative locations in certain circumstances  (see  Fig. G7b ) The protective device may be placed part way along the circuit: b  If AB is not in proximity to combustible material, and b  If no socket-outlets or branch connections are taken from AB Three cases may be useful in practice: b  Consider case (1) in the diagram v  AB y 3 metres, and v  AB has been installed to reduce to a practical minimum the risk of a short-circuit  (wires in heavy steel conduit for example) b  Consider case (2) v  The upstream device P1 protects the length AB against short-circuits in  accordance with Sub-clause 5.1  b  Consider case (3) v  The overload device (S) is located adjacent to the load. This arrangement is  convenient for motor circuits. The device (S) constitutes the control (start/stop) and  overload protection of the motor while (SC) is: either a circuit breaker (designed for  motor protection) or fuses type aM v  The short-circuit protection (SC) located at the origin of the circuit conforms with  the principles of Sub-clause 5.1 Circuits with no protection  (see  Fig. G7c ) Either b  The protective device P1 is calibrated to protect the cable S2 against overloads  and short-circuitsOr b  Where the breaking of a circuit constitutes a risk, e.g. v  Excitation circuits of rotating machines v  circuits of large lifting electromagnets v  the secondary circuits of current transformers No circuit interruption can be tolerated, and the protection of the cabling is of  secondary importance. 1.5  Conductors in parallel Conductors of the same cross-sectional-area, the same length, and of the same  material, can be connected in parallel.The maximum permissible current is the sum of the individual-core maximum  currents, taking into account the mutual heating effects, method of installation, etc. Protection against overload and short-circuits is identical to that for a single-cable  circuit.The following precautions should be taken to avoid the risk of short-circuits on the  paralleled cables: b  Additional protection against mechanical damage and against humidity, by the  introduction of supplementary protection b  The cable route should be chosen so as to avoid close proximity to combustible  materials. A protective device is, in general, required at the origin of each circuit Fig. G7 : Location of protective devices P P 2 P 3 P 4 50 mm 2 10 mm 2 25 mm 2 P 2 P 3 Case (1) Case (2) Short-circuit protective device P 1 sc s B Overload protective device B B 3 m A Case (3) P 1 : iC60 rated 15A  S 2 : 1.5 mm 2 2.5 mm 2 a b c 1  General

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved G - Sizing and protection of conductors The reference international standard for the study of cabling is IEC 60364-5-52: “Electrical installation of buildings - Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical  equipment - Wiring system”.A summary of this standard is presented here, with examples of the most commonly  used methods of installation. The current-carrying capacities of conductors in all  different situations are given in annex A of the standard. A simplified method for use  of the tables of annex A is proposed in informative annex B of the standard. 2.1  General method for cables Possible methods of installation for different types    of conductors or cables The different admissible methods of installation are listed in  Figure G8 , in  conjonction with the different types of conductors and cables. Fig. G8 : Selection of wiring systems (table A.52.1 of IEC 60364-5-52) Possible methods of installation for different situations: Different methods of installation can be implemented in different situations. The  possible combinations are presented in  Figure G9. The number given in this table refer to the different wiring systems considered.   Fig. G9 : Erection of wiring systems (table A.52.2 of IEC 60364-5-52) Conductors  and cables Method of installation Without   fixings Clipped direct Conduit  systems Cable trunking systems (including  skirting trunking, flush  floor trunking) Cable ducting  systems Cable ladder,  cable tray,  cable rackets On  insulators Support wire Bare conductors – – – – – – + – Insulated conductors b – – + + a + – + – Sheathed  cables  (including  armoured  and mineral  insulated) Multi-  core + + + + + + 0 + Single-  core 0 + + + + + 0 + +  Permitted.–  Not permitted.0  Not applicable, or not normally used in practice. a    Insulated conductors are admitted if the cable trunking systems provide at least he degree of protection IP4X or IPXXD and if the cover    can only be removed by means of a tool or a deliberate action. b    Insulated conductors which are used as protective conductors or protective bonding conductors may use any appropriate method    of installation and need not be laid in conduits, trunking or ducting systems. Situations Method of installation Without  fixings Clipped  direct Conduit Systems Cable trunking (including  skirting trunking, flush  floor trunking) Cable ducting systems Cable ladder, cable tray, cable brackets On  insulators Support  wire Building  voids Accessible 40 33 41, 42 6, 7, 8, 9,12 43, 44 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 – 0 Not accessible 40 0 41, 42 0 43 0 0 0 Cable channel 56  56  54, 55  0  30, 31, 32, 34  –  – Buried in ground 72, 73 0 70, 71 – 70, 71 0 – – Embedded in structure 57, 58 3  1, 2, 59, 60  50, 51, 52, 53 46, 45  0 – – Surface mounted – 20, 21, 22,  23, 33 4, 5 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 6, 7, 8, 9 30, 31, 32, 34 36 – Overhead/free in air – 33 0 10, 11 10,11 30, 31, 32, 34 36 35 Window frames 16 0 16 0 0 0 – – Architrave 15 0 15 0 0 0 – – Immersed 1 + + + – + 0 – – –   Not permitted . 0   Not applicable or not normally used in practice.+   Follow manufacturer’s instructions.Note: The number in each box, e.g. 40, 46, refers to the number of the method of installation in Table A.52.3. 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G10 : Examples of methods of installation (part of table A.52.3 of IEC 60364-5-52) (continued on next page) Examples of wiring systems and reference methods    of installations An illustration of some of the many different wiring systems and methods    of installation is provided in  Figure G10. Several reference methods are defined (with code letters A to G), grouping  installation methods having the same characteristics relative to the current-carrying  capacities of the wiring systems.   Item No.  Methods of installation  Description  Reference method of            installation to be used to         obtain current-carrying        capacity   1    Insulated conductors or single-core  A1        cables in conduit in a thermally        insulated wall      2    Multi-core cables in conduit in a  A2      thermally insulated wall    4    Insulated conductors or single-core   B1            cables in conduit on a wooden, or        masonry wall or spaced less than       0.3 x conduit diameter from it   5    Multi-core cable in conduit on a  B2       wooden, or mansonry wall or spaced        less than 0.3 x conduit diameter        from it             20    Single-core or multi-core cables:  C       - fixed on, or sapced less than 0.3 x cable        diameter from a wooden wall     30    Single-core or multi-core cables:  C       on unperforated tray run horizontally       or vertically Room Room 0.3  D e 0.3  D e

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G10 : Examples of methods of installation (part of table A.52.3 of IEC 60364-5-52)   Item No.  Methods of installation  Description  Reference method of            installation to be used to         obtain current-carrying        capacity   31    Single-core or multi-core cables:  E or F       on perforated tray run horizontally or          vertically   36    Bare or insulated conductors on  G       insulators             70    Multi-core cables in conduit or in cable  D1      ducting in the ground    71    Single-core cable in conduit or in cable  D1            ducting in the ground  0.3 D e 0.3 D e Maximum operating temperature: The current-carrying capacities given in the subsequent tables have been  determined so that the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded    for sustained periods of time.For different type of insulation material, the maximum admissible temperature    is given in  Figure G11. Type of insulation  Temperature limit °C Polyvinyl-chloride (PVC)  70 at the conductor Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene  90 at the conductor propylene rubber (EPR)Mineral (PVC covered or bare exposed to touch)  70 at the sheath Mineral (bare not exposed to touch and not in  105 at the seath contact with combustible material) Fig. G11 : Maximum operating temperatures for types of insulation (table 52.1 of IEC 60364-5-52) Correction factors: In order to take environnement or special conditions of installation into account,  correction factors have been introduced. The cross sectional area of cables is determined using the rated load current  I B   divided by different correction factors, k 1 , k 2 , ...: I' I B B k k = 1 2 ... . I ’ B  is the corrected load current, to be compared to the current-carrying capacity    of the considered cable. 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved (see also  Fig. G10 ) b Ambient temperature The current-carrying capacities of cables in the air are based on an average air  temperature equal to 30 °C. For other temperatures, the correction factor is given in  Figure G12  for PVC, EPR and XLPE insulation material. The related correction factor is here noted k 1 . The current-carrying capacities of cables in the ground are based on an average  ground temperature equal to 20 °C. For other temperatures, the correction factor    is given in  Figure G13  for PVC, EPR and XLPE insulation material. The related correction factor is here noted k 2 . Fig. G12 : Correction factors for ambient air temperatures other than 30 °C to be applied to the  current-carrying capacities for cables in the air (from table B.52.14 of IEC 60364-5-52) Ambient temperature °C  Insulation    PVC  XLPE and EPR 10  1.22  1.15 15  1.17  1.12 20  1.12  1.08 25  1.06  1.04 30  1  1 35  0.94  0.96 40  0.87  0.91 45  0.79  0.87 50  0.71  0.82 55  0.61  0.76 60  0.50  0.71 65  -  0.65 70  -  0.58 75  -  0.50 80  -  0.41 Fig. G13 : Correction factors for ambient ground temperatures other than 20 °C to be applied to  the current-carrying capacities for cables in ducts in the ground (from table B.52.15 of IEC 60364-5-52) Ground temperature °C  Insulation    PVC  XLPE and EPR 10  1.10  1.07 15  1.05  1.04 20  1  1 25  0.95  0.96 30  0.89  0.93 35  0.84  0.89 40  0.77  0.85 45  0.71  0.80 50  0.63  0.76 55  0.55  0.71 60  0.45  0.65 65  -  0.60 70  -  0.53 75  -  0.46 80  -  0.38

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G14 : Correction factors for cables in buried ducts for soil thermal resistivities other than 2.5 K.m/W to be applied to the current-carrying capacities   for reference method D (table B.52.16 of IEC 60364-5-52) Fig. G15 : Correction factor k 3  depending on the nature of soil Nature of soil  k 3 Very wet soil (saturated)  1.21 Wet soil  1.13 Damp soil  1.05 Dry soil  1.00 Very dry soil (sunbaked)  0.86 Based on experience, a relationship exist between the soil nature and resistivity.  Then, empiric values of correction factors k 3  are proposed in  Figure G15 , depending  on the nature of soil. b Grouping of conductors or cables The current-carrying capacities given in the subsequent tables relate to single  circuits consisting of the following numbers of loaded conductors: v Two insulated conductors or two single-core cables, or one twin-core cable  (applicable to single-phase circuits); v Three insulated conductors or three single-core cables, or one three-core cable  (applicable to three-phase circuits).Where more insulated conductors or cables are installed in the same group, a group  reduction factor (here noted k 4 ) shall be applied. Examples are given in  Figures G16 to G18  for different configurations (installation  methods, in free air or in the ground). Figure G16  gives the values of correction factor k 4  for different configurations    of unburied cables or conductors, grouping of more than one circuit or multi-core  cables. Fig. G16 : Reduction factors for groups of more than one circuit or of more than one multi-core cable (table B.52.17 of IEC 60364-5-52) Arrangement  Number of circuits or multi-core cables              Reference methods (cables touching)   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  12  16  20 Bunched in air, on a  1.00  0.80  0.70  0.65  0.60  0.57  0.54  0.52  0.50  0.45  0.41  0.38  Methods A to F surface, embedded orenclosedSingle layer on wall, floor  1.00  0.85  0.79  0.75  0.73  0.72  0.72  0.71  0.70  No further reduction  Method C or unperforated tray                    factor for more than Single layer fixed directly  0.95  0.81  0.72  0.68  0.66  0.64  0.63  0.62  0.61  nine circuits or under a wooden ceiling                    multi-core cables  Single layer on a  1.00  0.88  0.82  0.77  0.75  0.73  0.73  0.72  0.72        Methods E and F perforated horizontal or                  vertical traySingle layer on ladder  1.00  0.87  0.82  0.80  0.80  0.79  0.79  0.78  0.78 support or cleats etc. Thermal resistivity, K•m/W 0.5 0.7 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Correction factor for cables in buried ducts 1.28 1.20 1.18 1.1 1.05 1 0.96 Correction factor for direct buried cables 1.88 1.62 1.5 1.28 1.12 1 0.90 Note 1: The correction factors given have been averaged over the range of conductor sizes and types of installation included in Tables B.52.2 to B.52.5.    The overall accuracy of correction factors is within ± 5 %. Note 2: The correction factors are applicable to cables drawn into buried ducts; for cables laid direct in the ground the correction factors for thermal resistivities  less than 2.5 K•m/W will be higher. Where more precise values are required they may be calculated by methods given in the IEC 60287 series.Note 3: The correction factors are applicable to ducts buried at depths of up to 0.8 m.Note 4: It is assumed that the soil properties are uniform. No allowance had been made for the possibility of moisture migration which can lead to a region of  high thermal resistivity around the cable. If partial drying out of the soil is foreseen, the permissible current rating should be derived by the methods specified  in the IEC 60287 series. b Soil thermal resistivity The current-carrying capacities of cables in the ground are based on a ground  resistivity equal to 2.5 K.m/W. For other values, the correction factor is given in  Figure G14  next page. The related correction factor is here noted k 3 . 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Method of installation  Number  Number of three-phase  Use as a     of tray  circuits      multiplier to              rating for        1  2 3 Perforated  31  1  0.98  0.91  0.87  Three cables in trays            horizontal     2  0.96  0.87  0.81  formation     3  0.95  0.85  0.78 Vertical  31  1  0.96  0.86    Three cables in perforated            vertical trays    2  0.95  0.84    formation Ladder  32  1  1.00  0.97  0.96  Three cables in supports,            horizontal cleats, etc.  33  2  0.98  0.93  0.89  formation   34  3  0.97  0.90  0.86 Perforated  31  1  1.00  0.98  0.96  Three cables in trays            trefoil formation     2  0.97  0.93  0.89     3  0.96  0.92  0.86 Vertical  31  1  1.00  0.91  0.89 perforated trays    2  1.00  0.90  0.86     Ladder  32  1  1.00  1.00  1.00 supports, cleats, etc.  33  2  0.97  0.95  0.93   34  3  0.96  0.94  0.90 Fig. G17 : Reduction factors for groups of more than one circuit of single-core cables to be applied to reference rating for one circuit of single-core cables in free air -  Method of installation F. (table B.52.21 of IEC 60364-5-52) Figure G17  gives the values of correction factor k 4  for different configurations of  unburied cables or conductors, for groups of more than one circuit of single-core  cables in free air. Touching 20 mm 225 mm 20 mm Touching 20 mm Touching 225 mm Spaced 20 mm 2 D e D e 2 D e D e 2 D e D e

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G18 : Reduction factors for more than one circuit, single-core or multi-core cables laid  directly in the ground. Installation method D. (table B.52.18 of IEC 60364-5-52) Number  Cable to cable clearance a of circuits  Nil (cables  One cable  0.125 m  0.25 m  0.5 m  touching)  diameter      2  0.75  0.80  0.85  0.90  0.90 3  0.65  0.70  0.75  0.80  0.85 4  0.60  0.60  0.70  0.75  0.80 5  0.55  0.55  0.65  0.70  0.80 6  0.50  0.55  0.60  0.70  0.80 7  0.45  0.51  0.59  0.67  0.76 8  0.43  0.48  0.57  0.65  0.75 9  0.41  0.46  0.55  0.63  0.74 12  0.36  0.42  0.51  0.59  0.71 16  0.32  0.38  0.47  0.56  0.38 20  0.29  0.35  0.44  0.53  0.66 a  Multi-core cables a  Single-core cables  a a a a Figure G18  gives the values of correction factor k4 for different configurations    of cables or conductors laid directly in the ground. b Harmonic current The current-carrying capacity of three-phase, 4-core or 5-core cables is based on  the assumption that only 3 conductors are fully loaded.However, when harmonic currents are circulating, the neutral current can be  significant, and even higher than the phase currents. This is due to the fact that the  3 rd  harmonic currents of the three phases do not cancel each other, and sum up in  the neutral conductor.This of course affects the current-carrying capacity of the cable, and a correction  factor noted here k 5  shall be applied. In addition, if the 3 rd  harmonic percentage h 3  is greater than 33 %, the neutral  current is greater than the phase current and the cable size selection is based on the  neutral current. The heating effect of harmonic currents in the phase conductors has  also to be taken into account.The values of k 5  depending on the 3 rd  harmonic content are given in  Figure G19. Fig. G19 : Correction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables (table E.52.1  of IEC 60364-5-52) Third harmonic content  Correction factor of phase current %  Size selection is based  Size selection is based    on phase current  on neutral current 0        - 15  1.0  15 - 33  0.86  33 - 45    0.86 45    1.0  (1) (1) If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size is selected on the basis of the neutral current then the three phase conductors will not be fully loaded. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Admissible current as a function of nominal cross-sectional area of  conductors IEC standard 60364-5-52 proposes extensive information in the form of tables  giving the admissible currents as a function of cross-sectional area of cables. Many  parameters are taken into account, such as the method of installation, type of  insulation material, type of conductor material, number of loaded conductors.As an example,  Figure G20  gives the current-carrying capacities for different  methods of installation of PVC insulation, three loaded copper or aluminium  conductors, free air or in ground. Fig. G20 : Current-carrying capacities in amperes for different methods of installation, PVC insulation, three loaded conductors, copper or aluminium, conductor  temperature: 70 °C, ambient temperature: 30 °C in air, 20 °C in ground (table B.52.4 of IEC 60364-5-52) Nominal  cross-sectional  area of conductor mm 2 Installation methods of Table B.52.1 A1 A2 B1 B2 C D1 D2 Room Room 0.3 D e 0.3 D e Room Room 0.3 D e 0.3 D e Room Room 0.3 D e 0.3 D e Room Room 0.3 D e 0.3 D e Room Room 0.3 D e 0.3 D e 0.3 D e 0.3 D e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copper 1.5 13.5 13 15.5 15 17.5 18 19 2.5 18 17.5 21 20 24 24 24 4 24 23 28 27 32 30 33 6 31 29 36 34 41 38 41 10 42 39 50 46 57 50 54 16 56 52 68 62 76 64 70 25 73 68 89 80 96 82 92 35 89 83 110 99 119 98 110 50 108 99 134 118 144 116 130 70 136 125 171 149 184 143 162 95 164 150 207 179 223 169 193 120 188 172 239 206 259 192 220 150 216 196 262 225 299 217 246 185 245 223 296 255 341 243 278 240 286 261 346 297 403 280 320 300 328 298 394 339 464 316 359 Aluminium2.5 14 13.5 16.5 15.5 18.5 18.5 4 18.5 17.5 22 21 25 24 6 24 23 28 27 32 30 10 32 31 39 36 44 39 16 43 41 53 48 59 50 53 25 57 53 70 62 73 64 69 35 70 65 86 77 90 77 83 50 84 78 104 92 110 91 99 70 107 98 133 116 140 112 122 95 129 118 161 139 170 132 148 120 149 135 186 160 197 150 169 150 170 155 204 176 227 169 189 185 194 176 230 199 259 190 214 240 227 207 269 232 305 218 250 300 261 237 306 265 351 247 282 Note: In columns 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8, circular conductors are assumed for sizes up to and including 16 mm 2 . Values for larger sizes relate to  shaped conductors and may safely be applied to circular conductors.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.2  Recommended simplified approach for cables In order to facilitate the selection of cables, 2 simplified tables are proposed,    for unburied and buried cables. These tables summarize the most commonly used configurations and give easier  access to the information. b Unburied cables: Fig. G21a : Current-carrying capacity in amperes (table C.52.1 of IEC 60364-5-52) Reference   Number of loaded conductors and type of insulation  methods  A1    2 PVC  3 PVC    3 XLPE  2 XLPE  A2  3 PVC  2 PVC    3 XLPE  2 XLPE B1        3 PVC  2 PVC    3 XLPE    2 XLPE B2      3 PVC  2 PVC    3 XLPE  2 XLPE C          3 PVC    2 PVC  3 XLPE    2 XLPE E            3 PVC    2 PVC  3 XLPE    2 XLPE F              3 PVC    2 PVC  3 XLPE    2 XLPE 1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  11  12  13 Size (mm 2 )   Copper 1.5  13 13 . 5  14.5  15.5  17  18.5  19.5  22  23  24  26  - 2.5  17.5  18  19.5  21  23  25  27  30  31  33  36  - 4  23  24  26  28  31  34  36  40  42  45  49  - 6  29  31  34  36  40  43  46  51  54  58  63  - 10  39  42  46  50  54  60  63  70  75  80  86  - 16  52  56  61  68  73  80  85  94  100  107  115  - 25  68  73  80  89  95  101  110  119  127  135  149  161 35  -  -  -  110  117  126  137  147  158  169  185  200 50  -  -  -  134  141  153  167  179  192  207  225  242 70  -  -  -  171  179  196  213  229  246  268  289  310 95  -  -  -  207  216  238  258  278  298  328  352  377 120  -  -  -  239  249  276  299  322  346  382  410  437 150  -  -  -  -  285  318  344  371  395  441  473  504 185  -  -  -  -  324  362  392  424  450  506  542  575 240  -  -  -  -  380  424  461  500  538  599  641  679 Aluminium 2.5  13.5  14  15  16.5  18.5  19.5  21  23  24  26  28  - 4  17.5  18.5  20  22  25  26  28  31  32  35  38  - 6  23  24  26  28  32  33  36  39  42  45  49  - 10  31  32  36  39  44  46  49  54  58  62  67  - 16  41  43  48  53  58  61  66  73  77  84  91  - 25  53  57  63  70  73  78  83  90  97  101  108  121 35  -  -  -  86  90  96  103  112  120  126  135  150 50  -  -  -  104  110  117  125  136  146  154  164  184 70  -  -  -  133  140  150  160  174  187  198  211  237 95  -  -  -  161  170  183  195  211  227  241  257  289 120  -  -  -  186  197  212  226  245  263  280  300  337 150  -  -  -  -  226  245  261  283  304  324  346  389 185  -  -  -  -  256  280  298  323  347  371  397  447 240  -  -  -  -  300  330  352  382  409  439  470  530 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Correction factors are given in  Figure G21b  for groups of several circuits or multi- core cables: Fig. G21b : Reduction factors for groups of several circuits or of several multi-core cables  (table C.52.3 of IEC 60364-5-52) Arrangement      Number of circuits or multi-core cables       1 2 3 4 6 9 12  16  20 Embedded or enclosed    1.00  0.80  0.70  0.70  0.55  0.50  0.45  0.40  0.40 Single layer on walls, floors    1.00  0.85  0.80  0.75  0.70  0.70  -  -  - or on unperforatedtraysSingle layer fixed directly    0.95  0.80  0.70  0.70  0.65  0.60  -  -  - under a ceiling                    Single layer on perforated    1.00  0.90  0.80  0.75  0.75  0.70  -  -  - horizontal trays or on vertical trays         Single layer on cable      1.00  0.85  0.80  0.80  0.80  0.80  -  -  - ladder supports or cleats, etc.                Fig. G22 : Current-carrying capacity in amperes (table B.52-1 of IEC 60364-5-52) b Buried cables: Installation  Size  Number of loaded conductors and type of insulation method mm 2   Two PVC  Three PVC  Two XLPE  Three XLPE D1/D2 Copper         1.5  22  18  26  22    2.5  29  24  34  29    4  38  31  44  37    6  47  39  56  46    10  63  52  73  61    16  81  67  95  79    25  104  86  121  101    35  125  103  146  122    50  148  122  173  144    70  183  151  213  178    95  216  179  252  211    120  246  203  287  240    150  278  230  324  271    185  312  258  363  304    240  361  297  419  351    300  408  336  474  396  D1/D2 Aluminium         2.5  22  18.5  26  22    4  29  24  34  29    6  36  30  42  36    10  48  40  56  47    16  62  52  73  61    25  80  66  93  78    35  96  80  112  94    50  113  94  132  112    70  140  117  163  138    95  166  138  193  164    120  189  157  220  186    150  213  178  249  210    185  240  200  279  236    240  277  230  322  272    300  313  260  364  308 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.3  Sizing of busbar trunking systems (busways) The selection of busbar trunking systems is very straightforward, using the data  provided by the manufacturer. Methods of installation, insulation materials, correction  factors for grouping are not relevant parameters for this technology making    the selection of busways much more straightforward than the sizing of a traditional  distribution with cables.The cross section area of any given model has been determined by the  manufacturer based on: b The rated current, b An ambient air temperature equal to 35 °C, b 3 loaded conductors. Rated current The rated current can be calculated taking account of:  b The layout, b The current absorbed by the different loads connected along the trunking system. Ambient temperature A correction factor has to be applied for temperature higher than 35 °C. The  correction factor applicable is provided by the busway manufacturer. As an example,  for Schneider Electric medium and high power range (up to 4000 A) the correction  factor is given in  Figure G23a. Fig. G23a : Correction factor for air temperature higher than 35 °C °C  35 40 45 50 55 Correction factor  1  0.97  0.93  0.90  0.86 Neutral current Where 3 rd  harmonic currents are circulating, the neutral conductor may be carrying a  significant current and the corresponding additional power losses must be taken into  account. Figure G23b   represents the maximum admissible phase and neutral currents (per  unit) in a high power busbar trunking system as functions of 3 rd  harmonic level.  For more information, see Chapter E - paragraph 2.3 "Harmonic currents in the  selection of busbar trunking systems (busways)". Fig. G23b : Maximum admissible currents (p.u.) in a busbar trunking system as functions   of the 3 rd  harmonic level 0 10 20 30 40 3 rd  harmonic current level (%) Maximum admissib le current (p .u) 50 60 70 Neutral conductor Phase conductor 80 90 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The layout of the trunking system depends on the position of the current consumers,  the location of the power source and the possibilities for fixing the system. v  One single distribution line serves a 4 to 6 meter area v  Protection devices for current consumers are placed in tap-off units, connected  directly to usage points. v  One single feeder supplies all current consumers of different powers. Once the trunking system layout is established, it is possible to calculate    the absorbed current  I n  on the distribution line. I n  is equal to the sum of absorbed currents by the current  I n  consumers:  I n  =  Σ   I B . The current consumers do not all work at the same time and are not permanently    on full load, so we have to use a clustering coefficient k S  :  I n  =  Σ  ( I B  . k S ). Application Number of current consumers Ks Coefficient Lighting, Heating 1 Distribution (engineering  workshop) 2...34...56...910...4040 and over 0.90.80.70.60.5 Note : for industrial installations, remember to take account of upgrading of the machine equipment base.  As for a switchboard, a 20 % margin is recommended: I n   ≤   I B  x k s  x 1.2. Fig G24 : Rated diversity factor according to the number of current consumers 2  Practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional  area of circuit conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Determination of voltage drop The impedance of circuit conductors is low but not negligible: when carrying  load current there is a voltage drop between the origin of the circuit and the load  terminals. The correct operation of a load (a motor, lighting circuit, etc.) depends  on the voltage at its terminals being maintained at a value close to its rated value.  It is necessary therefore to determine the circuit conductors such that at full-load  current, the load terminal voltage is maintained within the limits required for correct  performance.This section deals with methods of determining voltage drops, in order to check that: b  They comply with the particular standards and regulations in force b  They can be tolerated by the load b  They satisfy the essential operational requirements. 3.1  Maximum voltage drop limit Maximum allowable voltage-drop vary from one country to another. Typical values    for LV installations are given below in  Figure G25. Fig. G25 : Maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection point and the point of utilization  (IEC60364-5-52 table G.52.1) Fig. G26 : Maximum voltage drop Type of installations  Lighting  Other uses    circuits  (heating and power) A low-voltage service connection from  3 %  5 %   a LV public power distribution networkConsumers MV/LV substation supplied   6 %  8 %   from a public distribution MV system These voltage-drop limits refer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do  not apply at times of motor starting, simultaneous switching (by chance) of several  loads, etc. as mentioned in Chapter A Sub-clause 4.3 (diversity and utilization  factors, etc.). When voltage drops exceed the values shown in  Figure G25 , larger  cables (wires) must be used to correct the condition.The value of 8 %, while permitted, can lead to problems for motor loads; for  example: b  In general, satisfactory motor performance requires a voltage within ±5 % of its  rated nominal value in steady-state operation, b  Starting current of a motor can be 5 to 7 times its full-load value (or even higher).  If an 8 % voltage drop occurs at full-load current, then a drop of 40 % or more will  occur during start-up. In such conditions the motor will either: v  Stall (i.e. remain stationary due to insufficient torque to overcome the load torque)  with consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out v  Or accelerate very slowly, so that the heavy current loading (with possibly  undesirable low-voltage effects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal  start-up period b   Finally an 8 % voltage drop represents a continuous power loss, which,   for  continuous loads will be a significant waste of (metered) energy. For these reasons   it  is recommended that the maximum value of 8 % in steady operating conditions should   not be reached on circuits which are sensitive to under-voltage problems (see  Fig. G26 ). Load LV consumer 5%  (1) 8%  (1) MV consumer (1) Between the LV supply point and the load 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.2  Calculation of voltage drop in steady load conditions Use of formulae Figure G27  below gives formulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop    in a given circuit per kilometre of length (copper cable with XLPE insulation).If: b   I B : The full load current in amps b  L: Length of the cable in kilometres b  R: Resistance of the cable conductor in  Ω /km R km S R km S = ( ) = ( ) 23.7      mm c.s.a. in mm  for copper      mm c.s.a. in mm  for aluminium 2 2 2 2 Ω Ω / / 37.6 (1) (1) Note : R is negligible above a c.s.a. of 500 mm 2 b  X: inductive reactance of a conductor in  Ω /km Note : X is negligible for conductors of c.s.a. less than 50 mm 2 . In the absence of any  other information, take X as being equal to 0.08  Ω /km. b   ϕ : phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered, generally: v  Incandescent lighting: cos  ϕ  = 1 v  Led lighting: cos  ϕ   0.9 v  Fluorescent with electronic ballast: cos  ϕ   0.9 v  Motor power: - At start-up: cos  ϕ  = 0.35 - In normal service: cos  ϕ  = 0.8 b  Un: phase-to-phase voltage b  Vn: phase-to-neutral voltage For prefabricated pre-wired ducts and busways (busbar trunking systems),  resistance and inductive reactance values are given by the manufacturer. Simplified table Calculations may be avoided by using  Figure G28  next page, which gives, with  an adequate approximation, the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km of cable per  ampere, in terms of: b  Kinds of circuit use: motor circuits with cos  ϕ  close to 0.8, or lighting with a cos  ϕ   close to 1. b  Type of circuit; single-phase or 3-phase Voltage drop in a cable is then given by: K x  I B  x L K is given by the table, I B  is the full-load current in amps, L is the length of cable in km.The column motor power “cos  ϕ  = 0.35” of  Figure G28  may be used to compute the  voltage drop occurring during the start-up period of a motor (see example no. 1 after  the Figure G28 ). Fig. G27 : Voltage-drop formulae Circuit  Voltage drop ( Δ U)   in volts  in %   Phase/phase         Phase/neutral         Balanced 3-phase: 3 phases  ∆ U  cos   X sin    = + ( ) 3 I B R L ϕ ϕ 100  U Un ∆     (with or without neutral)    ∆ U  cos   X sin    = + ( ) 2 I B R L ϕ ϕ 100  U Un ∆ ∆ U  cos   X sin    = + ( ) 2 I B R L ϕ ϕ 100  U Vn ∆ (1) Values of r according to IEC60909-0 and Cenelec TR 50480.  See Figure G35b.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G28 : Phase-to-phase voltage drop  Δ U for a circuit, in volts per ampere per km Examples Example 1  (see  Fig. G29 ) A three-phase 35 mm 2  copper cable 50 metres long supplies a 400 V motor taking: b  100 A at a cos  ϕ  = 0.8 on normal permanent load b  500 A (5  I n) at a cos  ϕ  = 0.35 during start-up The voltage drop at the origin of the motor cable in normal circumstances (i.e. with  the distribution board of  Figure G29  distributing a total of 1000 A) is 10 V phase-to- phase.What is the voltage drop at the motor terminals: b  In normal service? b  During start-up? Solution: b  Voltage drop in normal service conditions: ∆ ∆ U% 100 U = Un Table  G28  shows 1 V/A/km so that: Δ U for the cable = 1 x 100 x 0.05 = 5 V Δ U total = 10 + 5 = 15 V = i.e. 15 400 100 3 x  .75 % = This value is less than that authorized (8 %) and is satisfactory. b  Voltage drop during motor start-up: Δ Ucable = 0.54 x 500 x 0.05 = 13.5 V Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting, the voltage drop    at the distribution board will exceed 10 Volts.Supposing that the infeed to the distribution board during motor starting is    900 + 500 = 1400 A then the voltage drop at the distribution board will increase  approximately pro rata, i.e. 10 14    1400 1000  V x = Δ U distribution board = 14 V Δ U for the motor cable = 13 V Δ U total = 13.5  + 14 = 27.5 V i.e. 27.5 400 100 6 x  .9 % = a value which is satisfactory during motor starting. Fig. G29 : Example 1 1000 A 400 V 50 m / 35 mm 2  Cu I B  = 100 A (500 A during start-up)  3  Determination of voltage drop Copper cables Aluminium cables c.s.a.in mm² Single-phase circuit Balanced three-phase circuit c.s.a.in mm² Single-phase circuit Balanced three-phase circuit Motor power Lighting Motor power Lighting Motor power Lighting Motor power Lighting Normal service Start-up Normal service Start-up Normal service Start- up Normal service Start-up cos ϕ  = 0.8 cos ϕ =  0.35 cos ϕ  = 1 cos ϕ =  0.8 cos ϕ =  0.35 cos ϕ  = 1 cos ϕ =  0.8 cos ϕ =  0.35 cos ϕ  = 1 cos ϕ  = 0.8 cos ϕ    = 0.35 cos ϕ    = 1 1.5 25.4 11.2 32 22 9.7 27 2.5 15.3 6.8 19 13.2 5.9 16 4 9.6 4.3 11.9 8.3 3.7 10.3 6 10.1 4.5 12.5 8.8 3.9 10.9 6 6.4 2.9 7.9 5.6 2.5 6.8 10 6.1 2.8 7.5 5.3 2.4 6.5 10 3.9 1.8 4.7 3.4 1.6 4.1 16 3.9 1.8 4.7 3.3 1.6 4.1 16 2.5 1.2 3 2.1 1 2.6 25 2.50 1.2 3 2.2 1 2.6 25 1.6 0.81 1.9 1.4 0.70 1.6 35 1.8 0.90 2.1 1.6 0.78 1.9 35 1.18 0.62 1.35 1 0.54 1.2 50 1.4 0.70 1.6 1.18 0.61 1.37 50 0.89 0.50 1.00 0.77 0.43 0.86 70 0.96 0.53 1.07 0.83 0.46 0.93 70 0.64 0.39 0.68 0.55 0.34 0.59 120 0.60 0.37 0.63 0.52 0.32 0.54 95 0.50 0.32 0.50 0.43 0.28 0.43 150 0.50 0.33 0.50 0.43 0.28 0.43 120 0.41 0.29 0.40 0.36 0.25 0.34 185 0.42 0.29 0.41 0.36 0.25 0.35 150 0.35 0.26 0.32 0.30 0.23 0.27 240 0.35 0.26 0.31 0.30 0.22 0.27 185 0.30 0.24 0.26 0.26 0.21 0.22 300 0.30 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.21 0.22 240 0.25 0.22 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.17 400 0.25 0.22 0.19 0.21 0.19 0.16 300 0.22 0.21 0.16 0.19 0.18 0.14 500 0.22 0.20 0.15 0.19 0.18 0.13

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Determination of voltage drop Example 2  (see  Fig. G30 ) A 3-phase 4-wire copper line of 70 mm 2  c.s.a. and a length of 50 m passes a current  of 150 A. The line supplies, among other loads, 3 single-phase lighting circuits, each  of 2.5 mm 2  c.s.a. copper 20 m long, and each passing 20 A. It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm 2  line are balanced and that the three  lighting circuits are all connected to it at the same point.What is the voltage drop at the end of the lighting circuits?Solution: b  Voltage drop in the 4-wire line: Figure G28  shows 0.59 V/A/km Δ U line = 0.59 x 150 x 0.05 = 4.4 V phase-to-phase which gives:                         phase to neutral. b  Voltage drop in any one of the lighting single-phase circuits: Δ U for a single-phase circuit = 19 x 20 x 0.02 = 7.6 V The total voltage drop is therefore7.6 + 2.54 = 10.1 V 10.1 V  V   .4 % 230 100 4 x = This value is satisfactory, being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop of 6 %. ∆ ∆ U% 100 U = Un 3 2.54 V = 4.4 Fig. G30 : Example 2 50 m / 70 mm 2  Cu I B  = 150 A 20 m / 2.5 mm 2  Cu I B  = 20 A

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved G - Sizing and protection of conductors 4  Short-circuit current A knowledge of 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit current values ( I sc) at strategic  points of an installation is necessary in order to determine switchgear (breaking  capacity), cables (thermal withstand rating), protective devices (discriminative trip  settings) and so on...  In the following notes a 3-phase short-circuit of zero impedance (the so-called bolted  short-circuit) fed through a typical MV/LV distribution transformer will be examined.  Except in very unusual circumstances, this type of fault is the most severe, and is  certainly the simplest to calculate. Short-circuit currents occurring in a network supplied from a generator and also    in DC systems are dealt with in Chapter N. The simplified calculations and practical rules which follow give conservative results  of sufficient accuracy, in the large majority of cases, for installation design purposes. 4.1  Short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a MV/LV distribution transformer The case of one transformer b  In a simplified approach, the impedance of the MV system is assumed to be  negligibly small, so that:  I I I sc n Usc n S U = =  x 100  where   x 10  and: 3 20 3 S = kVA rating of the transformer U 20  = phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit I n = nominal current in amps I sc = short-circuit fault current in amps Usc = short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer in %.Typical values of Usc for distribution transformers are given in  Figure G31. Fig. G31 : Typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with MV windings  y  20 kV b  Example 400 kVA transformer, 420 V at no load Usc = 4 % I I . n sc = = = = 4 420 3 550 5 0 4 13 7 00 x 10  x   A     5  x 100  kA 3 The case of several transformers in parallel feeding a busbar The value of fault current on an outgoing circuit immediately downstream of  the busbars (see  Fig. G32 ) can be estimated as the sum of the Isc from each  transformer calculated separately.It is assumed that all transformers are supplied from the same MV network, in which  case the values obtained from  Figure G31  when added together will give a slightly  higher fault-level value than would actually occur.Other factors which have not been taken into account are the impedance    of the busbars and of the cable between transformers and circuit breakers.The conservative fault-current value obtained however, is sufficiently accurate for  basic installation design purposes. The choice of circuit breakers and incorporated  protective devices against short-circuit and fault currents is described in Chapter H  Sub-clause 4.4. Knowing the levels of 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit currents ( I sc) at different points  in an installation is an essential feature of its design Transformer rating  Usc in %  (kVA)  Oil-immersed Cast-resin      dry type  50 to 750  4  6  800 to 3200  6  6  Fig. G32 : Case of several transformers in parallel I sc 1 I sc 1  +  I sc 2  +  I sc 3 I sc 2 I sc 3

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G24 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.2  3-phase short-circuit current ( I sc) at any point  within a LV installation In a 3-phase installation  I sc at any point is given by:  I sc U Z T = 20 3     where U 20  = phase-to-phase voltage of the open circuited secondary windings of the power  supply transformer(s). Z T  = total impedance per phase of the installation upstream of the fault location (in  Ω ). Method of calculating Z T Each component of an installation (MV network, transformer, cable, busbar, and so  on...) is characterized by its impedance Z, comprising an element of resistance (R)  and an inductive reactance (X). It may be noted that capacitive reactances are not  important in short-circuit current calculations.The parameters R, X and Z are expressed in ohms, and are related by the sides    of a right angled triangle, as shown in the impedance diagram of  Figure G33. The method consists in dividing the network into convenient sections, and    to calculate the R and X values for each.Where sections are connected in series in the network, all the resistive elements    in the section are added arithmetically; likewise for the reactances, to give R T  and X T .  The impedance (Z T ) for the combined sections concerned is then calculated from:  Z R X T T T = + 2 2 Any two sections of the network which are connected in parallel, can, if  predominantly both resistive (or both inductive) be combined to give a single  equivalent resistance (or reactance) as follows:Let R 1  and R 2  be the two resistances connected in parallel, then the equivalent  resistance R 3  will be given by: R R 3 1 =  x R R   +  R 2 1 2   or for reactances  X X 3 1 =  x X X   +  X 2 1 2 It should be noted that the calculation of X 3  concerns only separated circuit without  mutual inductance. If the circuits in parallel are close togother the value of X 3  will be  notably higher. Determination of the impedance of each component b  Network upstream of the MV/LV transformer  (see  Fig. G34 ) The 3-phase short-circuit fault level Psc, in kA or in MVA (1)  is given by the power  supply authority concerned, from which an equivalent impedance can be deduced. (1) Short-circuit MVA: 3 E L   I sc  where:    b  E L  = phase-to-phase nominal system voltage expressed in  kV (r.m.s.)    b   I sc = 3-phase short-circuit current expressed in kA (r.m.s.) (2) up to 36 kV A formula which makes this deduction and at the same time converts the impedance  to an equivalent value at LV is given, as follows: Zs U Psc = 0 2 whereZs = impedance of the MV voltage network, expressed in milli-ohmsUo = phase-to-phase no-load LV voltage, expressed in voltsPsc = MV 3-phase short-circuit fault level, expressed in kVAThe upstream (MV) resistance Ra is generally found to be negligible compared with  the corresponding Xa, the latter then being taken as the ohmic value for Za. If more  accurate calculations are necessary, Xa may be taken to be equal to 0.995 Za and  Ra equal to 0.1 Xa. Figure G36  gives values for Ra and Xa corresponding to the most common MV (2)   short-circuit levels in utility power-supply networks, namely, 250 MVA and 500 MVA. Psc  Uo (V)  Ra (m Ω )  Xa (m Ω ) 250 MVA  420  0.07  0.7 500 MVA  420  0.035  0.351 Fig. G34 : The impedance of the MV network referred to the LV side of the MV/LV transformer Fig. G33 : Impedance diagram Z X R

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G25 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved b  Transformers  (see  Fig. G35 ) The impedance Ztr of a transformer, viewed from the LV terminals, is given by the formula: ∆ ∆ U% 100 U = Un where: U 20  = open-circuit secondary phase-to-phase voltage expressed in volts Sn = rating of the transformer (in VA) Usc = the short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer expressed in %The transformer windings resistance Rtr can be derived from the total load-losses   as follows: Pcu n Pcu n = = 3 3 2 2 I I  x Rtr so that Rtr  x 10 3  in milli-ohms  where Pcu = total load-losses in watts I n = nominal full-load current in amps Rtr = resistance of one phase of the transformer in milli-ohms (the LV and corresponding  MV winding for one LV phase are included in this resistance value). Xtr Ztr Rtr = − 2 2 Note:  for an approximate calculation, in the absence of more precise information on  transformer characteristics, Cenelec 50480 suggests to use the following guidelines: b  if U 20  is not known, it may be assumed to be 1.05 Un b   in the absence of more precise information, the following values may be used:    Rtr = 0.31 Ztr and Xtr = 0.95 Ztr Example:  for a transformer of 630kVA with Usc=4% / Un = 400V, approximate  calculation gives: b  U 20  = 400 1.05 = 420V b  Ztr = 420² / 630000 4% = 11 mΩ b   Rtr = 0.31 Ztr = 3.5 mΩ  and  Xtr = 0.95 Ztr = 10.6 mΩ b  Busbars The resistance of busbars is generally negligible, so that the impedance is practically all reactive, and amounts to approximately 0.15 m Ω /metre (1)  length for LV busbars  (doubling the spacing between the bars increases the reactance by about 10 % only).  In practice, it's almost never possible to estimate the busbar length concerned    by a short-circuit downstream a switchboard. b  Circuit conductors The resistance of a conductor is given by the formula:  Rc LS = ρ where r  = the resistivity of the conductor material at the normal operating temperature: r  has to be considered: v  at cold state (20°C) to determine maximum short-circuit current, v  at steady state (normal operating temperature) to determine minimum short-circuit  current.   L = length of the conductor in m S = c.s.a. of conductor in mm 2 (1) For 50 Hz systems, but 0.18 mΩ/m length at 60 Hz Fig. G35 : Resistance, reactance and impedance values for typical distribution 400V transformers (no-load voltage = 420 V) with MV windings  y  20 kV Rated Oil-immersed      Cast-resin Power  Usc (%)  Rtr (m Ω )  Xtr (m Ω )  Ztr (m Ω )  Usc (%)  Rtr (m Ω )  Xtr (m Ω )  Ztr (m Ω )  (kVA)  100  4  37.9  59.5  70.6  6  37.0  99.1  105.8 160  4  16.2  41.0  44.1  6  18.6  63.5  66.2 200  4  11.9  33.2  35.3  6  14.1  51.0  52.9 250  4  9.2  26.7  28.2  6  10.7  41.0  42.3 315  4  6.2  21.5  22.4  6  8.0  32.6  33.6 400  4  5.1  16.9  17.6  6  6.1  25.8  26.5 500  4  3.8  13.6  14.1  6  4.6  20.7  21.2 630  4  2.9  10.8  11.2  6  3.5  16.4  16.8 800  6  2.9  12.9  13.2  6  2.6  13.0  13.2 1000  6  2.3  10.3  10.6  6  1.9  10.4  10.6 1250  6  1.8  8.3  8.5  6  1.5  8.3  8.5 1600  6  1.4  6.5  6.6  6  1.1  6.5  6.6 2000  6  1.1  5.2  5.3  6  0.9  5.2  5.3 4  Short-circuit current 20 °C PR/XLPE 90 °C PVC 70 °C Copper 18.51 23.69 22.21 Alu 29.41 37.65 35.29 Fig. G35b: Values of r as a function of the temperature, cable insulation and cable core material, according to IEC60909-0  and Cenelec TR 50480 (in mΩ.mm²/m).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G26 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Parts of power-supply system  R (m Ω )  X (m Ω )   Supply network        Figure G34     Transformer      Figure G35        Rtr is often negligible compared to Xtr   with       for transformers 100 kVA   Circuit-breaker  Not considered in practice     Busbars  Negligible for S 200 mm 2  in the formula:  XB = 0.15 mΩ/m                     (1)     Circuit conductors (2)                (1)   Cables: Xc = 0.08 mΩ/m     Motors  See Sub-clause 4.2 Motors       (often negligible at LV)   Three-phase maximum    short circuit current in kA    Sn x 10 U20 In = 3 3 Cable reactance values can be obtained from the manufacturers. For c.s.a. of less  than 50 mm 2  reactance may be ignored. In the absence of other information, a value  of 0.08 m Ω /metre may be used (for 50 Hz systems) or 0.096 m Ω /metre (for 60 Hz  systems). For busways (busbar trunking systems) and similar pre-wired ducting  systems, the manufacturer should be consulted. b  Motors At the instant of short-circuit, a running motor will act (for a brief period) as    a generator, and feed current into the fault.In general, this fault-current contribution may be ignored. However, if the total  power of motors running simultaneously is higher than 25 % of the total power  of transformers, the influence of motors must be taken into account. Their total  contribution can be estimated from the formula: I scm = 3.5  I n from each motor i.e. 3.5 m I n for  m  similar motors operating concurrently. The motors concerned will be the 3-phase motors only; single-phase-motor  contribution being insignificant. b  Fault-arc resistance Short-circuit faults generally form an arc which has the properties of a resistance.  The resistance is not stable and its average value is low, but at low voltage this  resistance is sufficient to reduce the fault-current to some extent. Experience has  shown that a reduction of the order of 20 % may be expected. This phenomenon will  effectively ease the current-breaking duty of a CB, but affords no relief for its fault- current making duty. b  Recapitulation table (see  Fig. G36 ) Fig. G36 : Recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system U 20 : Phase-to-phase no-load secondary voltage of MV/LV transformer (in volts). Psc: 3-phase short-circuit power at MV terminals of the MV/LV transformers (in kVA).Pcu: 3-phase total losses of the MV/LV transformer (in watts).Sn: Rating of the MV/LV transformer (in kVA).Usc: Short-circuit impedance voltage of the MV/LV transfomer (in %).R T  : Total resistance. X T : Total reactance (1)  r  = resistivity at 20°C. (2) If there are several conductors in parallel per phase, then divide the resistance of one conductor by the number    of conductors. The reactance remains practically unchanged. I sc U R X T T = + 20 2 2 3  Pcu n = 3 2 I Rtr  x 10 3 Ztr Rtr − 2 2 Ztr U Pn x Usc = 20 2 100 Xtr = Ra Xa = 0.1 Xa Za Za U Psc = = 0 995 20 2 . ;     M R LS = ρ R LS = ρ where

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G27 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved LV installation   R (m Ω )  X (m Ω )  RT (m Ω )  XT (m Ω )    MV network  0.035  0.351     Psc = 500 MVA   Transformer  2.35  8.5     20 kV/420 V     Pn = 1000 kVA     Usc = 5 %     Pcu = 13.3 x 10 3  watts   Single-core cables     5 m copper    Xc = 0.08 x 5 = 0.40  2.48  9.25  I sc1 = 25 kA     4 x 240 mm 2 /phase   Main   Not considered in practice     circuit-breaker   Busbars  Not considered in practice     10 m    Three-core cable     100 m    Xc = 100 x 0.08 = 8  22  17.3  I sc3 = 8.7 kA     95 mm 2  copper   Three-core cable     20 m    Xc = 20 x 0.08 = 1.6  59  18.9  I sc4 = 3.9 kA     10 mm 2  copper     final circuits Fig. G37 : Example of maximum short-circuit calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1000 kVA MV/LV transformer Rc 18.51 4 0.10 5 240 = x = Rc 100 95 19.5 x 18.51 = = 18.51 20 10 37 x Rc = = 4.3   I sc at the receiving end of a feeder as a function  of the  I sc at its sending end The network shown in  Figure G38  typifies a case for the application of  Figure G39  next page, derived by the «method of composition» (mentioned in Chapter F Sub- clause 6.2). These tables give a rapid and sufficiently accurate value of short-circuit  current at a point in a network, knowing: b  The value of short-circuit current upstream of the point considered b  The length and composition of the circuit between the point at which the short- circuit current level is known, and the point at which the level is to be determinedIt is then sufficient to select a circuit breaker with an appropriate short-circuit fault  rating immediately above that indicated in the tables.If more precise values are required, it is possible to make a detailed calculation  (see Sub-Clause 4.2) or to use a software package, such as Ecodial. In such a case,  moreover, the possibility of using the cascading technique should be considered,  in which the use of a current limiting circuit breaker at the upstream position would  allow all circuit breakers downstream of the limiter to have a short-circuit current  rating much lower than would otherwise be necessary (See chapter H Sub-Clause 4.5). Method Select the c.s.a. of the conductor in the column for copper conductors (in this  example the c.s.a. is 47.5 mm 2 ). Search along the row corresponding to 47.5 mm 2  for the length of conductor equal  to that of the circuit concerned (or the nearest possible on the low side). Descend  vertically the column in which the length is located, and stop at a row in the middle  section (of the 3 sections of the Figure) corresponding to the known fault-current  level (or the nearest to it on the high side).In this case 30 kA is the nearest to 28 kA on the high side. The value of short-circuit  current at the downstream end of the 20 metre circuit is given at the intersection    of the vertical column in which the length is located, and the horizontal row  corresponding to the upstream Isc (or nearest to it on the high side).This value in the example is seen to be 14.7 kA.The procedure for aluminium conductors is similar, but the vertical column must be  ascended into the middle section of the table.In consequence, a DIN-rail-mounted circuit breaker rated at 63 A and Isc of 25 kA  (such as a NG 125N unit) can be used for the 55 A circuit in  Figure G38. A Compact rated at 160 A with an  I sc capacity of 25 kA (such as a NS160 unit) can  be used to protect the 160 A circuit. Fig. G38 : Determination of downstream short-circuit current  level  I sc using  Figure G39 400 V I sc = 28 kA I B  = 55 A I B  = 160 A 47,5 mm 2 , Cu 20 m I sc = ? b  Example of short-circuit calculations (see  Fig. G37 ) 4  Short-circuit current Ι sc R X T T = + 420 3 2 2   RT : Total resistance. XT: Total reactance. Isc : 3-phase maximum short-circuit current Calculations made as described in  figure G36

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G28 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Short-circuit current Fig. G39 :  I sc at a point downstream, as a function of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.s.a. of the intervening conductors,   in a 230/400 V 3-phase system Note: for a 3-phase system having 230 V between phases, divide the above lengths by 3 Copper 230 V / 400 V    c.s.a. of phase  Length of circuit (in metres)  conductors (mm 2 ) 1.5                            1.3  1.8  2.6  3.6  5.2  7.3  10.3  14.6  21 2.5                        1.1  1.5  2.1  3.0  4.3  6.1  8.6  12.1  17.2  24  34 4                      1.2  1.7  2.4  3.4  4.9  6.9  9.7  13.7  19.4  27  39  55 6                      1.8  2.6  3.6  5.2  7.3  10.3  14.6  21  29  41  58  82 10                    2.2  3.0  4.3  6.1  8.6  12.2  17.2  24  34  49  69  97  137 16                1.7  2.4  3.4  4.9  6.9  9.7  13.8  19.4  27  39  55  78  110  155  220 25            1.3  1.9  2.7  3.8  5.4  7.6  10.8  15.2  21  30  43  61  86  121  172  243  343 35            1.9  2.7  3.8  5.3  7.5  10.6  15.1  21  30  43  60  85  120  170  240  340  480 47.5          1.8  2.6  3.6  5.1  7.2  10.2  14.4  20  29  41  58  82  115  163  231  326  461  70          2.7  3.8  5.3  7.5  10.7  15.1  21  30  43  60  85  120  170  240  340      95        2.6  3.6  5.1  7.2  10.2  14.5  20  29  41  58  82  115  163  231  326  461      120    1.6  2.3  3.2  4.6  6.5  9.1  12.9  18.3  26  37  52  73  103  146  206  291  412        150  1.2  1.8  2.5  3.5  5.0  7.0  9.9  14.0  19.8  28  40  56  79  112  159  224  317  448        185  1.5  2.1  2.9  4.2  5.9  8.3  11.7  16.6  23  33  47  66  94  133  187  265  374  529        240  1.8  2.6  3.7  5.2  7.3  10.3  14.6  21  29  41  58  83  117  165  233  330  466  659        300  2.2  3.1  4.4  6.2  8.8  12.4  17.6  25  35  50  70  99  140  198  280  396  561          2x120  2.3  3.2  4.6  6.5  9.1  12.9  18.3  26  37  52  73  103  146  206  292  412  583          2x150  2.5  3.5  5.0  7.0  9.9  14.0  20  28  40  56  79  112  159  224  317  448  634          2x185  2.9  4.2  5.9  8.3  11.7  16.6  23  33  47  66  94  133  187  265  375  530  749          553x120  3.4  4.9  6.9  9.7  13.7  19.4  27  39  55  77  110  155  219  309  438  619            3x150  3.7  5.3  7.5  10.5  14.9  21  30  42  60  84  119  168  238  336  476  672            3x185  4.4  6.2  8.8  12.5  17.6  25  35  50  70  100  141  199  281  398  562              I sc upstream  I sc downstream  (in kA)  (in kA) 100  93  90  87  82  77  70  62  54  45  37  29  22  17.0  12.6  9.3  6.7  4.9  3.5  2.5  1.8  1.3  0.9 90  84  82  79  75  71  65  58  51  43  35  28  22  16.7  12.5  9.2  6.7  4.8  3.5  2.5  1.8  1.3  0.9 80  75  74  71  68  64  59  54  47  40  34  27  21  16.3  12.2  9.1  6.6  4.8  3.5  2.5  1.8  1.3  0.9 70  66  65  63  61  58  54  49  44  38  32  26  20  15.8  12.0  8.9  6.6  4.8  3.4  2.5  1.8  1.3  0.9 60  57  56  55  53  51  48  44  39  35  29  24  20  15.2  11.6  8.7  6.5  4.7  3.4  2.5  1.8  1.3  0.9 50  48  47  46  45  43  41  38  35  31  27  22  18.3  14.5  11.2  8.5  6.3  4.6  3.4  2.4  1.7  1.2  0.9 40  39  38  38  37  36  34  32  30  27  24  20  16.8  13.5  10.6  8.1  6.1  4.5  3.3  2.4  1.7  1.2  0.9 35  34  34  33  33  32  30  29  27  24  22  18.8  15.8  12.9  10.2  7.9  6.0  4.5  3.3  2.4  1.7  1.2  0.9 30  29  29  29  28  27  27  25  24  22  20  17.3  14.7  12.2  9.8  7.6  5.8  4.4  3.2  2.4  1.7  1.2  0.9 25  25  24  24  24  23  23  22  21  19.1  17.4  15.5  13.4  11.2  9.2  7.3  5.6  4.2  3.2  2.3  1.7  1.2  0.9 20  20  20  19.4  19.2  18.8  18.4  17.8  17.0  16.1  14.9  13.4  11.8  10.1  8.4  6.8  5.3  4.1  3.1  2.3  1.7  1.2  0.9 15  14.8  14.8  14.7  14.5  14.3  14.1  13.7  13.3  12.7  11.9  11.0  9.9  8.7  7.4  6.1  4.9  3.8  2.9  2.2  1.6  1.2  0.9 10  9.9  9.9  9.8  9.8  9.7  9.6  9.4  9.2  8.9  8.5  8.0  7.4  6.7  5.9  5.1  4.2  3.4  2.7  2.0  1.5  1.1  0.8 7  7.0  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.7  6.6  6.4  6.2  6.0  5.6  5.2  4.7  4.2  3.6  3.0  2.4  1.9  1.4  1.1  0.8 5  5.0  5.0  5.0  4.9  4.9  4.9  4.9  4.8  4.7  4.6  4.5  4.3  4.0  3.7  3.4  3.0  2.5  2.1  1.7  1.3  1.0  0.8 4  4.0  4.0  4.0  4.0  4.0  3.9  3.9  3.9  3.8  3.7  3.6  3.5  3.3  3.1  2.9  2.6  2.2  1.9  1.6  1.2  1.0  0.7 3  3.0  3.0  3.0  3.0  3.0  3.0  2.9  2.9  2.9  2.9  2.8  2.7  2.6  2.5  2.3  2.1  1.9  1.6  1.4  1.1  0.9  0.7 2  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  1.9  1.9  1.9  1.8  1.8  1.7  1.6  1.4  1.3  1.1  1.0  0.8  0.6 1  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  0.9  0.9  0.9  0.8  0.8  0.7  0.6  0.6  0.5 Aluminium 230 V / 400 V     c.s.a. of phase  Length of circuit (in metres)  conductors (mm 2 ) 2.5                            1.4  1.9  2.7  3.8  5.4  7.6  10.8  15.3  22 4                        1.1  1.5  2.2  3.1  4.3  6.1  8.6  12.2  17.3  24  35 6                        1.6  2.3  3.2  4.6  6.5  9.2  13.0  18.3  26  37  52 10                      1.9  2.7  3.8  5.4  7.7  10.8  15.3  22  31  43  61  86 16                    2.2  3.1  4.3  6.1  8.7  12.2  17.3  24  35  49  69  98  138 25                1.7  2.4  3.4  4.8  6.8  9.6  13.5  19.1  27  38  54  76  108  153  216 35              1.7  2.4  3.4  4.7  6.7  9.5  13.4  18.9  27  38  54  76  107  151  214  302 47.5            1.6  2.3  3.2  4.6  6.4  9.1  12.9  18.2  26  36  51  73  103  145  205  290  410 70            2.4  3.4  4.7  6.7  9.5  13.4  19.0  27  38  54  76  107  151  214  303  428  95          2.3  3.2  4.6  6.4  9.1  12.9  18.2  26  36  51  73  103  145  205  290  411    120          2.9  4.1  5.8  8.1  11.5  16.3  23  32  46  65  92  130  184  259  367      150          3.1  4.4  6.3  8.8  12.5  17.7  25  35  50  71  100  141  199  282  399      185        2.6  3.7  5.2  7.4  10.4  14.8  21  30  42  59  83  118  167  236  333  471      240  1.2  1.6  2.3  3.3  4.6  6.5  9.2  13.0  18.4  26  37  52  73  104  147  208  294  415        300  1.4  2.0  2.8  3.9  5.5  7.8  11.1  15.6  22  31  44  62  88  125  177  250  353  499        2x120  1.4  2.0  2.9  4.1  5.8  8.1  11.5  16.3  23  33  46  65  92  130  184  260  367  519        2x150  1.6  2.2  3.1  4.4  6.3  8.8  12.5  17.7  25  35  50  71  100  141  200  282  399          2x185  1.9  2.6  3.7  5.2  7.4  10.5  14.8  21  30  42  59  83  118  167  236  334  472          2x240  2.3  3.3  4.6  6.5  9.2  13.0  18.4  26  37  52  74  104  147  208  294  415  587          3x120  2.2  3.1  4.3  6.1  8.6  12.2  17.3  24  34  49  69  97  138  195  275  389  551          3x150  2.3  3.3  4.7  6.6  9.4  13.3  18.8  27  37  53  75  106  150  212  299  423  598          3x185  2.8  3.9  5.5  7.8  11.1  15.7  22  31  44  63  89  125  177  250  354  500  707          3x240  3.5  4.9  6.9  9.8  13.8  19.5  28  39  55  78  110  156  220  312  441  623            4.4  Short-circuit current supplied by a generator  or an inverter:  Please refer to Chapter N

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G29 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Particular cases of short-circuit current 5.1  Calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current In general, on LV circuits, a single protective device protects against all levels    of current, from the overload threshold through the maximum rated short-circuit  current breaking capability of the device. The protection device should be able to  operate in a maximum time to ensure people and circuit safety, for all short-circuit  current or fault current that may occur. To check that behavior, calculation of minimal  short-circuit current or fault current is mandatory.In addition, in certain cases overload protective devices and separate short-circuit  protective devices are used. Examples of such arrangements Figures G40 to G42  show some common arrangements where overload    and short-circuit protections are achieved by separate devices. If a protective device in a circuit is intended only to protect against short-circuit faults,  it is essential that it will operate with certainty  at the lowest possible level of short-circuit current that can occur on the circuit aM fuses  (no protection  against overload) Load breaking contactor with thermal overload relay Circuit breaker with instantaneous magnetic short-circuit protective relay only Load breaking contactor with thermal overload relay Circuit breaker D Load with incorporated oaverload protection S1 S2 S1 Fig. G42a : Circuit breaker D provides protection against short- circuit faults as far as and including the load Fig. G40 : Circuit protected by aM fuses Fig. G41 : Circuit protected by circuit breaker without thermal  overload relay Protection to be provided  Protection generally provided   Additional protection    by the variable speed drive  if not provided by the       variable speed drive Cable overload  Yes   CB / Thermal relay Motor overload  Yes   CB / Thermal relay Downstream short-circuit  Yes    Variable speed drive overload  Yes    Overvoltage  Yes    Undervoltage  Yes    Loss of phase  Yes    Upstream short-circuit    Circuit breaker        (short-circuit tripping) Internal fault    Circuit breaker        (short-circuit and        overload tripping) Downstream earth fault   (self protection)  RCD u 300 mA or   (indirect contact)    CB in TN earthing system Direct contact fault    RCD y 30 mA Fig. G42b : Protection to be provided for variable speeed drive applications As shown in  Figures G40 and G41 , the most common circuits using separate  devices control and protect motors. Figure G42a  constitutes a derogation in the basic protection rules, and is generally  used on circuits of prefabricated bustrunking, lighting rails, etc. Variable speed driveFigure G42b  shows the functions provided by the variable speed drive, and    if necessary some additional functions provided by devices such as circuit breaker,  thermal relay, RCD.  G - Sizing and protection of conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Conditions to be fulfilled The protective device must therefore satisfy the two following conditions: b  Its breaking capacity must be greater than  I sc, the 3-phase short-circuit current    at its point of installation b  Elimination of the minimum short-circuit current possible in the circuit, in a time tc  compatible with the thermal constraints of the circuit conductors, where: tc K S sc   min y 2 2 2 I  (valid for tc 5 seconds) where S is the cross section area of the cable, k is a factor depending of the cable  conductor material, the insulation material and initial temperature. Exemple : for copper XLPE, initial temperature 90 °C, k = 143 (see IEC60364-4-43  §434.3.2 table 43A).Comparison of the tripping or fusing performance curve of protective devices, with  the limit curves of thermal constraint for a conductor shows that this condition    is satisfied if: b   I sc (min)   I m (instantaneous or short timedelay circuit breaker trip setting current  level), (see  Fig. G43 ) b   I sc (min)   I a for protection by fuses. The value of the current  I a corresponds    to the crossing point of the fuse curve and the cable thermal withstand curve    (see  Fig. G44 and G45 ). The protective device must fulfill:b  instantaneous trip setting  I m   I sc min  for   a circuit breaker b  fusion current  I a   I sc min  for a fuse Fig. G45 : Protection by gG-type fuses I t I m t = k 2  S 2 I 2 I t I a t = k 2  S 2 I 2 Fig. G43 : Protection by circuit breaker I t I a t = k 2  S 2 I 2 Fig. G44 : Protection by aM-type fuses

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G31 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Practical method of calculating Lmax The limiting effect of the impedance of long circuit conductors on the value of short-circuit  currents must be checked and the length of a circuit must be restricted accordingly. The method of calculating the maximum permitted length has already been demonstrated  in TN- and IT- earthed schemes for single and double earth faults, respectively (see  Chapter F Sub-clauses 6.2 and 7.2). Two cases are considered below: 1 - Calculation of L max  for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit The minimum short-circuit current will occur when two phase wires are short-circuited  at the remote end of the circuit (see  Fig. G46 ). In practice this means that the length of circuit downstream of the protective device must not exceed a calculated maximum length: L 0.8 U Sph 2 m max = ρΙ Load P 0.8 U L Fig G46 : Definition of L for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit (1) For larger c.s.a.’s, the resistance calculated for the  conductors must be increased to account for the non-uniform  current density in the conductor (due to “skin” and “proximity”  effects)Suitable values are as follows:150 mm 2 : R + 15 % 185 mm 2 : R + 20 % 240 mm 2 : R + 25 % 300 mm 2 : R + 30 % (2) Resistivity for copper EPR/XLPE cables when passing  short-circuit current, eg for the max temperature they can  withstand = 90°C (cf figure G35b). 5  Particular cases of short-circuit current Zd 2L = ρ Sph Using the “conventional method”, the voltage at the point of protection P is assumed  to be 80 % of the nominal voltage during a short-circuit fault, so that 0.8 U =  I sc Zd,  where: Zd = impedance of the fault loop I sc = short-circuit current (ph/ph) U = phase-to-phase nominal voltageFor cables y 120 mm 2 , reactance may be neglected, so that                     (1) where: r  = resistivity of conductor material at the average temperature during a short-circuit,  Sph = c.s.a. of a phase conductor in mm 2 L = length in metresThe condition for the cable protection is  I m y  I sc with  I m = magnetic trip current  setting of the CB. This leads to  I m y                which gives L y  with U = 400 V r  = 0.023 Ω.mm 2 /m (2)  (Cu) therefore with Lmax = maximum circuit length in metres In general, the value of Im is given with +/- 20% tolerance, so Lmax should be  calculated for Im+20% (worst case). k factor values are provided in the following table, taking into account these 20%,  and as a function of cross-section for Sph 120 mm²  (1) 2 - Calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit The minimum  I sc will occur when the short-circuit is between a phase conductor    and the neutral at the end of the circuit. A calculation similar to that of example 1 above is required, but for a single-phase  fault (230V). b  If Sn (neutral cross-section) = Sph Lmax = k Sph / Im with k calculated for 230V, as shown in the table below b  If Sn (neutral cross-section) Sph, then (for cable cross-section y 120mm²)  0.8 U Zd 0.8 U Sph 2 m ρ I Cross-section (mm²) y  120 150 185 240 300 k (for 400 V) 5800 5040 4830 4640 4460 L k Sph m max = I Cross-section (mm²) y  120 150 185 240 300 k (for 400 V) 3333 2898 2777 2668 2565 L 6 666 Sph  where  max = = I m 1 m Sph Sn 1+ m

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Tabulated values for Lmax Figure G47  below gives maximum circuit lengths (Lmax) in metres, for: b  3-phase 4-wire 400 V circuits (i.e. with neutral) and b  1-phase 2-wire 230 V circuits  protected by general-purpose circuit breakers.In other cases, apply correction factors (given in  Figure G51 ) to the lengths obtained. In general, the value of Im is given with +/- 20% tolerance. Lmax values below are therefore calculated for Im+20% (worst case).For the 50 mm 2  c.s.a., calculation are based on a 47.5 mm 2  real c.s.a.  Fig. G47 : Maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium, the lengths must be multiplied by 0.62) Operating current  c.s.a. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm 2 )  level Im of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element  (in  A)  1.5  2.5 4  6  10  16  25  35  50  70  95  120 150 185 240 50  100  167  267  400                      63  79  133  212  317                      80  63  104  167  250  417                    100  50  83  133  200  333                    125  40  67  107  160  267  427                  160  31  52  83  125  208  333                  200  25  42  67  100  167  267  417                250  20  33  53  80  133  213  333  467              320  16  26  42  63  104  167  260  365  495            400  13  21  33  50  83  133  208  292  396            500  10  17  27  40  67  107  167  233  317            560  9  15  24  36  60  95  149  208  283  417          630  8  13  21  32  53  85  132  185  251  370          700  7  12  19  29  48  76  119  167  226  333  452        800  6  10  17  25  42  67  104  146  198  292  396        875  6  10  15  23  38  61  95  133  181  267  362  457      1000  5  8  13  20  33  53  83  117  158  233  317  400  435    1120  4  7  12  18  30  48  74  104  141  208  283  357  388  459  1250  4  7  11  16  27  43  67  93  127  187  253  320  348  411  1600    5  8  13  21  33  52  73  99  146  198  250  272  321  400 2000    4  7  10  17  27  42  58  79  117  158  200  217  257  320 2500      5  8  13  21  33  47  63  93  127  160  174  206  256 3200      4  6  10  17  26  36  49  73  99  125  136  161  200 4000        5  8  13  21  29  40  58  79  100  109  128  160 5000        4  7  11  17  23  32  47  63  80  87  103  128 6300          5  8  13  19  25  37  50  63  69  82  102 8000          4  7  10  15  20  29  40  50  54  64  80 10000            5  8  12  16  23  32  40  43  51  64 12500            4  7  9  13  19  25  32  35  41  51 Figures G48 to G50  next page give maximum circuit length (Lmax) in metres for: b  3-phase 4-wire 400 V circuits (i.e. with neutral) and b  1-phase 2-wire 230 V circuits protected in both cases by domestic-type circuit breakers or with circuit breakers  having similar tripping/current characteristics.In other cases, apply correction factors to the lengths indicated. These factors are  given in  Figure G51  next page.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G33 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G50 : Maximum length of copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers Fig. G48 : Maximum length of copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers Fig. G49 : Maximum length of copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers Fig. G51 : Correction factor to apply to lengths obtained from  Figures G47  to  G50 Circuit detail    3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit or 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuit (no neutral)    1.73 1-phase 2-wire (phase and neutral) 230 V circuit    1 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit or 2-phase 3-wire 230/400 V circuit   Sph / S neutral = 1  1 (i.e with neutral)  Sph / S neutral = 2  0.67 Note : IEC 60898 accepts an upper short-circuit-current tripping range of 10-50  I n for  type D circuit breakers. European standards, and  Figure G50  however, are based  on a range of 10-20  I n, a range which covers the vast majority of domestic and  similar installations. Circuit breaker  c.s.a. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm 2 )  rating  (A)  1.5 2.5 4  6  10 16 25  35 50 6  200  333  533  800         10  120  200  320  480  800       16  75  125  200  300  500  800     20  60  100  160  240  400  640     25  48  80  128  192  320  512  800    32  37  62  100  150  250  400  625  875  40  30  50  80  120  200  320  500  700  50  24  40  64  96  160  256  400  560  760 63  19  32  51  76  127  203  317  444  603 80  15  25  40  60  100  160  250  350  475 100  12  20  32  48  80  128  200  280  380 125  10  16  26  38  64  102  160  224  304 Circuit breaker  c.s.a. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm2)  rating  (A)  1.5 2.5 4  6  10 16 25  35 50 6  100  167  267  400  667       10  60  100  160  240  400  640     16  37  62  100  150  250  400  625  875  20  30  50  80  120  200  320  500  700  25  24  40  64  96  160  256  400  560  760 32  18.0  31  50  75  125  200  313  438  594 40  15.0  25  40  60  100  160  250  350  475 50  12.0  20  32  48  80  128  200  280  380 63  9.5  16.0  26  38  64  102  159  222  302 80  7.5  12.5  20  30  50  80  125  175  238 100  6.0  10.0  16.0  24  40  64  100  140  190 125  5.0  8.0  13.0  19.0  32  51  80  112  152 Circuit breaker  c.s.a. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm2)  rating (A)   1.5  2.5  4  6  10  16  25  35  50 1   429  714             2  214  357  571  857         3  143  238  381  571  952       4  107  179  286  429  714       6  71  119  190  286  476  762     10  43  71  114  171  286  457  714    16  27  45  71  107  179  286  446  625  848 20  21  36  57  86  143  229  357  500  679 25  17.0  29  46  69  114  183  286  400  543 32  13.0  22  36  54  89  143  223  313  424 40  11.0  18.0  29  43  71  114  179  250  339 50  9.0  14.0  23  34  57  91  143  200  271 63  7.0  11.0  18.0  27  45  73  113  159  215 80  5.0  9.0  14.0  21  36  57  89  125  170 100  4.0  7.0  11.0  17.0  29  46  71  100  136 125  3.0  6.0  9.0  14.0  23  37  57  80  109 5  Particular cases of short-circuit current

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G - Sizing and protection of conductors G34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Examples Example 1 In a 3-phase 3-wire 400 V installation the protection is provided by a 50 A circuit  breaker type NS80HMA, the instantaneous short-circuit current trip, is set at 500 A  (accuracy of ± 20 %), i.e. in the worst case would require 500 x 1.2 = 600 A to trip.  The cable c.s.a. = 10 mm 2  and the conductor material is copper. In  Figure G47 , the row  I m = 500 A crosses the column c.s.a. = 10 mm 2  at the value  for Lmax of 67 m. The circuit breaker protects the cable against short-circuit faults,  therefore, provided that its length does not exceed 67 metres. Example 2 In a 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit (without neutral), the protection is provided by    a 220 A circuit breaker type NSX250N with an instantaneous short-circuit current trip  unit type MA set at 2000 A (±20 %), i.e. a worst case of 2400 A to be certain    of tripping. The cable c.s.a. = 120 mm 2  and the conductor material is copper. In  Figure G47  the row  I m = 2000 A crosses the column c.s.a. = 120 mm 2  at the  value for Lmax of 200 m. Being a 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit (without neutral),    a correction factor from  Figure G51  must be applied. This factor is seen to be 1.73.    The circuit breaker will therefore protect the cable against short-circuit current,  provided that its length does not exceed 200 x 1.73 = 346 metres. 5.2  Verification of the withstand capabilities    of cables under short-circuit conditions Thermal constraints  When the duration of short-circuit current is brief (several tenths of a second  up to five seconds maximum) all of the heat produced is assumed to remain in  the conductor, causing its temperature to rise. The heating process is said to be  adiabatic, an assumption that simplifies the calculation and gives a pessimistic  result, i.e. a higher conductor temperature than that which would actually occur,  since    in practice, some heat would leave the conductor and pass into the insulation.For a period of 5 seconds or less, the relationship  I 2 t = k 2 S 2  characterizes the  time in seconds during which a conductor of c.s.a. S (in mm 2 ) can be allowed to  carry a current  I , before its temperature reaches a level which would damage the  surrounding insulation.The factor k is given in  Figure G52  below. In general, verification of the thermal-withstand  capability of a cable is not necessary, except in cases where cables of small c.s.a. are installed close to, or feeding directly from, the main general distribution board Fig. G52 : Value of the constant k according to table 43A of IEC 60364-4-43 Conductor insulation PVC  y  300 mm 2 PVC   300 mm 2 EPR XLPE Rubber 60 °C Initial temperature °C 70 70 90 60 Final temperature °C 160 140 250 200 Material of conductor:Copper 115 103 143 141 Aluminium 76 68 94 93

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G35 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Particular cases of short-circuit current The method of verification consists in checking that the thermal energy  I 2 t per  ohm of conductor material, allowed to pass by the protecting circuit breaker (from  manufacturers catalogues) is less than that permitted for the particular conductor    (as given in  Figure G53  below). Fig. G53 : Maximum allowable thermal stress for cables  I 2 t (expressed in ampere 2  x second x 10 6 ) S (mm 2 ) PVC    XLPE   Copper  Aluminium Copper  Aluminium 1.5  0.0297  0.0130  0.0460  0.0199 2.5  0.0826  0.0361  0.1278  0.0552 4  0.2116  0.0924  0.3272  0.1414 6  0.4761  0.2079  0.7362  0.3181 10  1.3225  0.5776  2.0450  0.8836 16  3.3856  1.4786  5.2350  2.2620 25  8.2656  3.6100  12.7806  5.5225 35  16.2006  7.0756  25.0500  10.8241 50  (1)   29.839  13.032  46.133  19.936 1 000 000 100 000 10 000 1 000 100 0.01 100 10 1 0.1 Limited energy (A²s) Prospective current (kA eff.) 10 ms 50-63 32-40 20-25 16 6 8-10 4 2-3 1 Fig. G53b :  Example of energy limitation of a MCB for different ratings Example Is a copper-cored XLPE cable of 4 mm 2  c.s.a. adequately protected by a  iC60N circuit breaker? (see  Fig. G53b ) Figure G53  shows that the  I 2 t value for the cable is 0.3272 x 10 6 , while the  maximum “let-through” value by the circuit breaker, as given in the manufacturer’s  catalogue, is considerably less ( 0.1.10 6  A 2 s). The cable is therefore adequately protected by the circuit breaker up to its full rated  breaking capability. Electrodynamic constraints For all type of circuit (conductors or bus-trunking), it is necessary to take   electrodynamic effects into account.To withstand the electrodynamic constraints, the conductors must be solidly fixed  and the connection must be strongly tightened.For bus-trunking, rails, etc. it is also necessary to verify that the electrodynamic  withstand performance is satisfactory when carrying short-circuit currents. The peak  value of current, limited by the circuit breaker or fuse, must be less than the busbar  system rating. Tables of coordination ensuring adequate protection of their products  are generally published by the manufacturers and provide a major advantage of  such systems. (1) For 50mm² cable, the values are calculated for the actual cross-section of 47.5mm²

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G36 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved G - Sizing and protection of conductors 6  Protective earthing conductor (PE) 6.1  Connection and choice Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed  and extraneous conductive parts of an installation, to create the main equipotential  bonding system. These conductors conduct fault current due to insulation failure  (between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral  of the source. PE conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal of the  installation.The main earthing terminal is connected to the earthing electrode (see Chapter E) by  the earthing conductor (grounding electrode conductor in the USA).PE conductors must be: b  Insulated and coloured yellow and green (stripes) b  Protected against mechanical and chemical damage. In IT and TN-earthed schemes it is strongly recommended that PE conductors  should be installed in close proximity (i.e. in the same conduits, on the same cable  tray, etc.) as the live cables of the related circuit. This arrangement ensures the  minimum possible inductive reactance in the earth-fault current carrying circuits. It should be noted that this arrangement is originally provided by bus-trunking. Connection PE conductors must: b  Not include any means of breaking the continuity of the circuit (such as a switch,  removable links, etc.) b  Connect exposed conductive parts individually to the main PE conductor, i.e. in  parallel, not in series, as shown in  Figure G54 b  Have an individual terminal on common earthing bars in distribution boards. TT scheme The PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live  conductors of the corresponding circuit, since high values of earth-fault current are  not needed to operate the RCD-type of protection used in TT installations. IT and TN schemes The PE or PEN conductor, as previously noted, must be installed as close as  possible to the corresponding live conductors of the circuit and no ferro-magnetic  material must be interposed between them. A PEN conductor must always be  connected directly to the earth terminal of an appliance, with a looped connection  from the earth terminal to the neutral terminal of the appliance (see  Fig. G55 ). b  TN-C scheme (the neutral and PE conductor are one and the same, referred to as  a PEN conductor)The protective function of a PEN conductor has priority, so that all rules governing  PE conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors b  TN-C to TN-S transition  The PE conductor for the installation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (see  Fig. G56 ) generally at the origin of the installation. Downstream of the point    of separation, no PE conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor. Fig. G55 : Direct connection of the PEN conductor to the earth  terminal of an appliance PE PE Correct Incorrect Fig. G54 : A poor connection in a series arrangement will leave  all downstream appliances unprotected Fig. G56 : The TN-C-S scheme PEN PEN PE N G - Sizing and protection of conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G37 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Types of materials Materials of the kinds mentioned below in  Figure G57  can be used for PE conductors,   provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisfied. Fig. G57 : Choice of protective conductors (PE) 6.2  Conductor sizing Figure G58  below is based on IEC 60364-5-54. This table provides two methods    of determining the appropriate c.s.a. for both PE or PEN conductors. Fig. G58 : Minimum cross section area of protective conductors (1) Data valid if the prospective conductor is of the same material as the line conductor. Otherwise, a correction factor must be applied.(2) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors, the following minimum values must be respected: b  2.5 mm 2  if the PE is mechanically protected b  4 mm 2  if the PE is not mechanically protected. (3) For mechanical reasons, a PEN conductor, shall have a cross-sectional area not less than 10 mm 2  in copper or 16 mm 2  in aluminium. (4) Refer to table A.54 of IEC60364-4-54 or table G63 next page to get values of k factor. (1) In TN and IT schemes, fault clearance is generally achieved by overcurrent devices (fuses or circuit breakers) so that the impedance  of the fault-current loop must be sufficiently low to assure positive protective device operation. The surest means of achieving a low loop  impedance is to use a supplementary core in the same cable as the circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors).  This solution minimizes the inductive reactance and therefore the impedance of the loop.(2) The PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth conductor. This means that a current may be flowing  through it at any time (in the absence of an earth fault). For this reason an insulated conductor is recommended for PEN operation.(3) The manufacturer provides the necessary values of R and X components of the impedances (phase/PE, phase/PEN) to include in the  calculation of the earth-fault loop impedance.(4) Possible, but not recomended, since the impedance of the earth-fault loop cannot be known at the design stage. Measurements on the  completed installation are the only practical means of assuring adequate protection for persons.(5) It must allow the connection of other PE conductors.  Note : these elements must carry an indivual green/yellow striped visual indication,  15 to 100 mm long (or the letters PE at less than 15 cm from each extremity).(6) These elements must be demountable only if other means have been provided to ensure uninterrupted continuity of protection.(7) With the agreement of the appropriate water authorities.(8) In the prefabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements, the metallic housing may be used as a PEN conductor, in parallel with the  corresponding bar, or other PE conductor in the housing.(9) Forbidden in some countries only. Universally allowed to be used for supplementary equipotential conductors. Type of protective earthing conductor (PE)  IT scheme  TN scheme  TT scheme  Conditions to be respected Supplementary  In the same cable   Strongly  Strongly recommended  Correct  The PE conductor must   conductor  as the phases, or in  recommended      be insulated to the same      the same cable run        level as the phases   Independent of the   Possible  (1)   Possible  (1) (2)    Correct   b  The PE conductor may     phase conductors         be bare or insulated  (2) Metallic housing of bus-trunking or of other   Possible  (3)    PE possible  (3)    Correct  b  The electrical continuity   prefabricated prewired ducting  (5)      PEN possible  (8)    must be assured by protection  External sheath of extruded, mineral- insulated   Possible  (3)    PE possible  (3)   Possible  against deterioration by   conductors (e.g. «pyrotenax» type systems)    PEN not recommended   (2)(3)     mechanical, chemical and Certain extraneous conductive elements  (6)   Possible  (4)    PE possible  (4)    Possible  electrochemical hazards   such as:       PEN forbidden    b  Their conductance   b  Steel building structures        must be adequate   b  Machine frames   b  Water pipes  (7) Metallic cable ways, such as, conduits  (9) ,  Possible  (4)    PE possible  (4)    Possible   ducts, trunking, trays, ladders, and so on…     PEN not recommended   (2)(4)       Forbidden for use as PE conductors, are: metal conduits  (9) , gas pipes, hot-water pipes, cable-armouring tapes  (9)  or wires  (9)   c.s.a. of phase  Minimum c.s.a. of  Minimum c.s.a. of      conductors Sph (mm 2 )  PE conductor (mm 2 )  PEN conductor (mm 2 )       Cu Al   Simplified   S ph  y  16   S ph  (2)   S ph  (3)  S ph  (3) method  (1)   16   S ph   y  25  16  16    25   S ph   y  35                         25  35    S ph   y  50  S ph  /2  S ph  /2        S ph  50       S ph  /2  Adiabatic method    Any size            k I SPE/PEN 2 (3)(4) t = . 6  Protective earthing conductor (PE)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G38 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved G - Sizing and protection of conductors The two methods are: b  Adiabatic (which corresponds with that described in IEC 60724) This method, while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor  against overheating, leads to small c.s.a.’s compared to those of the corresponding  circuit phase conductors. The result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity  in IT and TN schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault loop,  to ensure positive operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. This  method is used in practice, therefore, for TT installations, and for dimensioning an  earthing conductor  (1) . b  Simplified This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those    of the corresponding circuit phase conductors, assuming that the same conductor  material is used in each case.Thus, in  Figure G58  for: Sph y 16 mm 2   S PE  = Sph 16  Sph y 35 mm 2   S PE  = 16 mm 2 Sph  35 mm 2    Note : when, in a TT scheme, the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone    of influence of the source earthing electrode, the c.s.a. of the PE conductor can be  limited to 25 mm 2  (for copper) or 35 mm 2  (for aluminium). The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.s.a. is equal to or larger  than 10 mm 2  (copper) or 16 mm 2  (aluminium). Moreover, a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable. Since a PEN conductor  functions also as a neutral conductor, its c.s.a. cannot, in any case, be less than that  necessary for the neutral, as discussed in Subclause 7.1 of this Chapter.This c.s.a. cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless: b  The kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10 % of the total kVA load, and b   I max likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances, is less than the  current permitted for the selected cable size.Furthermore, protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective  devices provided for phase-conductor protection (described in Sub-clause 7.2 of this  Chapter). Values of factor k to be used in the formulae These values are identical in several national standards, and the temperature  rise ranges, together with factor k values and the upper temperature limits for the  different classes of insulation, correspond with those published in IEC60364-5-54,  Annex A. The data presented in  Figure G59  are those most commonly needed for LV installation  design. (1) Grounding electrode conductor Fig. G59 :   k factor values for LV PE conductors, commonly used in national standards and  complying with IEC60364-5-54 Annex A k values    Nature of insulation     Polyvinylchloride (PVC)  Cross-linked-polyethylene       (XLPE)       Ethylene-propylene-rubber       (EPR) Final temperature (°C)    160  250 Initial temperature (°C)    30   30  Insulated conductors   Copper  143  176 not incoporated in   Aluminium  95  116 cables or bare   Steel  52  64   conductors in contact   with cable jacketsConductors of a   Copper  115  143 multi-core-cable  Aluminium  76  94 2 Sph SPE=

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G39 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3  Protective conductor between MV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) All phase and neutral conductors upstream of the main incoming circuit breaker  controlling and protecting the MGDB are protected against short-circuit and fault  current by devices at the MV side of the transformer. The conductors in question,  together with the PE conductor, must be dimensioned accordingly. Dimensioning  of the phase and neutral conductors from the transformer is exemplified in Sub- clause 7.5 of this chapter (for circuit C1 of the system illustrated in  Fig. G65 ). Recommended conductor sizes for bare and insulated PE conductors from the  transformer neutral point, shown in  Figure G60 , are indicated below in  Figure G61.   The kVA rating to consider is the sum of all (if more than one) transformers  connected to the MGDB. These conductors must be sized according  to national practices Main earth bar for the LV installation MGDB PE Fig. G60 : PE conductor to the main earth bar in the MGDB Fig. G61 : Recommended c.s.a. of PE conductor between the MV/LV transformer and the MGDB,  as a function of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times. The table indicates the c.s.a. of the conductors in mm 2  according to: b  The nominal rating of the MV/LV transformer(s) in kVA b  The fault-current clearance time by the MV protective devices, in seconds b  The kinds of insulation and conductor materials. If the MV protection is by fuses, then use the 0.2 seconds columns.In IT schemes, if an overvoltage protection device is installed (between the  transformer neutral point and earth) the conductors for connection of the device  should also be dimensioned in the same way as that described above for  PE conductors. Transformer  Conductor  Bare     PVC-insulated  XLPE-insulated  rating in kVA  material  conductors    conductors    conductors (230/400  V  Copper  t(s)  0.2 0.5 -  0.2 0.5 -  0.2 0.5 - output)  Aluminium  t(s)  -  0.2 0.5 -  0.2 0.5 -  0.2 0.5 y 100    c.s.a. of PE  25  25  25  25  25  25  25  25  25 160    conductors  25  25  35  25  25  50  25  25  35   200    SPE (mm 2 )  25  35  50  25  35  50  25  25  50   250      25  35  70  35  50  70  25  35  50   315      35  50  70  35  50  95  35  50  70 400      50  70  95  50  70  95  35  50  95   500      50  70  120  70  95  120  50  70  95   630      70  95  150  70  95  150  70  95  120 800      70  120  150  95  120  185  70  95  150   1000      95  120  185  95  120  185  70  120  150   1250      95  150  185  120  150  240  95  120  185 6  Protective earthing conductor (PE) This table is the result of the application of the adiabatic method described in 6.2  with:  b   i² short-circuit level at the transformer LV side, b   t is the tripping time of the MV device for this short circuit current.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G40 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved G - Sizing and protection of conductors Fig. G62 : Supplementary equipotential conductors M 1 M 2 Between two exposed conductive parts if S PE1  y S PE2 then S LS  = S PE1 Between an exposed conductive part and a metallic structure M 1 Metal structures (conduits, girders…) 2 S PE1 S PE1 S PE2 S PE S LS S LS S LS  = 6.4  Equipotential conductor The main equipotential conductor This conductor must, in general, have a c.s.a. at least equal to half of that of the  largest PE conductor, but in no case need exceed 25 mm 2  (copper) or 35 mm 2   (aluminium) while its minimum c.s.a. is 6 mm 2  (copper) or 10 mm 2  (aluminium). Supplementary equipotential conductor This conductor allows an exposed conductive part which is remote from the nearest  main equipotential conductor (PE conductor) to be connected to a local protective  conductor. Its c.s.a. must be at least half of that of the protective conductor to which  it is connected.If it connects two exposed conductive parts (M1 and M2 in  Figure G62 ) its c.s.a.  must be at least equal to that of the smaller of the two PE conductors (for M1 and  M2). Equipotential conductors which are not incorporated in a cable, should be  protected mechanically by conduits, ducting, etc. wherever possible.Other important uses for supplementary equipotential conductors concern the  reduction of the earth-fault loop impedance, particulary for indirect-contact protection  schemes in TN- or IT-earthed installations, and in special locations with increased  electrical risk (refer to IEC 60364-4-41).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G41 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 7  The neutral conductor The c.s.a. and the protection of the neutral conductor, apart from its current-carrying  requirement, depend on several factors, namely: b  The type of earthing system, TT, TN, etc. b  The harmonic currents b  The method of protection against indirect contact hazards according to the  methods described below.The color of the neutral conductor is statutorily blue. PEN conductor, when insulated,  shall be marked by one of the following methods : b  Green-and-yellow throughout its length with, in addition, light blue markings at the  terminations, or b  Light blue throughout its length with, in addition, green-and-yellow markings at the  terminations. 7.1  Sizing the neutral conductor Influence of the type of earthing system TT and TN-S schemes b  Single-phase circuits or those of c.s.a. y 16 mm 2  (copper) 25 mm 2  (aluminium):    the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor must be equal to that of the phases b  Three-phase circuits of c.s.a. 16 mm 2  copper or 25 mm 2  aluminium: the c.s.a.    of the neutral may be chosen to be: v  Equal to that of the phase conductors, or v  Smaller, on condition that: - The current likely to flow through the neutral  in normal conditions is less than    the permitted value  I z. The influence of triplen (1)  harmonics must be given particular  consideration or - The neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit, in accordance with the  following Sub-clause G-7.2 - The size of the neutral conductor is at least equal to 16 mm 2  in copper or 25 mm 2    in aluminium. TN-C scheme The same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above, but in practice,  the neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since  it constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor (see  Figure G58  “c.s.a. of PEN  conductor” column). IT scheme In general, it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor, i.e. a 3-phase  3-wire scheme is preferred. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necessary,  however, the conditions described above for TT and TN-S schemes are applicable. Influence of harmonic currents Effects of triplen harmonics Harmonics are generated by the non-linear loads of the installation (computers,  fluorescent lighting, LED lighting, rectifiers, power electronic choppers) and can  produce high currents in the Neutral. In particular triplen harmonics of the three  Phases have a tendency to cumulate in the Neutral as: b  Fundamental currents are out-of-phase by 2 π /3 so that their sum is zero b  On the other hand, triplen harmonics of the three Phases are always positioned in  the same manner with respect to their own fundamental, and are in phase with each  other (see  Fig. G63a ). (1) Harmonics of order 3 and multiple of 3 Fig. G63a : Triplen harmonics are in phase and cumulate in the Neutral + I 1 H1 I 1 H3 I 2 H1 + I 2 H3 I 3 H1 I k H1 I N  = 1 3 + + I 3 H3 I k H3 0 + I H3 1 3 3 G - Sizing and protection of conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G42 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Figure G63b  shows the load factor of the neutral conductor as a function of the  percentage of 3 rd  harmonic. In practice, this maximum load factor cannot exceed 3 . Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables with  four cores carrying current The basic calculation of a cable concerns only cables with three loaded conductors  i.e there is no current in the neutral conductor. Because of the third harmonic  current, there is a current in the neutral. As a result, this neutral current creates an  hot environment for the 3 phase conductors and for this reason, a reduction factor    for phase conductors is necessary (see  Fig. G63 ). Reduction factors, applied to the current-carrying capacity of a cable with three  loaded conductors, give the current-carrying capacity of a cable with four loaded  conductors, where the current in the fourth conductor is due to harmonics. The  reduction factors also take the heating effect of the harmonic current in the phase  conductors into account. b  Where the neutral current is expected to be higher than the phase current, then    the cable size should be selected on the basis of the neutral current b  Where the cable size selection is based on a neutral current which is not  significantly higher than the phase current, it is necessary to reduce the tabulated  current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors b  If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size    is selected on the basis of the neutral current then the three phase conductors will  not be fully loaded. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets  the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary  to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded  conductors. b  In order to protect cables, the fuse or circuit breaker has to be sized taking into  account the greatest of the values of the line currents (phase or neutral). However,  there are special devices (for example the Compact NSX circuit breaker equipped  with the OSN tripping unit), that allow the use of a c.s.a. of the phase conductors  smaller than the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor. A big economic gain can thus be  made. Fig. G63b : Load factor of the neutral conductor vs the percentage of 3 rd  harmonic 0 20 40 60 80 100 I Neutral I Phase i 3  (%) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Fig. G63 : Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables    (according to IEC 60364-5-52) Third harmonic content   Reduction factor of phase current  Size selection is based on  Size selection is based on  (%)  phase current  neutral current 0 - 15  1.0  - 15 - 33  0.86  - 33 - 45  -  0.86 45  -  1.0  (1) Compact NSX100 circuit breaker (1) If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size is selected on the basis of the neutral current then the three phase conductors will not be fully loaded. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G43 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Examples Consider a three-phase circuit with a design load of 37 A to be installed using four- core PVC insulated cable clipped to a wall, installation method C. From  Figure G2 ,  a 6 mm 2  cable with copper conductors has a current-carrying capacity of 40 A and  hence is suitable if harmonics are not present in the circuit. b  If 20 % third harmonic is present, then a reduction factor of 0.86 is applied and the  design load becomes: 37/0.86 = 43 A. For this load a 10 mm 2  cable is necessary. In this case, the use of a special protective device (Compact NSX equipped with the  OSN trip unit for instance) would allow the use of a 6 mm 2  cable for the phases and  of 10 mm 2  for the neutral. b  If 40 % third harmonic is present, the cable size selection is based on the neutral  current which is: 37 x 0.4 x 3 = 44.4 A and a reduction factor of 0.86 is applied,  leading to a design load of: 44.4/0.86 = 51.6 A.For this load a 10 mm 2  cable is suitable. b  If 50 % third harmonic is present, the cable size is again selected on the basis    of the neutral current, which is: 37 x 0.5 x 3 = 55.5 A .In this case the rating factor    is 1 and a 16 mm 2  cable is required. In this case, the use of a special protective device (Compact NSX equipped with the  OSN trip for instance) would allow the use of a 6 mm 2  cable for the phases    and of 10 mm 2  for the neutral. 7.2  Protection of the neutral conductor    (see  Fig. G64  next page) Protection against overload If the neutral conductor is correctly sized (including harmonics), no specific  protection of the neutral conductor is required because it is protected by the phase  protection. However, in practice, if the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is lower than the phase   c.s.a, a neutral overload protection must be installed.  Protection against short-circuit  If the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is lower than the c.s.a. of the phase conductor,  the neutral conductor must be protected against short-circuit.If the c.s.a. of the neutral conductor is equal or greater than the c.s.a. of the phase  conductor, no specific protection of the neutral conductor is required because it is  protected by the phase protection. 7.3  Breaking of the neutral conductor    (see  Fig. G64  next page) The need to break or not the neutral conductor is related to the protection against  indirect contact. In TN-C scheme The neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since    it constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor. In TT, TN-S and IT schemes (1) In the event of a fault, the circuit breaker will open all poles, including the neutral  pole, i.e. the circuit breaker is omnipolar.The action can only be achieved with fuses in an indirect way, in which the operation  of one or more fuses triggers a mechanical trip-out of all poles of an associated  series-connected load-break switch. 7.4  Isolation of the neutral conductor    (see  Fig. G64  next page) It is considered to be the good practice that every circuit be provided with the means  for its isolation. 7  The neutral conductor (1) In some coutries the rules applied for TN-S are the same  than the rules for TN-C

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G44 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. G64 : The various situations in which the neutral conductor may appear   TT  TN-C TN-S IT Single-phase   (Phase-Neutral)                                             (B)     or      or       Single-phase   (Phase-Phase)                                   (A)                                  (A)     or    or       Three-phase   four wires   Sn u Sph                                                (B)           or          Three-phase   four wires   Sn Sph                                                (B)           or           N N N N N N N N N N N N N N (A) Authorized for TT or TN-S systems if a RCD is installed at the origin of the circuit or upstream of it, and if no artificial  neutral is distributed downstream of its location.(B) The neutral overcurrent protection is not necessary:    b  If the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuits by a device placed upstream, or, b  If the circuit is protected by a RCD which sensitivity is less than 15 % of the neutral admissible current. 7  The neutral conductor (1) In some coutries the rules applied for TN-S are the same  than the rules for TN-C N (1)

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G45 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Worked example of cable calculation  (see Fig. G65) The installation is supplied through a 630 kVA transformer. The process requires  a high degree of supply continuity and part of the installation can be supplied  by a 250 kVA standby generator. The global earthing system is TN-S, except for  the most critical loads supplied by an isolation transformer with a downstream IT  configuration.The single-line diagram is shown in  Figure G65  below. The results of a computer  study for the circuit from transformer T1 down to the cable C7 is reproduced on  Figure G66 . This study was carried out with Ecodial (a Schneider Electric software). This is followed by the same calculations carried out by the simplified method  described in this guide. 630 kVA 400V 50 Hz 250 kVA 400V 50 Hz 180 kvar C1 Q1 B2 B6 B13 C3 Q3 Q16 C16 R16 T1 Q7 ku = 1.0 I B  = 254.71 A P = 150 kW C7 L7 P = 125 kVAU = 400 V Q11 C11 T11 Q12 C12 G Q5 G5 C5 Q8 ku = 1.0 I B  = 254.71 A P = 150 kW C8 L8 Q14 ku = 1.0 I B  = 84.90 A P = 50 kW C14 L14 Q15 ku = 1.0 I B  = 84.90 A P = 50 kW C15 L15 Q10 ku = 1.0 I B  = 169.81 A P = 100 kW C10 L10 20 m Q4 C4 Fig. G65 : Example of single-line diagram 8  Worked example  of cable calculation G - Sizing and protection of conductors

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G46 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Calculation using software Ecodial Fig. G66 : Partial results of calculation carried out with Ecodial software (Schneider Electric). The calculation is performed according to Cenelec TR50480 General network characteristics Earthing system  TN-S Neutral distributed  No Voltage (V)  400 Frequency (Hz)  50 Upstream fault level (MVA)  500 Resistance of MV network (m Ω )  0.0351 Reactance of MV network (m Ω )  0.351 Transformer T1 Rating (kVA)  630 Short-circuit impedance voltage (%)  4 Transformer resistance RT (m Ω )  3.472 Transformer reactance XT (m Ω )  10.64 3-phase short-circuit current Ik 3  (kA)  21.54 Cable C1 Length (m)  5  Maximum load current (A)  860 Type of insulation  PVC Ambient temperature (°C)  30 Conductor material  Copper Single-core or multi-core cable  Single Installation method  F Number of layers  1 Phase conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  2 x 240 Neutral conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  2 x 240 PE conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  1 x 120 Voltage drop  Δ U (%)  0.122 3-phase short-circuit current Ik 3  (kA)  21.5 Courant de défaut phase-terre Id (kA)  15.9 Circuit breaker Q1 Load current (A)  860 Type  Compact Reference  NS1000N Rated current (A)  1000 Number of poles and protected poles   4P4d Tripping unit  Micrologic 5.0 Overload trip Ir (A)  900 Short-delay trip Im / Isd (A)  9000 Tripping time tm (ms)  50 Switchboard B2 Reference   Linergy 1250 Rated current (A)  1050    Circuit breaker Q3 Load current (A)  509 Type  Compact Reference  NSX630F Rated current (A)  630 Number of poles and protected poles   4P4d Tripping unit  Micrologic 2.3 Overload trip Ir (A)  510 Short-delay trip Im / Isd (A)   5100 Cable C3 Length  20 Maximum load current (A)  509 Type of insulation  PVC Ambient temperature (°C)  30 Conductor material  Copper Single-core or multi-core cable  Single Installation method  F Phase conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  2 x 95 Neutral conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  2 x 95 PE conductor selected csa (mm 2 )  1 x 95 Cable voltage drop  Δ U (%)  0.53 Total voltage drop  Δ U (%)  0.65 3-phase short-circuit current Ik 3  (kA)  19.1 1-phase-to-earth fault current Id (kA)  11.5 Switchboard B6 Reference  Linergy 800 Rated current (A)  750 Circuit breaker Q7 Load current (A)  255 Type  Compact Reference  NSX400F Rated current (A)  400 Number of poles and protected poles  3P3d Tripping unit  Micrologic 2.3 Overload trip Ir (A)  258 Short-delay trip Im / Isd (A)  2576 Cable C7 Length  5 Maximum load current (A)  255 Type of insulation  PVC Ambient temperature (°C)  30 Conductor material  Copper Single-core or multi-core cable  Single Installation method  F Phase conductor selected csa (mm2)  1 x 95  Neutral conductor selected csa (mm2)  - PE conductor selected csa (mm2)  1 x 50 Cable voltage drop  Δ U (%)  0.14  Total voltage drop  Δ U (%)  0.79  3-phase short-circuit current Ik 3  (kA)  18.0  1-phase-to-earth fault current Id (kA)   10.0 The same calculation using the simplified method  recommended in this guide  b  Dimensioning circuit C1 The MV/LV 630 kVA transformer has a rated no-load voltage of 420 V. Circuit C1  must be suitable for a current of: I B = = 630 x 10  x 420 866 A per phase 3 3

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G47 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Two single-core PVC-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase. These cables will be laid on cable trays according to method F.Each conductor will therefore carry 433 A.  Figure G21 a indicates that for 3 loaded  conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 240 mm².The resistance and the inductive reactance, for the two conductors in parallel, and  for a length of 5 metres, are:                                        (cable resistance: 23.7 m Ω .mm 2 /m) X = 0.08 x 5 = 0.4 m Ω  (cable reactance: 0.08 m Ω /m) b  Dimensioning circuit C3 Circuit C3 supplies two 150kW loads with cos φ = 0.85, so the total load current is: Two single-core PVC-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase.  These cables will be laid on cable trays according to method F.Each conductor will therefore carry 255 A.  Figure G21a  indicates that for 3 loaded  conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 95 mm².The resistance and the inductive reactance, for the two conductors in parallel, and  for a length of 20 metres, are: b  Dimensioning circuit C7 Circuit C7 supplies one 150kW load with cos φ = 0.85, so the total load current is: One single-core PVC-insulated copper cable will be used for each phase. The cables  will be laid on cable trays according to method F.Each conductor will therefore carry 255 A.  Figure G21 a indicates that for 3 loaded  conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 95 mm².The resistance and the inductive reactance for a length of 20 metres is: R = = 23.7 x 5 240 x 2 0.25 m Ω I   3 x 400 x 0.85  A =   = 300 x 10 509 3 B I   3 x 400 x 0.85  A = 300 x 10 509 3 B I   3 x 400 x 0.85  A = 300 x 10 509 3 B R = = 23.7 x 20 95 x 2 2.5 mΩ X = 0.08 x 20 = 1.6 mΩ I   3 x 400 x 0.85  A =   = 150 x 10 255 B 3 R = = 23.7 x 5 95 1.25 mΩ X = 0.08 x 5 = 0.4 mΩ (cable resistance: 23.7 m Ω .mm 2 /m) (cable reactance: 0.08 m Ω /m) (cable resistance: 23.7 m Ω .mm 2 /m) (cable reactance: 0.08 m Ω /m) b  Calculation of short-circuit currents for the selection of circuit breakers Q1,  Q3, Q7 (see Fig. G67) Circuit components  R (m Ω )  X (m Ω )  Z (m Ω )  I kmax (kA) Upstream MV network,   0,035  0,351   500MVA fault level        (see  Fig. G34 )      Transformer 630kVA, 4 %  2.9  10.8    (see  Fig. G35 ) Cable C1  0.23  0.4      Sub-total  3.16  11.55 11.97 20.2  Cable C3  2.37  1.6      Sub-total  5.53  13.15 14.26 17 Cable C7  1.18  0.4      Sub-total  6.71  13.55 15.12 16 Fig. G67 : Example of short-circuit current evaluation 8  Worked example  of cable calculation

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 G48 G - Sizing and protection of conductors © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 8  Worked example  of cable calculation b  The protective conductor When using the adiabatic method, the minimum c.s.a. for the protective earth  conductor (PE) can be calculated by the formula given in  Figure G58 : I k S = .t PE 2 For circuit C1, I = 20.2 kA and k = 143.t is the maximum operating time of the MV protection, e.g. 0.5 sThis gives: 100 mm 143 0.5 20200 k t. I S 2 2 PE = × = = A single 120 mm 2  conductor is therefore largely sufficient, provided that it also  satisfies the requirements for indirect contact protection (i.e. that its impedance is  sufficiently low).Generally, for circuits with phase conductor c.s.a. Sph ≥ 50 mm 2 , the PE conductor  minimum c.s.a. will be Sph / 2. Then, for circuit C3, the PE conductor will be 95 mm 2 ,  and for circuit C7, the PE conductor will be 50 mm 2 . b  Protection against indirect-contact hazards For circuit C3 of  Figure G65 ,  Figures F42 and F41 , or the formula given page F25  may be used for a 3-phase 4-wire circuit.The maximum permitted length of the circuit is given by: L 0.8 x U  x S ρ  x (1 + m) x I = 0 ph max a L = 71 m 0.8 x 230 x 2 x 95  23.7 x 10  x (1+2) x 630 x 11 = max -3 (The value in the denominator 630 x 11 is the maximum current level at which the  instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip of the 630 A circuit breaker operates).The length of 20 metres is therefore fully protected by “instantaneous” over-current  devices. b  Voltage drop The voltage drop is calculated using the data given in  Figure G28 , for balanced  three-phase circuits, motor power normal service (cos φ = 0.8).The results are summarized on  Figure G68 :   The total voltage drop at the end of cable C7 is then: 0.77 %. Fig. G68 : Voltage drop introduced by the different cables C1 C3 C7 c.s.a. 2 x 240 mm² 2 x 95 mm² 1 x 95 mm² ∆U per conductor(V/A/km) see  Fig. G28 0.22 0.43 0.43 Load current (A) 866 509 255 Length (m) 5 20 5 Voltage drop (V) 0.48 2.19 0.55 Voltage drop (%) 0.12 0.55 0.14

H1 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved   Contents   The basic functions of LV switchgear  H2   1.1  Electrical protection  H2   1.2  Isolation  H3   1.3  Switchgear control  H4   The switchgear  H5   2.1  Elementary switching devices  H5   2.2  Combined switchgear elements  H9   Choice of switchgear  H10   3.1  Switchgear selection  H10   3.2  Tabulated functional capabilities of LV switchgear  H10   Circuit-breaker H11   4.1  Standards and description  H11   4.2  Fundamental characteristics of a circuit-breaker  H13   4.3  Other characteristics of a circuit-breaker  H15   4.4  Selection of a circuit-breaker  H18   4.5  Coordination between circuit-breakers  H22   4.6  Discrimination MV/LV in a consumer’s substation  H28   4.7  Circuit- breakers suitable for IT systems  H29   4.8  Ultra rapid circuit breaker  H29   Maintenance of low voltage switchgear  H32  Chapter H LV switchgear: functions & selection 5    1    2    3    4   

H2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 1  The basic functions of  LV switchgear The role of switchgear is: b  Electrical protection b  Safe isolation from live parts b  Local or remote switching National and international standards define the manner in which electric circuits of  LV installations must be realized, and the capabilities and limitations of the various switching devices which are collectively referred to as switchgear. The main functions of switchgear are: b  Electrical protection  b  Electrical isolation of sections of an installation b  Local or remote switching These functions are summarized below in Figure H1. Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit-breakers, in the form of thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping devices (less-commonly, residual voltage- operated devices - acceptable to, but not recommended by IEC). In addition to those functions shown in Figure H1, other functions, namely: b  Over-voltage protection b  Under-voltage protection are provided by specific devices (lightning and various other types of voltage-surge  arrester, relays associated with contactors, remotely controlled circuit-breakers, and with combined circuit-breaker/isolators… and so on) Fig. H1  : Basic functions of LV switchgear 1.1  Electrical protection The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive (short-circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation failure, and to separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation. A distinction is made between the protection of: b  The elements of the installation (cables, wires, switchgear…) b  Persons and animals b  Equipment and appliances supplied from the installation The protection of circuits v  Against overload; a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy  (unfaulted) installation v  Against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between  conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit-breaker, in the  distribution board at the origin of the final circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the load  is connected). Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards, as noted in chapter H sub-clause 1.4.The protection of persons According to IEC 60364-4-41, Automatic disconnection in case of fault is a protective measure permitted for safety v  Circuit breaker or fuses can be used as protective devices that "automatically  interrupt the supply to the line conductor of a circuit or equipment in the event of a fault of negligible impedance between the line conductor and an exposed-conductive-part or a protective conductor in the circuit or equipment within the disconnection time required " (IEC 60364-4-41 sub-clause 411) v  Against insulation failures. According to the system of earthing for the installation  (TN, TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit-breakers, residual current devices, and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the installation to earth Electrical protection assures: b  Protection of circuit elements against the  thermal and mechanical stresses of short-circuit currents b  Protection of persons in the event of  insulation failure b  Protection of appliances and apparatus being  supplied (e.g. motors, etc.) Electrical protection   Isolation   Control  against b  Overload currents   b  Isolation clearly indicated   b  Functional switching  b  Short-circuit currents   by an authorized fail-proof   b  Emergency switching  b  Insulation failure   mechanical indicator  b  Emergency stopping    b  A gap or interposed insulating  b  Switching off for    barrier between the open  mechanical maintenance    contacts, clearly visible 

H3 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved The protection of electric motors v  Against overheating, due, for example, to long term overloading, stalled rotor,  single-phasing, etc. Thermal relays, specially designed to match the particular characteristics of motors are used.Such relays may, if required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload. Short-circuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit-breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed, or otherwise made inoperative. 1.2  Isolation The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus (such as a motor, etc.) from the remainder of a system which is energized, in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety. In principle, all circuits of an LV installation shall have means to be isolated.  In practice, in order to maintain an optimum continuity of service, it is preferred to provide a means of isolation at the origin of each circuit. An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: b  All poles of a circuit, including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN  conductor) must open (1) b  It must be provided with a locking system in open position with a key (e.g. by  means of a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence b  It must comply with a recognized national or international standard   (e.g. IEC 60947-3) concerning clearance between contacts, creepage distances, overvoltage withstand capability, etc.:Other requirements apply: v  Verification that the contacts of the isolating device are, in fact, open.    The verification may be: - Either visual, where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen (some national standards impose this condition for an isolating device located at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a MV/LV transformer)- Or mechanical, by means of an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaft of the device. In this case the construction of the device must be such that, in the eventuality that the contacts become welded together in the closed position, the indicator cannot possibly indicate that it is in the open position v  Leakage currents. With the isolating device open, leakage currents between the  open contacts of each phase must not exceed:- 0.5 mA for a new device- 6.0 mA at the end of its useful life v  Voltage-surge withstand capability, across open contacts. The isolating device,   when open must withstand a 1.2/50  μ s impulse, having a peak value of 6, 8 or 12 kV  according to its service voltage, as shown in Figure H2. The device must satisfy these conditions for altitudes up to 2,000 metres. Correction factors are given in  IEC 60664-1 for altitudes greater than 2,000 metres. Consequently, if tests are carried out at sea level, the test values must be increased by 23% to take into account the effect of altitude. See standard IEC 60947.  1  The basic functions of  LV switchgear A state of isolation clearly indicated by an approved “fail-proof” indicator, or the visible separation of contacts, are both deemed to satisfy the national standards of many countries (1) the concurrent opening of all live conductors, while not always obligatory, is however, strongly recommended (for reasons of greater safety and facility of operation). The neutral contact opens after the phase contacts, and closes before them (IEC 60947-1). Service (nominal  Impulse withstand  voltage  peak voltage category   (V)  (for 2,000 metres)    (kV)   III IV 230/400  4 6  400/690  6 8  690/1,000  8 12  Fig. H2  : Peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen.  The degrees III and IV are degrees of pollution defined in IEC 60664-1

H4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 1.3  Switchgear control In broad terms “control” signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying  power system at all levels of an installation. The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control. Functional control This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation, or an individual piece of equipment, item of plant, etc. Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least: b  At the origin of any installation b  At the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads) Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous. In order to provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation, particularly  where the switching device also constitutes the protection (e.g. a circuit-breaker or switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution, i.e. on each outgoing way of all distribution and subdistribution boards. The manœuvre may be: b  Either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or b  Electric, by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and  reconnection, for example) These switches operate instantaneously (i.e. with no deliberate delay), and those that provide protection are invariably omni-polar (1) . The main circuit-breaker for the entire installation, as well as any circuit-breakers used for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units. Emergency switching - emergency stop An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is, or could  become, dangerous (electric shock or fire). An emergency stop is intended to halt a movement which has become dangerous.  In the two cases: b  The emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote  location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton must be recognizable and readily accessible, in proximity to any position at which danger could arise or be seen b  A single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors  (2) (3) b  A “break glass” emergency switching initiation device is authorized, but in  unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means of a key held by an authorized person It should be noted that in certain cases, an emergency system of braking, may require that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until  final stoppage of the machinery. Switching-off for mechanical maintenance work This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device, with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism. (1) One break in each phase and (where appropriate) one break in the neutral. (2) Taking into account stalled motors. (3) In a TN schema the PEN conductor must never be opened, since it functions as a protective earthing wire as well as the system neutral conductor. Switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment, according to requirements,and include: b  Functional control (routine switching, etc.) b  Emergency switching b  Maintenance operations on the power system

H5 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2  The switchgear 2.1  Elementary switching devices Disconnector (or isolator)  (see Fig. H5) This switch is a manually-operated, lockable, two-position device (open/closed) which provides safe isolation of a circuit when  locked in the open position. Its  characteristics are defined in IEC 60947-3. A disconnector is not designed to make  or to break current (1)  and no rated values for these functions are given in standards.  It must, however, be capable of withstanding the passage of short-circuit currents and is assigned a rated short-time withstand capability, generally for 1 second, unless otherwise agreed between user and manufacturer. This capability is normally more than adequate for longer periods of (lower-valued) operational overcurrents, such as those of motor-starting. Standardized mechanical-endurance, overvoltage,  and leakage-current tests, must also be satisfied.  Load-breaking switch  (see Fig. H6) This control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with electrical tripping for operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device (open/closed). It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unfaulted circuit conditions. It does not consequently, provide any protection for the circuit it controls.  IEC standard 60947-3 defines: b  The frequency of switch operation (600 close/open cycles per hour maximum) b  Mechanical and electrical endurance (generally less than that of a contactor) b  Current making and breaking ratings for normal and infrequent situations When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an unsuspected short-circuit exists on the circuit. For this reason, load-break switches are assigned a fault-current making rating, i.e. successful closure against the electrodynamic forces of short-circuit current is assured. Such switches are commonly referred to as “fault-make load-break” switches. Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear the short-circuit fault Category AC-23 includes occasional switching of individual motors. The switching  of capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps shall be subject to agreement between  manufacturer and user. The utilization categories referred to in Figure H7 do not apply to an equipment normally used to start, accelerate and/or stop individual motors.  ExampleA 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able: b  To make a current of 10  I n (= 1,000 A) at a power factor of 0.35 lagging b  To break a current of 8  I n (= 800 A) at a power factor of 0.45 lagging b  To withstand short duration short-circuit currents when closed (1) i.e. a LV disconnector is essentially a dead system switching device to be operated with no voltage on either side of it, particularly when closing, because of the possibility of an unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream side. Interlocking with an upstream switch or circuit-breaker is frequently used. Fig. H7  : Utilization categories of LV AC switches according to IEC 60947-3 Fig. H5  : Symbol for a disconnector (or isolator) Fig. H6  : Symbol for a load-break switch Utilization category  Typical applications  Cos  ϕ   Making   Breaking   Frequent   Infrequent      current x  I n  current x  I n  operations operations AC-20A  AC-20B  Connecting and disconnecting   -  -  -      under no-load conditions    AC-21A  AC-21B  Switching of resistive loads   0.95  1.5  1.5      including moderate overloads    AC-22A  AC-22B  Switching of mixed resistive   0.65  3  3      and inductive loads, including       moderate overloads    AC-23A  AC-23B  Switching of motor loads or   0.45 for  I   y   100 A 10  8      other highly inductive loads  0.35 for  I   100 A       H - LV switchgear: functions & selection

H6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 Impulse relay  (see Fig. H8) This device is extensively used in the control of lighting circuits where the depression of a pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close an opened switch in a bistable sequence. Typical applications are: b  Two way or more switching points in stairways, corridors in housing or commercial  building b  Large space (open space) in office buiding b  Industrial facilities. Auxiliary devices are available to provide: b  Remote indication of its state at any instant b  Time-delay functions b  Maintained-contact features Contactor  (see Fig. H9) The contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed by (a reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various  mechanically-latched types exist for specific duties). Contactors are designed to  carry out numerous close/open cycles and are commonly controlled remotely by on-off pushbuttons. The large number of repetitive operating cycles is standardized in table VIII of IEC 60947-4-1 by: b  The operating duration: 8 hours; uninterrupted; intermittent; temporary of 3, 10, 30,  60 and 90 minutes b  Utilization category: for example, a contactor of category AC3 can be used for the  starting and stopping of a cage motor b  The start-stop cycles (1 to 1,200 cyles per hour) b  Mechanical endurance (number of off-load manœuvres) b  Electrical endurance (number of on-load manœuvres) b  A rated current making and breaking performance according to the category of  utilization concerned Example:A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability of 8  I n (= 1,200 A) and a minimum current-making rating of 10  I n (= 1,500 A) at a  power factor (lagging) of 0.35. Discontactor (1) A contactor equipped with a thermal-type relay for protection against overloading  defines a “discontactor”. Discontactors are used and considered as an essential  element in a motor controller, as noted in sub-clause 2.2. “combined switchgear elements”. The discontactor is not the equivalent of a circuit-breaker, since its short-circuit current breaking capability is limited to 8 or 10  I n. For short-circuit protection  therefore, it is necessary to include either fuses or a circuit-breaker in series with, and upstream of, the discontactor contacts. Integrated control circuit breaker “Integrated control circuit breaker” is a single device which combines the following main and additional functions : b  Circuit breaker for cables protection b  Remote control by latched or/and impulse type orders b  Remote indication of status b  Interface compatible with building management system That type of device allows simplifying design and implementation in switchboard. Fuses  (see Fig. H10) The first letter indicates the breaking range: b  “g” fuse-links (full-range breaking-capacity fuse-link) b  “a” fuse-links (partial-range breaking-capacity fuse-link) The second letter indicates the utilization category; this letter defines with accuracy  the time-current characteristics, conventional times and currents, gates. For example b  “gG” indicates fuse-links with a full-range breaking capacity for general application b  “gM” indicates fuse-links with a full-range breaking capacity for the protection of  motor circuits b  “aM” indicates fuse-links with a partial range breaking capacity for the protection of  motor circuits Fig. H8  : Symbol for a bistable remote control switch (impulse  relay) Fig. H9  : Symbol for a monostable remote control switch  (contactor, relay) (1) This term is not defined in IEC publications but is commonly  used in some countries. Two classes of LV cartridge fuse are very  widely used: b  For domestic and similar installations type gG b  For industrial installations type gG, gM or aM A1 A2 1 3 2 4 Control  circuit Power  circuit Control  circuit Power  circuit 1 3 2 4 5 6

H7 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Fig. H10  : Symbol for fuses Fuses exist with and without “fuse-blown” mechanical indicators. Fuses break a circuit by controlled melting of the fuse element when a current exceeds a given value for a corresponding period of time; the current/time relationship being  presented in the form of a performance curve for each type of fuse. Standards define  two classes of fuse: b  Those intended for domestic installations, manufactured in the form of a cartridge  for rated currents up to 100 A and designated type gG in IEC 60269-1 and 3 b  Those for industrial use, with cartridge types designated gG (general use); and gM  and aM (for motor-circuits) in IEC 60269-1 and 2The main differences between domestic and industrial fuses are the nominal voltage and current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their fault-current breaking capabilities. Type gG fuse-links are often used for the protection of motor circuits, which is possible when their characteristics are capable of withstanding the motor-starting current without deterioration. A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for motor protection, designed to cover starting, and short-circuit conditions. This type of fuse is more popular in some countries than in others, but at the present time the  aM fuse in combination with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used. A gM fuse-link, which has a dual rating is characterized by two current values. The  first value  I n denotes both the rated current of the fuse-link and the rated current of  the fuseholder; the second value  I ch denotes the time-current characteristic of the  fuse-link as defined by the gates in Tables II, III and VI of IEC 60269-1.These two ratings are separated by a letter which defines the applications. For example: In M  I ch denotes a fuse intended to be used for protection of  motor circuits and having the characteristic G. The first value  I n corresponds to  the maximum continuous current for the whole fuse and the second value  I ch  corresponds to the G characteristic of the fuse link. For further details see note at the end of sub-clause 2.1. An aM fuse-link is characterized by one current value In and time-current characteristic as shown in Figure H14 next page. Important: Some national standards use a gI (industrial) type fuse, similar in all main essentails to type gG fuses. Type gI fuses should never be used, however, in domestic and similar installations. Fusing zones - conventional currents The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse are defined by standards, according to  their class. Class gG fusesThese fuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits.Conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are standardized, as shown in Figure H12 and in Figure H13. b  The conventional non-fusing current Inf is the value of current that the fusible  element can carry for a specified time without melting. Example: A 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.25  I n (i.e. 40 A) must not melt in less  than one hour (table H13) b  The conventional fusing current  I f (=  I 2 in Fig. H12) is the value of current which  will cause melting of the fusible element before the expiration of the specified time. Example: A 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.6  I n (i.e. 52.1 A) must melt in one hour  or less IEC 60269-1 standardized tests require that a fuse-operating characteristic lies between the two limiting curves (shown in Figure H12) for the particular fuse under  test. This means that two fuses which satisfy the test can have significantly different  operating times at low levels of overloading. 2  The switchgear gM fuses require a separate overload relay, as described in the note at the end of this sub-clause  2.1. Fig. H13  : Zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 60269-1    and 60269-2-1) Rated current (1)    Conventional non-   Conventional    Conventional  I n (A)   fusing current   fusing current   time (h)   I nf   I 2 I n  y  4 A   1.5  I n   2.1  I n   1 4   I n 16 A   1.5  I n   1.9  I n   1 16   I n  y  63 A   1.25  I n   1.6  I n   1 63   I n  y  160 A   1.25  I n   1.6  I n   2 160   I n  y  400 A   1.25  I n   1.6  I n   3 400   I n    1.25  I n 1.6  I n   4 1 hour t Minimum pre-arcing time curve Fuse-blowcurve I I nf I 2 Fig. H12  : Zones of fusing and non-fusing for gG and gM fuses (1)  I ch for gM fuses

H8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 b  The two examples given above for a 32 A fuse, together with the foregoing notes  on standard test requirements, explain why these fuses have a poor performance in the low overload range b  It is therefore necessary to install a cable larger in ampacity than that normally  required for a circuit, in order to avoid the consequences of possible long term overloading (60% overload for up to one hour in the worst case)By way of comparison, a circuit-breaker of similar current rating: b  Which passes 1.05  I n must not trip in less than one hour; and b  When passing 1.25  I n it must trip in one hour, or less (25% overload for up to one  hour in the worst case) Class aM (motor) fusesThese fuses afford protection against short-circuit currents only and must necessarily be associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit-breakers) in order to ensure overload protection 4  I n. They are not therefore autonomous.  Since aM fuses are not intended to protect against low values of overload current,  no levels of conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed. The characteristic  curves for testing these fuses are given for values of fault current exceeding approximately 4  I n (see Fig. H14), and fuses tested to IEC 60269 must give  operating curves which fall within the shaded area. Note: the small “arrowheads” in the diagram indicate the current/time “gate” values for the different fuses to be tested (IEC 60269). Rated short-circuit breaking currents A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high short-circuit current levels (1) , a current cut-off begins before  the occurrence of the first major peak, so that the fault current never reaches its  prospective peak value (see Fig. H15). This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses  which would otherwise occur, thereby minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current. No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses. ReminderShort-circuit currents initially contain DC components, the magnitude and duration of which depend on the X L /R ratio of the fault current loop. Close to the source (MV/LV transformer) the relationship  I peak /  I rms (of  AC component) immediately following the instant of fault, can be as high as 2.5 (standardized by IEC, and shown in Figure H16 next page). At lower levels of distribution in an installation, as previously noted, XL is small  compared with R and so for final circuits  I peak /  I rms ~ 1.41, a condition which  corresponds with Figure H15. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the prospective rms AC component of fault current attains a certain level. For example, in the Figure H16 graph, the 100 A fuse will begin to cut off the peak at a prospective fault current (rms) of 2 kA (a). The same fuse for a condition of 20 kA rms prospective current will limit the peak current to 10 kA (b). Without a current-limiting fuse the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this particular case. As already mentioned, at lower distribution levels in an installation, R greatly predominates X L , and fault levels are generally  low. This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current limitation. On the other hand, the DC transients (in this case)  have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak, as previously  mentioned. Note: On gM fuse ratingsA gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse, the fusible element of which corresponds to the current value  I ch (ch = characteristic) which may be, for example, 63 A. This is  the IEC testing value, so that its time/ current characteristic is identical to that of a 63 A gG fuse.This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents of a motor, the steady state operating current ( I n) of which may be in the 10-20 A range. This means that a physically smaller fuse barrel and metallic parts can be used,  since the heat dissipation required in normal service is related to the lower figures  (10-20 A). A standard gM fuse, suitable for this situation would be designated 32M63 (i.e.  I n M  I ch). The first current rating  I n concerns the steady-load thermal performance of the  fuselink, while the second current rating ( I ch) relates to its (short-time) starting- current performance. It is evident that, although suitable for short-circuit protection, overload protection for the motor is not provided by the fuse, and so a separate  Class aM fuses protect against short-circuit  currents only, and must always be associated with another device which protects against overload (1) For currents exceeding a certain level, depending on the fuse nominal current rating, as shown below in Figure H16. x   I  n t  4  I  n  Fuse- b l o wn  cu r v e  Mini m um  pre-arcing  time cu r v e  Fig. H14   : Standardized zones of fusing for type aM fuses (all  current ratings) I 0.005 s 0.02 s 0.01 s t Prospective fault-current peak rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault curentCurrent peak limited by the fuse Tf Ta Ttc Tf: Fuse pre-arc fusing timeTa: Arcing timeTtc: Total fault-clearance time Fig. H15  : Current limitation by a fuse

H - LV switchgear: functions & selection H9 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved thermal-type relay is always necessary when using gM fuses. The only advantage offered by gM fuses, therefore, when compared with aM fuses, are reduced physical dimensions and slightly lower cost. 2.2  Combined switchgear elements Single units of switchgear do not, in general, fulfil all the requirements of the three  basic functions, viz: Protection, control and isolation. Where the installation of a circuit-breaker is not appropriate (notably where the  switching rate is high, over extended periods) combinations of units specifically  designed for such a performance are employed. The most commonly-used combinations are described below. Switch and fuse combinations Two cases are distinguished: b  The type in which the operation of one (or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to  open. This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted with striker pins, and a system of  switch tripping springs and toggle mechanisms (see Fig. H17) b  The type in which a non-automatic switch is associated with a set of fuses in a  common enclosure.In some countries, and in IEC 60947-3, the terms “switch-fuse” and “fuse-switch”  have specific meanings, viz: v  A switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream  side of three fixed fuse-bases, into which the fuse carriers are inserted (see  Fig. H18) v  A fuse-switch consists of three switch blades each constituting a double-break per  phase. These blades are not continuous throughout their length, but each has a gap in the centre which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. Some designs have only a single break per phase, as shown in Figure H19. The current range for these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase, while their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. To avoid confusion  between the first group (i.e. automatic tripping) and the second group, the term  “switch-fuse” should be qualified by the adjectives “automatic” or “non-automatic”. Fuse – disconnector + discontactor  Fuse - switch-disconnector + discontactor As previously mentioned, a discontactor does not provide protection against short-circuit faults. It is necessary, therefore, to add fuses (generally of type aM) to perform this function. The combination is used mainly for motor control circuits, where the disconnector or switch-disconnector allows safe operations such as: b  The changing of fuse links (with the circuit isolated) b  Work on the circuit downstream of the discontactor (risk of remote closure of the  discontactor) The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening or closing manœuvre of the fuse disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open (   Figure H20), since the fuse disconnector has no load-switching capability. A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (Figure H21).  The switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if the circuit supplies a motor. Circuit-breaker + contactor  Circuit-breaker + discontactor These combinations are used in remotely controlled distribution systems in which the rate of switching is high, or for control and protection of a circuit supplying motors.  2  The switchgear Fig. H17  : Symbol for an automatic tripping switch-fuse Fig. H18  : Symbol for a non-automatic fuse-switch Fig. H16  : Limited peak current versus prospective rms values  of the AC component of fault current for LV fuses 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 (a) (b) (c) Peak current cut-off characteristic curves Maximum possible currentpeak characteristici.e. 2.5  I rms (IEC)  160A 100A 50A Nominal fuse ratings Prospective faultcurrent (kA) peak AC component of prospectivefault current (kA) rms Fig. H20   : Symbol for a fuse disconnector + discontactor Fig. H21  : Symbol for a fuse-switch disconnector + discontactor Fig. H19  : Symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse

H10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 3  Choice of switchgear 3.1  Switchgear selection Software is being used more and more in the field of optimal selection of switchgear.  Each circuit is considered one at a time, and a list is drawn up of the required protection functions and exploitation of the installation, among those mentioned in Figure H22 and summarized in Figure H1. A number of switchgear combinations are studied and compared with each other against relevant criteria, with the aim of achieving: b  Satisfactory performance b  Compatibility among the individual items; from the rated current  I n to the fault-level  rating  I cu b  Compatibility with upstream switchgear or taking into account its contribution b  Conformity with all regulations and specifications concerning safe and reliable  circuit performance In order to determine the number of poles for an item of switchgear, reference is made to chapter G, clause 7 Fig. G64. Multifunction switchgear, initially more costly, reduces installation costs and problems of installation or exploitation. It is often found that such switchgear provides the best solution. 3.2  Tabulated functional capabilities of LV switchgear After having studied the basic functions of LV switchgear (clause 1, Figure H1) and the different components of switchgear (clause 2), Figure H22 summarizes the capabilities of the various components to perform the basic functions. (1) Where cut-off of all active conductors is provided (2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking system (3) If it is associated with a thermal relay (the combination is commonly referred to as a “discontactor”) (4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a MV/LV transformer (5) Certain items of switchgear are suitable for isolation duties (e.g. RCCBs according to IEC 61008) without being explicitly marked as such   Isolation   Control         Electrical protection Switchgear     Functional   Emergency    Emergency    Switching for   Overload   Short-circuit   Electric  item      switching  stop  mechanical    shock      (mechanical)  maintenance Isolator (or   b   disconnector) (4) Switch (5)     b     b     b   (1)     b   (1) (2)     b Residual    b     b     b   (1)     b   (1) (2)   b        b   device (RCCB) (5) Switch-    b     b     b   (1)    b   (1) (2)     b   disconnector Contactor    b     b   (1)     b   (1) (2)     b     b   (3) Remote control     b     b   (1)      b   switch Fuse    b          b     b Circuit     b     b   (1)     b   (1) (2)     b     b     b   breaker Circuit-breaker  b     b   b   (1)     b   (1) (2)     b     b     b   disconnector (5) Residual    b     b     b   (1)     b   (1) (2)     b   b     b     b   and overcurrent circuit-breaker (RCBO) (5) Point of   Origin of each  All points where,   In general at the   At the supply   At the supply   Origin of each  Origin of each  Origin of circuits  installation   circuit  for operational   incoming circuit   point to each   point to each   circuit   circuit   where the   (general      reasons it may   to every    machine   machine        earthing system   principle)     be necessary   distribution    and/or on the         is appropriate      to stop the   board  machine         TN-S, IT, TT    process     concerned        Fig. H22  : Functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear H - LV switchgear: functions & selection

H11 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker The circuit-breaker/disconnector fulfills all of the  basic switchgear functions, while, by means of accessories, numerous other possibilities exist As shown in Figure H23 the circuit-breaker/ disconnector is the only item of switchgear capable of simultaneously satisfying all the basic functions necessary in an electrical installation. Moreover, it can, by means of auxiliary units, provide a wide range of other functions, for example: indication (on-off - tripped on fault); undervoltage tripping; remote control… etc. These features make a circuit-breaker/ disconnector the basic unit of switchgear for any electrical installation. Fig. H23  : Functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector 4.1  Standards and description Standards For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC standards are, or are due to be: b  60947-1: general rules b  60947-2: part 2: circuit-breakers b  60947-3: part 3: switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse  combination units b  60947-4: part 4: contactors and motor starters b  60947-5: part 5: control-circuit devices and switching elements b  60947-6: part 6: multiple function switching devices b  60947-7: part 7: ancillary equipment b  60947-8: Part 8: Control units for built-in thermal protection (PTC) for rotating  electrical machines. For domestic and similar LV installations, the appropriate standard is IEC 60898, or an equivalent national standard. Description Figure H24 shows schematically the main parts of a LV circuit-breaker and its four essential functions: b  The circuit-breaking components, comprising the fixed and moving contacts and  the arc-dividing chamber b  The latching mechanism which becomes unlatched by the tripping device on  detection of abnormal current conditionsThis mechanism is also linked to the operation handle of the breaker. b  A trip-mechanism actuating device: v  Either: a thermal-magnetic device, in which a thermally-operated bi-metal strip  detects an overload condition, while an electromagnetic striker pin operates at current levels reached in short-circuit conditions, or v  An electronic relay operated from current transformers, one of which is installed on  each phase b  A space allocated to the several types of terminal currently used for the main  power circuit conductors Domestic circuit-breakers (see Fig. H25 next page) complying with IEC 60898 and similar national standards perform the basic functions of: b  Isolation b  Protection against overcurrent Power circuit terminals Trip mechanism and protective devices  Latching mechanism Contacts and arc-diving chamber Fool-proof mechanical   indicator Fig. H24  : Main parts of a circuit-breaker Industrial circuit-breakers must comply with   IEC 60947-1 and 60947-2 or other equivalent  standards.Domestic-type circuit-breakers must comply  with IEC standard 60898, or an equivalent  national standard Functions     Possible conditions Isolation     b Control   Functional   b   Emergency switching   b  (With the possibility of a tripping      coil for remote control)   Switching-off for mechanical   b    maintenance Protection   Overload   b   Short-circuit   b   Insulation fault   b  (With differential-current relay)   Undervoltage   b  (With undervoltage-trip coil)  Remote control     b  Added or incorporated Indication and measurement   b  (Generally optional with an       electronic tripping device) H - LV switchgear: functions & selection

H12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Some models can be adapted to provide sensitive detection (30 mA) of earth-leakage current with CB tripping, by the addition of a modular block, while other models (RCBOs, complying with IEC 61009 and CBRs complying with IEC 60947-2 Annex B) have this residual current feature incorporated as shown in Figure H26. Apart from the above-mentioned functions further features can be associated with the basic circuit-breaker by means of additional modules, as shown in Figure H27; notably remote control and indication (on-off-fault). O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF - - 1 2 3 4 5 Fig. H27   : “Acti 9” system   of LV modular switchgear components Fig. H29  : Example of air circuit-breakers. Masterpact   provides many control features in its  “Micrologic” tripping unit Moulded-case circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60947-2 are available from 100 to 630 A and provide a similar range of auxiliary functions to those described above (see   Figure H28). Air circuit-breakers of large current ratings, complying with IEC 60947-2, are generally used in the main switch board and provide protector for currents from  630 A to 6300 A, typically.(see Figure H29). In addition to the protection functions, the Micrologic unit provides optimized functions such as measurement (including power quality functions), diagnosis, communication, control and monitoring. Fig. H25  : Domestic-type circuit-breaker providing overcurrent  protection and circuit isolation features Fig. H26  : Domestic-type circuit-breaker as above (Fig. H25)  with incorparated protection against electric shocks  Fig. H28   : Example of a Compact NSX industrial type of circuit- breaker capable of numerous auxiliary functions

H13 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker 4.2  Fundamental characteristics of a circuit-breaker The fundamental characteristics of a circuit-breaker are: b  Its rated voltage Ue b  Its rated current  I n b  Its tripping-current-level adjustment ranges for overload protection ( I r (1)  or  I rth (1) )  and for short-circuit protection ( I m) (1) b  Its short-circuit current breaking rating ( I cu for industrial CBs;  I cn for domestic-  type CBs). Rated operational voltage (Ue) This is the voltage at which the circuit-breaker has been designed to operate, in normal (undisturbed) conditions. Other values of voltage are also assigned to the circuit-breaker, corresponding to disturbed conditions, as noted in sub-clause 4.3. Rated current ( I n) This is the maximum value of current that a circuit-breaker, fitted with a specified  overcurrent tripping relay, can carry indefinitely at an ambient temperature stated by  the manufacturer, without exceeding the specified temperature limits of the current  carrying parts. ExampleA circuit-breaker rated at  I n = 125 A for an ambient temperature of 40 °C will be  equipped with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). The same circuit-breaker can be used at higher values of ambient temperature however, if suitably “derated”. Thus, the circuit-breaker in an ambient temperature of 50 °C  could carry only 117 A indefinitely, or again, only 109 A at 60 °C, while complying with  the specified temperature limit. Derating a circuit-breaker is achieved therefore, by reducing the trip-current setting of its overload relay, and marking the CB accordingly. The use of an electronic-type of tripping unit, designed to withstand high temperatures, allows circuit-breakers (derated as described) to operate at 60 °C (or even at 70 °C) ambient. Note:  I n for circuit-breakers (in IEC 60947-2) is equal to  I u for switchgear generally,  I u being the rated uninterrupted current. Frame-size rating A circuit-breaker which can be fitted with overcurrent tripping units of different current  level-setting ranges, is assigned a rating which corresponds to the highest current- level-setting tripping unit that can be fitted. ExampleA Compact NSX630N circuit-breaker can be equipped with 11 electronic trip units from 150 A to 630 A. The size of the circuit-breaker is 630 A. Overload relay trip-current setting ( I rth or  I r) Apart from small circuit-breakers which are very easily replaced, industrial circuit-breakers are equipped with removable, i.e. exchangeable, overcurrent-trip relays. Moreover, in order to adapt a circuit-breaker to the requirements of the circuit it controls, and to avoid the need to install over-sized cables, the trip relays are  generally adjustable. The trip-current setting  I r or  I rth (both designations are  in common use) is the current above which the circuit-breaker will trip. It also represents the maximum current that the circuit-breaker can carry without tripping. That value must be greater than the maximum load current  I B , but less than the  maximum current permitted in the circuit  I z (see chapter G, sub-clause 1.3). The thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable from 0.7 to 1.0 times  I n, but when  electronic devices are used for this duty, the adjustment range is greater; typically  0.4 to 1 times  I n. Example (see Fig. H30) A NSX630N circuit-breaker equipped with a 400 A Micrologic 6.3E overcurrent trip relay, set at 0.9, will have a trip-current setting: I r = 400 x 0.9 = 360 A Note:  For circuit-breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays,    I r =  I n. Example: for iC60N 20 A circuit-breaker,  I r =  I n = 20 A. (1) Current-level setting values which refer to the current-operated thermal and “instantaneous” magnetic tripping devices for over-load and short-circuit protection. 0.4  I n 160 A 360 A 400 A 630 A Rated current of the tripping unit I n Overload trip current setting I r Adjustment range Circuit breaker frame-size rating Fig. H30   :  Example of a NSX630N circuit-breaker equipped with  a Micrologic 6.3E trip unit adjusted to 0.9, to give  I r = 360 A

H14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Short-circuit relay trip-current setting ( I m) Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the circuit-breaker rapidly on the occurrence of high values of fault current. Their tripping threshold  I m is: b  Either fixed by standards for domestic type CBs, e.g. IEC 60898, or, b  Indicated by the manufacturer for industrial type CBs according to related  standards, notably IEC 60947-2. For the latter circuit-breakers there exists a wide variety of tripping devices which allow a user to adapt the protective performance of the circuit-breaker to the particular requirements of a load (see Fig. H31, Fig. H32 and Fig. H33). Fig. H31  : Tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit-breakers I (A I m t (s ) I r I cu  I i  Fig. H33  : Performance curve of a circuit-breaker electronic protective scheme I r: Overload (thermal or long-delay) relay trip-current  setting I m: Short-circuit (magnetic or short-delay) relay trip- current setting I i: Short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting. I cu: Breaking capacity I (A I m  t (s ) I r I cu  Fig. H32   : Performance curve of a circuit-breaker thermal- magnetic protective scheme (1) 50  I n in IEC 60898, which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European manufacturers (Schneider Electric = 10 to 14  I n). (2) For industrial use, IEC standards do not specify values. The above values are given only as being those in common use.   Type of    Overload   Short-circuit protection    protective   protection      relay      Domestic   Thermal-   I r =  I n   Low setting   Standard setting   High setting circuit  breakers   magnetic     type B   type C   type D  IEC 60898       3  I n  y   I m  y  5  I n   5  I n  y   I m  y  10  I n   10  I n  y   I m  y  20  I n (1) Modular   Thermal-   I r =  I n   Low setting   Standard setting   High setting  industrial (2)    magnetic   fixed   type B or Z   type C   type D or K   circuit-breakers       3.2  I n  y  fixed y  4.8  I n   7  I n  y  fixed y  10  I n   10  I n  y  fixed y  14  I n Industrial (2)    Thermal-   I r =  I n fixed   Fixed:  I m = 7 to 10  I n  circuit-breakers  magnetic   Adjustable:   Adjustable:   IEC 60947-2    0.7  I n  y   I r  y   I n   - Low setting : 2 to 5  I n        - Standard setting: 5 to 10  I n   Electronic   Long delay   Short-delay, adjustable      0.4  I n  y   I r  y   I n   1.5  I r  y   I m  y  10  I r        Instantaneous ( I ) fixed        I  = 12 to 15  I n

H15 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Isolating feature A circuit-breaker is suitable for isolating a circuit if it fulfills all the conditions  prescribed for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the relevant standard (see sub-clause 1.2). In such a case it is referred to as a circuit-breaker-disconnector and marked on its front face with the symbol All Acti 9, Compact NSX and Masterpact LV switchgear of Schneider Electric ranges are in this category. Rated short-circuit breaking capacity ( I cu or  I cn) The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a CB is the highest (prospective) value of current that the CB is capable of breaking without being damaged. The value of current quoted in the standards is the rms value of the AC component of the fault current, i.e. the DC transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case of short-circuit) is assumed to be zero for calculating the standardized value. This rated value ( I cu) for industrial CBs and ( I cn) for domestic-type CBs is  normally given in kA rms. I cu (rated ultimate s.c. breaking capacity) and  I cs (rated service s.c. breaking  capacity) are defined in IEC 60947-2 together with a table relating  I cs with  I cu for  different categories of utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed tripping) as discussed in subclause 4.3. Tests for proving the rated s.c. breaking capacities of CBs are governed by standards, and include: b  Operating sequences, comprising a succession of operations, i.e. closing and  opening on short-circuit b  Current and voltage phase displacement. When the current is in phase with the  supply voltage (cos  ϕ  for the circuit = 1), interruption of the current is easier than  that at any other power factor. Breaking a current at low lagging values of cos  ϕ  is  considerably more difficult to achieve; a zero power-factor circuit being (theoretically)  the most onerous case. In practice, all power-system short-circuit fault currents are (more or less) at lagging power factors, and standards are based on values commonly considered to be  representative of the majority of power systems. In general, the greater the level of  fault current (at a given voltage), the lower the power factor of the fault-current loop, for example, close to generators or large transformers. Figure H34 below extracted from IEC 60947-2 relates standardized values of cos  ϕ   to industrial circuit-breakers according to their rated  I cu. b  Following an open - time delay - close/open sequence to test the  I cu capacity of a  CB, further tests are made to ensure that: v  The dielectric withstand capability v  The disconnection (isolation) performance and v  The correct operation of the overload protection  have not been impaired by the test. 4.3  Other characteristics of a circuit-breaker Rated insulation voltage (Ui) This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are referred to. The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated insulation voltage, i.e. Ue  y  Ui. Familiarity with the following characteristics of LV circuit-breakers is often necessary when  making a final choice. 4  Circuit-breaker The short-circuit current-breaking performance of a LV circuit-breaker is related (approximately) to the cos  ϕ  of the fault-current loop. Standard  values for this relationship have been established in some standards I cu cos  ϕ 6 kA    I cu  y  10 kA  0.5 10 kA    I cu  y  20 kA  0.3 20 kA    I cu  y  50 kA  0.25 50 kA    I cu 0.2 Fig. H34   :  I cu related to power factor (cos  ϕ ) of fault-current circuit (IEC 60947-2)

H16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp) This characteristic expresses, in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure, under test conditions.  Generally, for industrial circuit-breakers, Uimp = 8 kV and for domestic types,  Uimp = 6 kV. Category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current ( I cw) As already briefly mentioned (sub-clause 4.2) there are two categories of  LV industrial switchgear, A and B, according to IEC 60947-2: b  Those of category A, for which there is no deliberate delay in the operation of the  “instantaneous” short-circuit magnetic tripping device (see Fig. H35), are generally moulded-case type circuit-breakers, and b  Those of category B for which, in order to discriminate with other circuit-breakers  on a time basis, it is possible to delay the tripping of the CB, where the fault-current level is lower than that of the short-time withstand current rating ( I cw) of the CB   (see Fig. H36). This is generally applied to large open-type circuit-breakers and to certain heavy-duty moulded-case types.  I cw is the maximum current that the B  category CB can withstand, thermally and electrodynamically, without sustaining damage, for a period of time given by the manufacturer. Rated making capacity ( I cm) I cm is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit-breaker can  establish at rated voltage in specified conditions. In AC systems this instantaneous  peak value is related to  I cu (i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the factor k, which  depends on the power factor (cos  ϕ ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in  Figure H37  ). In a correctly designed installation, a circuit-breaker is never required to operate at its maximum breaking current  I cu. For this reason  a new characteristic Ics has been introduced.   It is expressed in IEC 60947-2 as a percentage  of  I cu (25, 50, 75, 100%) I cu   cos  ϕ    I cm = k I cu 6 kA    I cu  y  10 kA   0.5   1.7 x  I cu 10 kA    I cu  y  20 kA   0.3   2 x  I cu 20 kA    I cu  y  50 kA   0.25   2.1 x  I cu 50 kA  y   I cu   0.2   2.2 x  I cu Fig. H37  : Relation between rated breaking capacity  I cu and rated making capacity  I cm at  different power-factor values of short-circuit current, as standardized in IEC 60947-2 Example: A Masterpact NW08H2 circuit-breaker has a rated breaking capacity    I cu of 100 kA. The peak value of its rated making capacity  I cm will be   100 x 2.2 = 220 kA.  Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity ( I cs) The rated breaking capacity ( I cu) or ( I cn) is the maximum fault-current a circuit- breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged. The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are considerably less than the rated breaking capacity ( I cu) of the CB. On the other  hand it is important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is immediately available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been repaired. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic ( I cs) has  been created, expressed as a percentage of  I cu, viz: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial  circuit-breakers. The standard test sequence is as follows:  b  O - CO - CO (1)  (at  I cs) b  Tests carried out following this sequence are intended to verify that the CB is in a  good state and available for normal serviceFor domestic CBs,  I cs = k  I cn. The factor k values are given in IEC 60898 table XIV. In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that  I cs =  I cu. (1) O represents an opening operation. CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening operation. I (A) I m t (s) Fig. H35  : Category A circuit-breaker I (A ) I m  t (s )   I cu  I cw  I  Fig. H36  : Category B circuit-breaker

H17 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Fault-current limitation The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability, more or less effective, in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current,  permitting only a limited amount of current to flow, as shown in  Figure H38.   The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of curves (see Fig. H39). b  Diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the rms  value of the AC component of the prospective fault current (“prospective” fault- current refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting  capability) b  Limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional  I 2 t) and  this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of Figure H39, again, versus the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current. LV circuit-breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain  standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to one class (of current limiters) have standardized limiting  I 2 t let-through characteristics defined by  that class. In these cases, manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance curves. Many designs of LV circuit-breakers feature a short-circuit current limitation capability, whereby the current is reduced and prevented from reaching its (otherwise) maximum peak  value (see Fig. H38). The current-limitation  performance of these CBs is presented in  the form of graphs, typified by that shown in  Figure H39, diagram (a) 150 kA Limited current peak(A 2  x s) 2.10 5 4,5.10 5 Prospective AC component (rms) a) Limited current peak (kA)  Non-limited current   character istics  150 kA  22  Prospective AC component (rms)  b) Fig. H39  : Performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit-breaker Current limitation reduces both thermal and  electrodynamic stresses on all circuit elements through which the current passes, thereby prolonging the useful life of these elements. Furthermore, the limitation feature allows  “cascading” techniques to be used (see 4.5)  thereby significantly reducing design and  installation costs The advantages of current limitation The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages: b  Better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate  all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents b  Reduction of thermal effects: Conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is  significantly reduced, so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased b  Reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are  lower, with less risk of deformation and possible rupture, excessive burning of contacts, etc. b  Reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects:  v  Less influence on measuring instruments and associated circuits,  telecommunication systems, etc. These circuit-breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of: b  Cables and wiring b  Prefabricated cable-trunking systems b  Switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of the installation ExampleOn a system having a prospective shortcircuit current of 150 kA rms, a Compact L circuit-breaker limits the peak current to less than 10% of the calculated prospective peak value, and the thermal effects to less than 1% of those calculated. Cascading of the several levels of distribution in an installation, downstream of a limiting CB, will also result in important savings. The technique of cascading, described in sub-clause 4.5 allows, in fact, substantial savings on switchgear (lower performance permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s)) enclosures, and design studies, of up to 20% (overall). Discriminative protection schemes and cascading are compatible, in the Compact NSX range, up to the full short-circuit breaking capacity of the switchgear.  Fig. H38  : Prospective and actual currents I cc t Limited current tc Prospectice fault-current Prospectice fault-current peak Limited current peak

H18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection 4.4  Selection of a circuit-breaker Choice of a circuit-breaker The choice of a CB is made in terms of: b  Electrical characteristics of the installation for which the CB is intended b  Its eventual environment: ambient temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard  enclosure, climatic conditions, etc. b  Short-circuit current breaking and making requirements b  Operational specifications: discriminative tripping, requirements (or not) for  remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts, auxiliary tripping coils, connection b  Installation regulations; in particular: protection of persons b  Load characteristics, such as motors, fluorescent lighting, LED ligthing,    LV/LV transformers The following notes relate to the choice LV circuit-breaker for use in distribution systems. Choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature The rated current of a circuit-breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient  temperature, in general: b  30  ° C for domestic-type CBs b  40  ° C for industrial-type CBs Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends mainly on the technology of their tripping units (see Fig. H40). Ambient temperature Single CBin free air Circuit breakers installed in an enclosure Ambient temperature Temperature of air surrouding the      circuit breakers Fig. H40  : Ambient temperature Circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal  tripping units have a trip current level that depends on the surrounding temperature Uncompensated thermal magnetic tripping units Circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current level that depends on the surrounding temperature. If the CB is installed in an enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on overload will be sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reference temperature, it will therefore be “derated”. For this reason, CB manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to the CB reference temperature. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (see Fig. H41) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the CB. Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted  in juxtaposition, as shown typically in Figure H27, are usually mounted in a small  closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when passing normal load currents, generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8. ExampleWhat rating ( I n) should be selected for a iC60N? b  Protecting a circuit, the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A b  Installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box b  In an ambient temperature of 50  ° C A iC60N circuit-breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at 50  ° C (see Fig. H41). To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space, however,  the 0.8 factor noted above must be employed, so that, 35.6 x 0.8 = 28.5 A, which is not suitable for the 34 A load. A 50 A circuit-breaker would therefore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating of 44 x 0.8 = 35.2 A. Compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-current setting ( I r or  I rth) to be adjusted, within a specified range, irrespective of  the ambient temperature. For example: b  In certain countries, the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems, and  domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a circuit-breaker provided by the supply authority. This CB, besides affording protection against indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload; in this case, if the consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power authority. The circuit-breaker ( y  60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of - 5  ° C to + 40  ° C. b  LV circuit-breakers at ratings  y  630 A are commonly equipped with compensated  tripping units for this range (- 5  ° C to + 40  ° C) The choice of a range of circuit-breakers is determined by: the electrical characteristics of the installation, the environment, the loads and a need for remote control, together with the type of telecommunications system envisaged

H19 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Electronic trip units An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itself often imposes operational limits in elevated temperatures, so that manufacturers generally provide an operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature (see Fig. H42).Moreover, electronic trip units can provide information that can be used for a better  management of the electrical distribution, including energy efficiency and power  quality. iC60a, iC60H: curve C.  iC60N: curves B and C (reference temperature: 30 °C) Rating (A)   20 °C   25 °C   30 °C   35 °C   40 °C   45 °C   50 °C   55 °C   60 °C 1   1.05   1.02   1.00   0.98   0.95   0.93   0.90   0.88   0.85 2   2.08   2.04   2.00   1.96   1.92   1.88   1.84   1.80   1.74 3   3.18   3.09   3.00   2.91   2.82   2.70   2.61   2.49   2.37 4   4.24   4.12   4.00   3.88   3.76   3.64   3.52   3.36   3.24 6   6.24   6.12   6.00   5.88   5.76   5.64   5.52   5.40   5.30 10   10.6   10.3   10.0   9.70   9.30   9.00   8.60   8.20   7.80 16   16.8   16.5   16.0   15.5   15.2   14.7   14.2   13.8   13.5 20   21.0   20.6   20.0   19.4   19.0   18.4   17.8   17.4   16.8 25   26.2   25.7   25.0   24.2   23.7   23.0   22.2   21.5   20.7 32   33.5   32.9   32.0   31.4   30.4   29.8   28.4   28.2   27.5 40   42.0   41.2   40.0   38.8   38.0   36.8   35.6   34.4   33.2 50   52.5   51.5   50.0   48.5   47.4   45.5   44.0   42.5   40.5 63   66.2   64.9   63.0   61.1   58.0   56.7   54.2   51.7   49.2 Fig. H41  : Examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs  with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature Electronic tripping units are highly stable in changing temperature levels I n (A) Coeff. 2,000 1 NW20 withdrawable with horizontal plugs NW20 L1 withdrawable with on edge plugs 1,890 0.95 1,800 0.90 20 50 55 60 35 40 45 25 30 θ° C Fig. H42  : Derating of Masterpact NW20 circuit-breaker, according to the temperature Masterpact NW20 version      40°C  45°C  50°C  55°C  60°C H1/H2/H3  Withdrawable with   I n (A)    2,000 2,000 2,000 1,980 1,890    horizontal plugs  Maximum     1  1  1  0.99  0.95      adjustment  I r L1  Withdrawable with   I n (A)    2,000 200  1,900 1,850 1,800    on-edge plugs  Maximum     1  1  0.95  0.93  0.90      adjustment  I r  Compact NSX100-250 equippment with TM-D or TM-G trip units Rating   Temperature (°C) (A)   10   15    20    25    30    35    40    45    50   55   60   65   70  16  18.4  18.7 18  18  17  16.6 16  15.6 15.2 14.8 14.5 14  13.8 25  28.8  28 27.5  25 26.3  25.6  25 24.5  24 23.5  23 22 21 32  36.8  36  35.2  34.4 33.6 32.8 32  31.3 30.5 30  29.5 29  28.5 40  46  45 44  43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 50  57.5  56 55  54 52.5  51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 63  72  71 69  68 66 65 63 61.5  60 58 57 55 54 80  92  90 88  86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 100  115  113  110  108 105 103 100 97.5 95  92.5 90  87.5 85 125  144  141 138  134 131 128 125 122 119 116 113 109 106 160  184  180 176  172 168 164 160 156 152 148 144 140 136 200  230  225 220  215 210 205 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 250  288  281 277  269 263 256 250 244 238 231 225 219 213

H20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold  Figure H43 below summarizes the main characteristics of the instantaneous or short-time delay trip units. Selection of a circuit-breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity requirements The installation of a circuit-breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two  following conditions: b  Either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity  I cu (or  I cn) which is equal to or  exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation, or b  If this is not the case, be associated with another device which is located  upstream, and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity In the second case, the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can withstand, without being damaged in any way. This technique is  profitably employed in: b  Associations of fuses and circuit-breakers b  Associations of current-limiting circuit-breakers and standard circuit-breakers.   The technique is known as “cascading” (see sub-clause 4.5 of this chapter) The selection of main and principal circuit-breakers A single transformerIf the transformer is located in a consumer’s substation, certain national standards require a LV circuit-breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible such as Compact NSX withdrawable circuit-breaker. Example (see Fig. H44 opposite page)What type of circuit-breaker is suitable for the main circuit-breaker of an installation supplied through a 250 kVA MV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumer’s substation? I n transformer = 360 A I sc (3-phase) = 9 kA A Compact NSX400N with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 160 A - 400 A and a  short-circuit breaking capacity ( I cu) of 50 kA would be a suitable choice for this duty. The installation of a LV circuit-breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity (or that of  the CB together with an associated device) be  equal to or exceeds the calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation The circuit-breaker at the output of the smallest transformer must have a short-circuit capacity adequate for a fault current which is higher than that through any of the other transformer LV circuit-breakers  Fig. H43  : Different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed Type   Tripping unit   Applications   Low setting   b  Sources producing low short-circuit-    type B   current levels      (standby generators)     b  Long lengths of line or cable       Standard setting    b  Protection of circuits: general case    type C         High setting    b  Protection of circuits having high initial     type D or K   transient current levels        (e.g. motors, transformers, resistive loads)       12  I n    b  Protection of motors in association with    type MA   discontactors      (contactors with overload protection)       I t I t I t I t

H21 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Several transformers in parallel (see Fig. H45) b  The circuit-breakers CBP outgoing from the LV distribution board must each be  capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the busbars, viz:  I sc1 +  I sc2 +  I sc3 b  The circuit-breakers CBM, each controlling the output of a transformer, must be  capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example)  I sc2 +  I sc3  only, for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1.From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit-breaker of the smallest  transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these  circumstances, while the circuit-breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-circuit current b  The ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the  associated transformers Note: The essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in parallel may be summarized as follows:1. the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units to be paralleled.2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units. 3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units.    For example, a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will share the load correctly  with a 1,000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the transformers will be loaded  automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended. Figure H46 indicates, for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal  CBs (CBM and CBP respectively, in Figure H45) are subjected. It is based on the  following hypotheses: b  The short-circuit 3-phase power on the MV side of the transformer is 500 MVA b  The transformers are standard 20/0.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed b  The cables from each transformer to its LV circuit-breaker comprise 5 metres of  single core conductors b  Between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is  1 metre of busbar b  The switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard, in an ambient- air temperature of 30  ° C Moreover, this table shows selected circuit-breakers of M-G manufacture recommended for main and principal circuit-breakers in each case. Example (see Fig. H47 next page) b  Circuit-breaker selection for CBM duty: For a 800 kVA transformer  I n = 1155 A;  I cu (minimum) = 38 kA (from Figure H46),  the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact NS1250N ( I cu = 50 kA) b  Circuit-breaker selection for CBP duty: The s.c. breaking capacity ( I cu) required for these circuit-breakers is given in the  Figure H46 as 56 kA.A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current-limiting circuit-breakers types NSX400 L, NSX250 L and NSX100 L. The  I cu rating in  each case = 150 kA. CompactNSX400N 250 kVA20 kV/400 V  MV Tr1 LV CBM A1 B1 CBP MV Tr2 LV CBM A2 B2 CBP MV Tr3 LV CBM A3 B3 E Fig. H44  : Example of a transformer in a consumer’s  substation Fig. H45  : Transformers in parallel 4  Circuit-breaker Fig. H46  : Maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit-breakers (CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel Number and kVA ratings   Minimum S.C breaking  Main circuit-breakers (CBM)  Minimum S.C breaking  Rated current In of  of 20/0.4 kV transformers  capacity of main CBs   total discrimination with out   capacity of principal CBs  principal circuit-breaker   ( I cu) kA  going circuit-breakers (CBP)  ( I cu) kA  (CPB) 250A  2 x 400  14  NW08N1/NS800N  27  NSX250F  3 x 400  28  NW08N1/NS800N  42  NSX250N  2 x 630  22  NW10N1/NS1000N  42  NSX250N  3 x 630  44  NW10N1/NS1000N  67  NSX250S  2 x 800  19  NW12N1/NS1250N  38  NSX250N  3 x 800  38  NW12N1/NS1250N  56  NSX250H  2 x 1,000  23  NW16N1/NS1600N  47  NSX250N  3 x 1,000  47  NW16N1/NS1600N  70  NSX250H  2 x 1,250  29  NW20N1/NS2000N  59  NSX250H  3 x 1,250  59  NW20N1/NS2000N  88  NSX250S  2 x 1,600  38  NW25N1/NS2500N  75  NSX250S  3 x 1,600  75  NW25N1/NS2500N  113  NSX250L  2 x 2,000  47  NW32N1/NS3200N  94  NSX250S  3 x 2,000  94  NW32N1/NS3200N  141  NSX250L 

H22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection These circuit-breakers provide the advantages of: v  Absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers v  Exploitation of the “cascading” technique, with its associated savings for all  downstream components Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs and final-circuit CBs Use of table G40From this table, the value of 3-phase short-circuit current can be determined rapidly for any point in the installation, knowing: b  The value of short-circuit current at a point upstream of that intended for the CB  concerned b  The length, c.s.a., and the composition of the conductors between the two points A circuit-breaker rated for a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value may then be selected. Detailed calculation of the short-circuit current levelIn order to calculate more precisely the short-circuit current, notably, when the short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly less than that derived from the table, it is necessary to use the method indicated in chapter G clause 4. Two-pole circuit-breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole onlyThese CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole only, and may be used in TT, TN-S and IT schemes. In an IT scheme, however, the following conditions must be respected: b  Condition (B) of table G67 for the protection of the neutral conductor against  overcurrent in the case of a double fault b  Short-circuit current-breaking rating: A 2-pole phase-neutral CB must, by  convention, be capable of breaking on one pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the current of a double fault equal to 15% of the 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of its installation, if that current is  y  10 kA; or 25% of the 3-phase short-circuit  current if it exceeds 10 kA b  Protection against indirect contact: this protection is provided according to the  rules for IT schemes Insufficient short-circuit current breaking rating In low-voltage distribution systems it sometimes happens, especially in heavy-duty networks, that the  I sc calculated exceeds the  I cu rating of the CBs available for  installation, or system changes upstream result in lower level CB ratings being exceeded b  Solution 1: Check whether or not appropriate CBs upstream of the CBs affected  are of the current-limiting type, allowing the principle of cascading (described in sub-clause 4.5) to be applied b  Solution 2: Install a range of CBs having a higher rating. This solution is  economically interesting only where one or two CBs are affected b  Solution 3: Associate current-limiting fuses (gG or aM) with the CBs concerned, on  the upstream side. This arrangement must, however, respect the following rules: v  The fuse rating must be appropriate v  No fuse in the neutral conductor, except in certain IT installations where a double  fault produces a current in the neutral which exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating of the CB. In this case, the blowing of the neutral fuse must cause the CB to trip on all phases 4.5  Coordination between circuit-breakers Cascading or Back-up protection Definition of the cascading technique By limiting the peak value of short-circuit current passing through it, a current-limiting CB permits the use, in all circuits downstream of its location, of switchgear and circuit components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities, and thermal and electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be necessary. Reduced physical size and lower performance requirements lead to substantial  economy and to the simplification of installation work. It may be noted that, while a  current-limiting circuit-breaker has the effect on downstream circuits of (apparently) increasing the source impedance during short-circuit conditions, it has no such effect in any other condition; for example, during the starting of a large motor (where a low source impedance is highly desirable). The range of Compact NSX current-limiting circuit-breakers with powerful limiting performances is particularly interesting. Short-circuit fault-current levels at any point in an installation may be obtained from tables The technique of “cascading” uses the properties of current-limiting circuit-breakers to permit the installation of all downstream switchgear, cables and other circuit components  of significantly lower performance than would  otherwise be necessary, thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of an installation CBP1 3 Tr800 kVA20 kV/400 V CBM 400 A CBP2 100 A CBP3 200 A Fig. H47  : Transformers in parallel

H23 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Conditions of implementation Most national standards admit the cascading technique, on condition that the amount of energy “let through” by the limiting CB is less than the energy all downstream CBs and components are able to withstand without damage. In practice this can only be verified for CBs by tests performed in a laboratory. Such  tests are carried out by manufacturers who provide the information in the form of  tables, so that users can confidently design a cascading scheme based on the  combination of recommended circuit-breaker types. As an example, Figure H48 indicates the cascading possibilities of circuit-breaker types iC60, C120 and NG125 when installed downstream of current-limiting CBs Compact NSX 250 N, H or L for a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. In general, laboratory tests are necessary to ensure that the conditions of implementation required by national standards are met and compatible switchgear combinations must be provided by the manufacturer Fig. H48  : Example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation   kA rms  Short-circuit   150     NSX250L breaking capacity   70   NSX250H of the upstream   50 NSX250N (limiter) CBs        Possible short-circuit   150     NG125L breaking capacity of   70   NG125L the downstream CBs   36 NG125N  NG125N  (benefiting from the    30  iC60N/H =32A  iC60N/H =32  A iC60N/H =32A cascading technique)   30  iC60L =25A iC60L =25A iC60L =25A    25  iC60H =40A iC60H =40A iC60H =40A      iC120N/H iC120N/H iC120N/H   20  iC60N =40A iC60N =40A iC60N =40A  Advantages of cascading The current limitation benefits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the  current-limiting CB concerned.The principle is not restrictive, i.e. current-limiting CBs can be installed at any point in an installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated. The result is: b  Simplified short-circuit current calculations b  Simplification, i.e. a wider choice of downstream switchgear and appliances b  The use of lighter-duty switchgear and appliances, with consequently lower cost b  Economy of space requirements, since light-duty equipment have generally a  smaller volume Principles of discriminative tripping (selectivity) Discrimination (selectivity) is achieved by automatic protective devices if a fault condition, occurring at any point in the installation, is cleared by the protective device located immediately upstream of the fault, while all other protective devices remain unaffected (see Fig. H49). I sc  A B I sc Total discrimination I sc B I r B 0 0 I sc I sc B I s I r B I s = discrimination limit B only opens Partial discrimination A and B open   Fig. H49  : Total and partial discrimination Discrimination may be total or partial, and  based on the principles of current levels, or time-delays, or a combination of both. A more recent development is based on the logic techniques.The Schneider Electric system takes advantages of both current-limitation and discrimination

H24 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection Discrimination between circuit-breakers A and B is total if the maximum value of short-circuit-current on circuit B ( I sc B) does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting  of circuit-breaker A ( I m A). For this condition, B only will trip (see Fig. H50).                                                                                Discrimination is partial if the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of circuit-breaker A. For this maximum condition, both A and B will trip (see Fig. H51). Protection against overload : discrimination based on current levels  (see Fig. H52a)This method is realized by setting successive tripping thresholds at stepped levels, from downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings). Discrimination is total or partial, depending on particular conditions, as noted above.As a rule of thumb, discrimination is achieved when: b   I rA/ I rB 2: Protection against low level short-circuit currents : discrimination based on stepped time delays  (see Fig. H52b) This method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units, such that  downstream relays have the shortest operating times, with progressively longer delays towards the source. In the two-level arrangement shown, upstream circuit-breaker A is delayed  sufficiently to ensure total discrimination with B (for example: Masterpact with  electronic trip unit). Discrimination based on a combination of the two previous methods  (see Fig. H52c) A time-delay added to a current level scheme can improve the overall discrimination performance. The upstream CB has two high-speed magnetic tripping thresholds: b   I m A: delayed magnetic trip or short-delay electronic trip b   I i: instantaneous strip Discrimination is total if  I sc B   I i (instantaneous). Protection against high level short-circuit currents: discrimination based on arc-energy levels  This technology implemented in the Compact NSX range (current limiting circuit- breaker) is extremely effective for achievement of total discrimination. Principle: When a very high level short-circuit current is detected by the two circuits- breaker A and B, their contacts open simultaneously. As a result, the current is highly limited. b  The very high arc-energy at level B induces the tripping of circuit-breaker B b  Then, the arc-energy is limited at level A and is not sufficient to induce the tripping  of A As a rule of thumb, the discrimination between Compact NSX is total if the size ratio between A and B is greater than 2.5. t I m A  I s c  B I r A I r B B A I s c  A   I A and B open B only opens Fig. H51  : Partial discrimination between CBs A and B t I m A  I r A  I r B  B A I sc B  I Fig. H50  : Total discrimination between CBs A and B I t I r A I r B B A a) b) I t   I sc B ∆ t  A  B  A  B c)   t I m A  delayed  I sc B I B A I i A  instantaneous  Fig. H52   : Discrimination

H25 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Discrimination quality Discrimination is total if  I s   I sc(D2), i.e.  Isd1  I sc(D2).  This normally implies: b   a relatively low level  I sc(D2), b   a large difference between the ratings of circuit-breakers D1 and D2. Current discrimination is normally used in final distribution. Current-level discrimination This technique is directly linked to the staging of the Long Time (LT) tripping curves of two serial-connected circuit-breakers. Discrimination based on time-delayed tripping  uses CBs referred to as “selective” (in some  countries). Implementation of these CBs is relatively simple    and consists in delaying the instant of tripping  of the several series-connected circuit-breakers in a stepped time sequence Fig. H53  : Current discrimination The discrimination limit ls is: b   I s =  I sd2 if the thresholds lsd1 and lsd2 are too close or merge, b   I s =  I sd1 if the thresholds lsd1 and lsd2 are sufficiently far apart. As a rule, current discrimination is achieved when: b   I r1 /  I r2 2, b   I sd1 /  I sd2 2. The discrimination limit is: b   I s =  I sd1. Time discrimination This is the extension of current discrimination and is obtained by staging over time of the tripping curves. This technique consists of giving a time delay of t to the Short Time (ST) tripping of D1. Fig. H54  : Time discrimination D1 D2 I sd 2 I sd1 I r2 I r1 t D2 D1 I D1 D2 I sd 2 I sd1 I i1 I r2 I r1 t D2 D1 I ∆ t

H26 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection The thresholds ( I r1,  I sd1) of D1 and ( I r2,  I sd2) comply with the staging rules of  current discrimination. The discrimination limit ls of the association is at least equal to li1, the instantaneous threshold of D1. Discrimination quality There are two possible applications: b   on final and/or intermediate feeders A category circuit-breakers  can be used with time-delayed tripping of the upstream circuit-breaker. This allows extension of current discrimination up  to the instantaneous threshold li1 of the upstream circuit-breaker: Is = li1. If Isc(D2) is not too high - case of a final feeder - total discrimination  can be obtained. b   on the incomers and feeders of the MSB At this level, as continuity of supply takes priority, the installation characteristics allow use of  B category circuit-breakers  designed  for time-delayed tripping. These circuit-breakers have a high thermal withstand ( I cw  u  50% Icn for t = 1s): I s =  Icw1. Even for high lsc(D2),  time discrimination normally provides total discrimination: Icw1  Icc(D2) . Note: Use of B category circuit-breakers means that the installation must withstand high electrodynamic and thermal stresses.Consequently, these circuit-breakers have a high instantaneous threshold li that can  be adjusted and disabled in order to protect the busbars if necessary. Practical example of discrimination at several levels with Schneider Electric circuit-breakers (with electronic trip units)"Masterpact NT is totally selective with any moulded-case Compact NSX circuit breaker, i.e., the  downstream circuit-breaker will trip for any short-circuit value up to its breaking capacity. Further, all Compact NSX CBs are totally selective, as long as the ration between sizes is greater than 1.6 and the ratio between ratings is greater than 2.5. The same rules apply for the total selectivity with the miniature circuit-breakers Acti 9 further downstream (see Fig. H55). Fig. H55  : 4 level discrimination with Schneider Electric circuit breakers : Masterpact NT  Compact NSX and Acti 9 I t I cc B A I cc B Only B opens Current-breaking time for B Non tripping time of A I r B Masterpact NT06 630 A Compact NSX 250 A Compact NSX 100 A Acti 9 iC60

H27 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Energy discrimination with current limitation Cascading between 2 devices is normally achieved by using the tripping of the upstream circuit-breaker A to help the downstream circuit-breaker B to break the current. The discrimination limit  I s is consequently equal to the ultimate breaking  current  I cu B of circuit-breaker B acting alone, as cascading requires the tripping of  both devices.The energy discrimination technology implemented in Compact NSX circuit-breakers allows to improve the discrimination limit to a value higher than the ultimate breaking current  I cu B of the downstream circuit-breaker. The principle is as follows: b  The downstream limiting circuit-breaker B sees a very high short-circuit current.  The tripping is very fast ( 1 ms) and then, the current is limited b  The upstream circuit-breaker A sees a limited short-circuit current compared to its  breaking capability, but this current induces a repulsion of the contacts. As a result, the arcing voltage increases the current limitation. However, the arc energy is not high enough to induce the tripping of the circuit-breaker. So, the circuit-breaker A helps the circuit-breaker B to trip, without tripping itself. The discrimination limit can be higher than  I cu B and the discrimination becomes total with a reduced cost of the  devices Natural total discriminitation with Compact NSX The major advantage of the Compact NSX range is to provide a natural total  discrimination between two series-connected devices if: b  The ratio of the two trip-unit current ratings is 1.6 b  The ratio of rated currents of the two circuit-breakers is 2.5 Logic discrimination or “Zone Sequence Interlocking – ZSI” This type of discrimination can be achieved with circuit-breakers equipped with specially designed electronic trip units (Compact, Masterpact): only the Short Time Protection (STP) and Ground Fault Protection (GFP) functions of the controlled devices are managed by Logic Discrimination. In particular, the Instantaneous Protection function - inherent protection function - is not concerned. Settings of controlled circuit-breakers b  time delay: there are no rules, but staging (if any)of the time delays of time  discrimination must be applied (ΔtD1 u ΔtD2 u ΔtD3), b  thresholds: there are no threshold rules to be applied, but natural staging of the  protection device ratings must be complied with ( I crD1  u   I crD2  u   I crD3). Note: This technique ensures discrimination even with circuit-breakers of similar ratings. Principles Activation of the Logic Discrimination function is via transmission of information on the pilot wire: b  ZSI input: v  low level (no downstream faults): the Protection function is on standby with a  reduced time delay (y 0,1 s), v  high level (presence of downstream faults): the relevant Protection function moves  to the time delay status set on the device. b  ZSI output: v  low level: the trip unit detects no faults and sends no orders, v  high level: the trip unit detects a fault and sends an order. Operation A pilot wire connects in cascading form the protection devices of an installation (see Fig. H56). When a fault occurs, each circuit-breaker upstream of the fault (detecting a fault) sends an order (high level output) and moves the upstream circuit- breaker to its natural time delay (high level input). The circuitbreaker placed just  above the fault does not receive any orders (low level input) and thus trips almost instantaneously. Discrimination schemes based on logic  techniques are possible, using CBs equipped  with electronic tripping units designed for  the purpose (Compact, Masterpact) and  interconnected with pilot wires Fig. H56  : Logic discrimination. pilot  wire interlocking order interlocking order D1 D2 D3 4  Circuit-breaker

H28 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection 4.6  Discrimination MV/LV in a consumer’s substation In general the transformer in a consumer’s substation is protected by MV fuses, suitably rated to match the transformer, in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC 60787 and IEC 60420, by following the advice of the fuse manufacturer. The basic requirement is that a MV fuse will not operate for LV faults occurring downstream of the transformer LV circuit-breaker, so that the tripping characteristic curve of the latter must be to the left of that of the MV fuse pre-arcing curve. This requirement generally fixes the maximum settings for the LV circuit-breaker  protection: b  Maximum short-circuit current-level setting of the magnetic tripping element b  Maximum time-delay allowable for the short-circuit current tripping element   (see Fig. H57)Example: b  Short-circuit level at MV terminals of transformer: 250 MVA b  Transformer MV/LV: 1,250 kVA 20/0.4 kV b  MV fuses: 63 A b  Cabling, transformer - LV circuit-breaker: 10 metres single-core cables b  LV circuit-breaker: Compact NS 2000 set at 1,800 A ( I r) What is the maximum short-circuit trip current setting and its maximum time delay allowable? The curves of Figure H58 show that discrimination is assured if the short-time delay tripping unit of the CB is set at: b  A level  y  6  I r = 10.8 kA b  A time-delay setting of step 1 or 2 Fig. H57  : Example 63 A 1,250 kVA20 kV / 400 V Compact NS2000 set at 1,800 A Full-load current1,760 A 3-phaseshort-circuitcurrent level31.4 kA I t (s) Step 4 Step 3 Step 2Step 1 0.50 0.1 0.2 10 100 200 1,000 NS 2000 set at  1,800 A 1,800 A I r I sc maxi 31.4 kA 10 kA 0.01 Minimum pre-arcing  curve for 63 A HV fuses  (current referred to the  secondary side of the  transformer) 1  4  6  8  Fig. H58  : Curves of MV fuses and LV circuit-breaker Discrimination quality This technique enables: b   easy achievement as standard of discrimination on 3 levels or more, b   elimination of important stresses on the installation, relating to time- delayed tripping of the protection device, in event of a fault directly on the upstream busbars. All the protection devices are thus virtually instantaneous, b   easy achievement of downstream discrimination with non-controlled  circuit-breakers.

H29 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Fig. H60  : Example of ultra rapid power circuit breaker: Masterpact UR (Schneider Electric) 4.7  Circuit- breakers suitable for IT systems In IT system, circuit breakers may have to face an unusual situation called double  earth fault when a second fault to earth occurs in presence of a first fault on the  opposite side of a circuit breaker (see Fig : H59).In that case circuit breaker has to clear the fault with phase to phase voltage across a single pole instead of phase to neutral voltage. Breaking capacity of the breaker  may be modified in such a situation. Annex H of IEC60947-2 deals with this situation and circuit breaker used in IT system shall have been tested according to this annex. When a circuit-breaker has not been tested according to this annex, a marking by    the symbol  IT shall be used on the nameplate. Regulation in some countries may add additional requirements. 4.8  Ultra rapid circuit breaker As installed power increases, electrical distribution has to shift from a LV design to a HV design. Indeed, a high short-circuit level can be a threat to the installation and make impossible the selection of low voltage equipments (Switchboard and bus bars, circuit breaker…) These situations could be met in the following applications: Bus bars coupling onboard merchant vessels, off shore platform, loop networks (in industry), where the current and energy are important because of the installed power (several transformers or generators in parallel) and HV design not easy.  Two solutions could be used:  b  Pyrotechnic interruption switching device  b  Power circuit breaker based solution Some power circuit breakers with additionnal feature (based on the Thomson effect technology for instance) provide an ultra rapid opening system on very high short-circuit level (see Fig. H59). The breaking performance makes it possible to limit the prospective short-circuit current and energy, and consequently protect the electrical installation against the electrodynamic and thermal effects of short-circuit. Fig. H59  : Double earth fault situation Earthing system: IT

H30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 H - LV switchgear: functions & selection By inserting a tie breaker (see Fig. H62) - Masterpact UR - to separate the sources under fault conditions, the short circuit at (A) will consist in: b  a limited short circuit coming from generator G1 and G2 interrupted by the  Masterpact UR (see curve 2)  b  a non limited short circuit from generators G3 and G4 (see curve 3). Fig. H62  : diagram of the network I 1 Masterpact UR I 2 I 2 I 1 I 3 I 3 I  peak (ms) 0 I  peak (ms) 0 G3 (A) = limited + M2 G4 G1 M1 G2 I 1 non limited I 1 Masterpact UR limited by I 2 non limited Curve 2 Curve 3 Example of limitation offered by Masterpact UR in decoupling bus bars in case of short circuit (see Fig. H61): When a short-circuit occurs downstream in the installation (A) with no tie breaker, the short-circuit level will be the result of the total generated power (illustrated by curve 1). Fig. H61  : Diagram of the network I 1 I 2 I 2 I 1 I 3 I 3 I  peak (ms) 0 G3 (A) = + M2 G4 G1 M1 G2 I 2 I 1 I 3 = non limited + I 2 I 1 non limited Curve 1 -

H31 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Circuit-breaker Fig. H63  : Resulting short-circuit current The resulting short circuit current is illustrated by curve 4 (see Fig.H63): The consequence of the strong limitation of the short circuit current and the prospective energy allows the design of a LV network instead of a MV design.This also prevents the network from being totally shutdown (black out) in case of short circuit in the main switchboard.  The following table (Fig. H64) give some example of limitation with MAsterpact UR as a tie breaker between source 1 & 2 Fig. H64  : Example of limitation by Masterpact UR for 690 V - 60 Hz network. Source 2 Source 1 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 50 169 207 183 229 193 240 203 251 213 262 224 273 234 284 244 295 254 306 264 317 274 327 295 349 55 176 229 189 240 199 251 210 262 220 273 230 284 240 295 250 306 260 317 270 327 281 338 301 360 60 178 240 191 251 201 262 211 273 220 284 230 295 240 306 249 317 259 327 269 338 278 349 298 371 65 181 251 194 262 204 273 214 284 223 295 233 306 242 317 252 327 262 338 272 349 281 360 301 382 70 185 262 198 273 207 284 217 295 226 306 236 317 246 327 255 338 265 349 275 360 284 371 304 393 75 189 273 201 284 211 295 220 306 230 317 240 327 249 338 259 349 268 360 278 371 288 382 307 404 80 192 284 205 295 214 306 224 317 233 327 243 338 252 349 262 360 272 371 281 382 291 393 310 415 85 196 295 208 306 218 317 227 327 237 338 246 349 256 360 265 371 275 382 284 393 294 404 313 426 90 199 306 212 317 221 327 231 338 240 349 249 360 259 371 268 382 278 393 288 404 297 415 316 437 95 204 317 216 327 225 338 235 349 244 360 253 371 263 382 272 393 282 404 291 415 301 426 320 448 100 209 327 221 338 230 349 239 360 249 371 258 382 268 393 277 404 287 415 296 426 306 437 325 458 110 218 349 230 360 239 371 248 382 258 393 267 404 276 415 286 426 295 437 305 448 314 458 333 480 Limited Non limited xxx Example I  peak (ms) 0 I 2 I 1 I 3 = limited + Curve 4

H32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 5  Maintenance of low voltage  switchgear IEC60364-6 requires initial and periodic verifications of electrical installations.  The electrical switchboard and all its equipment continue to age whether they operate or not. This aging process is due mainly to environmental influences and operating conditions. To ensure that Low voltage switchgear and especially circuit breaker retains the operating and safety characteristics specified in the catalogue for the whole of its service life, it is recommended that: b  The device is installed in optimum environmental and operating conditions b  Routine inspections and regular maintenance are carried out by qualified  personnel. Parameters influencing the ageing A device placed in given conditions is subjected to its effects. The main factors that accelerate device ageing are:- temperature- vibration- relative humidity- salt environment- dust- corrosive atmospheres.- percent load- current harmonics Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance consists in carrying out, at predetermined intervals or according to prescribed criteria, checks intended to reduce the probability of a failure or deterioration in the operation of a system. There are two types of preventive maintenance: b  Periodic maintenance For each type of product, maintenance recommendations have to be formalized in a dedicated document by the technical department. These verification procedures, intended to maintain systems or their subassemblies in correct operating condition over the targeted service life, must then be carried out according to the time intervals stipulated in this document. b  Conditional maintenance To a certain extent, conditional-maintenance operations are a means to reduce (but not eliminate) the recommended periodic-maintenance operations (thus limited to the strict minimum) that require an annual shutdown of the installation.These operations are launched when programmed alarms indicate that a predefined threshold has been reached. (Number of operation durability, aging indicators…) Electronic trip units in power circuit breaker can propose such functions. Conditional maintenance is the means to optimise installation maintenance. Example of maintenance recommendation for Power Circuit Breaker ( 630A) The table below indicates maintenance operations and their intervals: Fig. H65  : Recommended periodic maintenance operations, for normal operating conditions Interval Maintenance operations 1 year Visual inspection and functional testing, replacement of faulty accessories 2 years As for level II plus servicing operation and subassembly tests 5 years As for level III plus diagnostics and repairs (by manufacturer) H - LV switchgear: functions & selection The intervals stated are for normal environmental and operating conditions.Provided all the environmental conditions are more favourable, maintenance intervals can be longer.If just one of the conditions is more severe, maintenance must be carried out more frequently.  Functions linked specifically to safety require particular intervals. For example, emergency switching and earth leakage protection.

© Schneider Electric - all rights reserved H33 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 5  Maintenance of low voltage  switchgear The case The case is an essential element in the circuit breaker.  First of all, it ensures a number of safety functions:- functional insulation between the phases themselves and between the phases and the exposed conductive parts in order to resist transient overvoltages caused by the distribution system- a barrier avoiding direct user contact with live parts- protection against the effects of electrical arcs and overpressures caused by short-circuits.Secondly, it serves to support the entire pole operating mechanism as well as the mechanical and electrical accessories of the circuit breaker.On the case, there should be:- no traces of grime (grease), excessive dust or condensation which all reduce insulation- no signs of burns or cracks which would reduce the mechanical solidity of the case and thus its capacity to withstand short-circuits.Preventive maintenance for cases consists of a visual inspection of its condition and cleaning with a dry cloth or a vacuum cleaner. All cleaning products with solvents are  strictly forbidden. It is advised to measure the insulation every five years and following  trips due to a short-circuit. The product must be replaced if there are signs of burns or cracks. Arc chutes (for Air Circuit breaker) During a short-circuit, the arc chute serves to extinguish the arc and to absorb the high level of energy along the entire path of the short-circuit. It also contributes to arc extinction under rated current conditions. An arc chute that is not in good condition may not be capable of fully clearing the short-circuit and ultimately result in the destruction of the circuit breaker. The arc chutes for air circuit breaker must  be regularly checked. The fins of the arc chutes may be blackened but must not be  significantly damaged. What is more, the filters must not be blocked to avoid internal  overpressures. It is advised to use a vacuum cleaner rather than a cloth to remove dust from the outside of the arc chutes. Fig. H66  : Example of maintenance recommendation for Power Circuit Breaker ( 630A)

H34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 Main contacts (for Air Circuit breaker) The contacts make and break the current under normal conditions (rated current for the installation) and under exceptional conditions (overloads and short-circuits). The contacts are eroded by the many opening and closing cycles and can be particularly deteriorated by short-circuit currents.Worn contacts may result in abnormal temperature rise and accelerate device ageing.It is imperative to remove the arc chutes and visually check contact wear at least once a year and following each short-circuit.The contact-wear indicators constitute an absolute minimum value that must not be overrun. Device and chassis mechanisms Mechanical operation of the circuit breaker may be hindered by dust, knocks, aggressive atmospheres, no greasing or excessive greasing. Operating safety is ensured by dusting and general cleaning, proper greasing and regular opening and closing of the circuit breaker. The imperative need to ensure continuity of service in an installation generally means that power circuit breakers are rarely operated. If, on the one hand, an excessive number of operating cycles accelerates device ageing, it is also true that a lack of operation over a long period can result in mechanical malfunctions. Regular operation is required to maintain the normal performance level of each part involved in the opening and closing cycles.In installations where power circuit breakers are used in source changeover systems, it is advised to periodically operate the circuit breaker for the alternate source. Fig. H66  : Example of maintenance recommendation for Power Circuit Breaker ( 630A) (continued) H - LV switchgear: functions & selection

© Schneider Electric - all rights reserved H35 Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 Fig. H66  : Example of maintenance recommendation for Power Circuit Breaker ( 630A) (continued) 5  Maintenance of low voltage  switchgear Electronic trip unit If an electric fault occurs in the installation, the electronic trip unit detects the fault and orders the circuit breaker to open and thus protect life and property. Electronic components and circuit boards are sensitive to the environment (ambient temperature, humid and corrosive atmospheres) and to severe operating conditions (magnetic  fields, vibrations, etc.). To ensure correct operation, it is necessary to periodically  check:- the chain of action resulting in a trip- the response time as a function of the level of the fault current.Depending on the operating and environment conditions, it is advised to estimate  the service life of trip units, and to replace them if necessary to avoid any risk  of non-operation when they are needed. Auxiliary circuitsControl auxiliaries MX and XF shunt releases are respectively used to remotely open and close the circuit breaker using an electrical order or by a supervisor via a communication network.The MN undervoltage release is used to break the power circuit if the distribution system voltage drops or fails in order to protect life (emergency off) or property. Preventive maintenance consists in periodically checking operation at minimum values. Depending on the operating and environment conditions, it is advised toestimate their service life and to replace them if necessary to avoid any risk of non-operation when they are needed. Auxiliary wiring Auxiliary wiring is used to transmit orders to the various control devices and to transmit status-condition information. Incorrect connections or damaged insulation may result in either non-operation of the circuit breaker or nuisance tripping.Auxiliary wiring must be regularly checked and replaced as needed, particularly if there are vibrations, high ambient temperatures or corrosive atmospheres. Indication contacts The contacts indicating the status of the circuit-breaker (ON / OFF), of the chassis (CE, CD, CT), a trip due to an electrical fault (SDE) or that the circuit breaker is ready to close (PF) provide the operator with the status information required to react correspondingly. Any incorrect indications may result in erroneous device operation that could endanger life and property. Contact failure (wear, loose connections) may result from vibrations, corrosion or abnormal temperature rise and preventive maintenance must ensure that contacts correctly conduct or isolate according to their positions. Gear motor The gear motor (MCH) automatically recharges the operating-mechanism springs as soon as the circuit breaker is closed. The gear motor makes it possible to instantaneously reclose the device following an opening. This function may be indispensable for safety reasons. The charging lever serves simply as a backup means if the auxiliary voltage fails. Given the mechanical forces exerted to charge the mechanism, the gear motor wears quickly. Periodic checks on gear-motor operation and the charging time are required to ensure the device closing function.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved   Contents  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin  J2   1.1  Overvoltage definitions   J2   1.2  Overvoltage characteristics of atmospheric origin   J3   1.3  Effects on electrical installations  J3   1.4  Characterization of the lightning wave   J6   Principle of lightning protection  J7   2.1  General rules  J7   2.2  Building protection system  J7   2.3  Electrical installation protection system  J9   2.4  The Surge Protection Device (SPD)  J10   Design of the electrical installation protection system  J13   3.1  Design rules  J13   3.2  Elements of the protection system  J14   3.3  Common characteristics of SPDs according to the installation         characteristics   J16   3.4  Selection of a Type 1 SPD   J19   3.5  Selection of a Type 2 SPD  J19   3.6  Selection of external Short Circuit Protection Device (SCPD)  J20   3.7  SPD and protection device coordination table   J22   Installation of SPDs  J24   4.1  Connection  J24   4.2  Cabling rules  J26   Application J28   5.1  Installation examples  J28   5.2 SPD for Photovoltaic application  J29   Technical supplements  J32   6.1  Lightning protection standards  J32   6.2  The components of a SPD  J32   6.3  End-of-life indication   J34   6.4  Detailed characteristics of the external SCPD  J34   6.5  Propagation of a lightning wave  J36   6.6  Example of lightning current in TT system  J37 Chapter J Overvoltage protection 1    2    3    4    5    6   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin 1.1  Overvoltage definitions  Various types of overvoltage An overvoltage is a voltage pulse or wave which is superimposed on the rated  voltage of the network (see  Fig. J1 ). Voltage Lightning type impulse(duration = 100 µs) "Operating impulse"type dumped ring wave(F = 100 kHz to 1 MHz) I rms Fig. J1  : Examples of overvoltage This type of overvoltage is characterized by (see  Fig. J2 ): b  the rise time tf (in μs); b  the gradient S (in kV/μs). An overvoltage disturbs equipment and produces electromagnetic radiation.  Moreover, the duration of the overvoltage (T) causes an energy peak in the electric  circuits which could destroy equipment. Voltage (V or kV) U max 50 % t Rise time (tf) Voltage surge duration (T) Fig. J2  : Main characteristics of an overvoltage Four types of overvoltage can disturb electrical installations and loads: b  Switching surges: high-frequency overvoltages or burst disturbance (see Fig. J1) caused by a change  in the steady state in an electrical network (during operation of switchgear). b  Power-frequency overvoltages: overvoltages of the same frequency as the network (50, 60 or 400 Hz) caused  by a permanent change of state in the network (following a fault: insulation fault,  breakdown of neutral conductor, etc.). b  Overvoltages caused by electrostatic discharge: very short overvoltages (a few nanoseconds) of very high frequency caused by  the discharge of accumulated electric charges (for example, a person walking on a  carpet with insulating soles is electrically charged with a voltage of several kilovolts).  b  Overvoltages of atmospheric origin.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J3 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Lightning strokes in a few figures: Lightning flashes produce an extremely large  quantity of pulsed electrical energy (see Fig. J4) b   of several thousand amperes (and several  thousand volts), b   of high frequency (approximately 1  megahertz), b   of short duration (from a microsecond to a  millisecond). 1.2  Overvoltage characteristics of atmospheric origin  Between 2000 and 5000 storms are constantly undergoing formation throughout the  world. These storms are accompanied by lightning strokes which represent a serious  hazard for persons and equipment. Lightning flashes hit the ground at an average of  30 to 100 strokes per second, i.e. 3 billion lightning strokes each year. The table in  Figure J3  shows the characteristic lightning strike values. As can be  seen, 50% of lightning strokes have a current exceeding 33 kA and 5% a current  exceeding 65 kA. The energy conveyed by the lightning stroke is therefore very high. Lightning also causes a large number of fires, mostly in agricultural areas (destroying  houses or making them unfit for use). High-rise buildings are especially prone to  lightning strokes.  1.3  Effects on electrical installations Lightning damages electrical and electronic systems in particular: transformers,  electricity meters and electrical appliances on both residential and industrial  premises. The cost of repairing the damage caused by lightning is very high. But it is very hard  to assess the consequences of: b   disturbances caused to computers and telecommunication networks; b   faults generated in the running of programmable logic controller programs and  control systems. Moreover, the cost of operating losses may be far higher than the value of the  equipment destroyed. Fig. J3  : Lightning discharge values given by the IEC 62305 standard  Cumulative probability (%) Peak current (kA) Gradient (kA/µs) 95 7 9.1 50 33 24 5 65 65 1 140 95 0 270 Subsequent arcs t3 t2 t1  Arc leader l l /2 Lightning current Time Fig. J4  : Example of lightning current 1  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J4 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.3.1  Lightning stroke impacts Lightning strokes can affect the electrical (and/or electronic) systems of a building in  two ways: b   by direct impact of the lightning stroke on the building (see  Fig. J5 a ); b   by indirect impact of the lightning stroke on the building: v   A lightning stroke can fall on an overhead electric power line supplying a building  (see  Fig. J5 b ). The overcurrent and overvoltage can spread several kilometres from  the point of impact. v   A lightning stroke can fall near an electric power line (see  Fig. J5 c ). It is the  electromagnetic radiation of the lightning current that produces a high current and an  overvoltage on the electric power supply network.  In the latter two cases, the hazardous currents and voltages are transmitted by the  power supply network. v   A lightning stroke can fall near a building (see  Fig. J5 d ). The earth potential  around the point of impact rises dangerously. In all cases, the consequences for electrical installations and loads can be dramatic. Lightning is a high-frequency electrical  phenomenon which causes overvoltages on  all conductive items, especially on electrical  cabling and equipment. Electrical installation Installation earth lead a b c d Fig. J5  : Various types of lightning impact  Lightning falls on an unprotected building. Lightning falls near an overhead line. Lightning falls near a building. Electrical installation Installation  earth lead Electrical installation  Installation  earth lead Electrical  installation  Installation  earth lead The lightning current flows to earth via the more or  less conductive structures of the building with very  destructive effects: b   thermal effects: Very violent overheating of  materials, causing fire, b   mechanical effects: Structural deformation, b   thermal flashover: Extremely dangerous  phenomenon in the presence of flammable or  explosive materials (hydrocarbons, dust, etc.). The lightning current generates overvoltages  through electromagnetic induction in the distribution  system.These overvoltages are propagated along the line  to the electrical equipment inside the buildings. The lightning stroke generates the same types of  overvoltage as those described opposite. In addition, the lightning current rises back from  the earth to the electrical installation, thus causing  equipment breakdown.  The building and the installations inside the building are generally destroyed The electrical installations inside the building are generally destroyed. Fig. J6  : Consequence of a lightning stoke impact

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J5 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.3.2  The various modes of propagation b  Common mode Common-mode overvoltages appear between live conductors and earth: phase-to- earth or neutral-to-earth (see  Fig. J7 ). They are dangerous especially for appliances  whose frame is connected to earth due to risks of dielectric breakdown. Fig. J7  : Common mode Fig. J8  : Differential mode Ph I md N I md U voltage surgedifferential mode Equipment Ph I mc I mc N Voltage surgecommon mode Equipment b  Differential mode Differential-mode overvoltages appear between live conductors:phase-to-phase or phase-to-neutral (see  Fig. J8 ). They are especially dangerous for  electronic equipment, sensitive hardware such as computer systems, etc. 1  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J6 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1.4  Characterization of the lightning wave  Analysis of the phenomena allows definition of the types of lightning current and  voltage waves. b   2 types of current wave are considered by the IEC standards: v  10/350 µs wave: to characterize the current waves from a direct lightning stroke  (see  Fig. J9 ); These two types of lightning current wave are used to define tests on SPDs   (IEC standard 61643-11) and equipment immunity to lightning currents.   The peak value of the current wave characterizes the intensity of the lightning stroke. b  The overvoltages  created by lightning strokes are characterized by a 1.2/50 µs  voltage wave (see  Fig. J11 ).  This type of voltage wave is used to verify equipment's withstand to overvoltages of  atmospheric origin (impulse voltage as per IEC 61000-4-5). 1  Overvoltage of atmospheric origin Fig. J9  : 10/350 µs current wave 350 10 Max. 100 % I 50 % t (µs) 20 8 Max. 100 % I 50 % t (µs) v  8/20 µs wave: to characterize the current waves from an indirect lightning stroke  (see  Fig. J10 ). Fig. J10  : 8/20 µs current wave Max. 100 % 50 % 1.2 50 t V (µs) Fig. J11  : 1.2/50 µs voltage wave

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J7 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection 2  Principle of lightning protection 2.1  General rules Procedure to prevent risks of lightning strike The basic principle for protection of an installation against the risk of lightning strikes  is to prevent the disturbing energy from reaching sensitive equipment. To achieve  this, it is necessary to: b  capture the lightning current and channel it to earth via the most direct path  (avoiding the vicinity of sensitive equipment); b  perform equipotential bonding of the installation;   This equipotential bonding is implemented by bonding conductors, supplemented by  Surge Protection Devices (SPDs) or spark gaps (e.g., antenna mast spark gap). b  minimize induced and indirect effects by installing SPDs and/or filters. Two protection systems are used to eliminate or limit overvoltages: they are known  as the building protection system (for the outside of buildings) and the electrical  installation protection system (for the inside of buildings). 2.2  Building protection system The role of the building protection system is to protect it against direct lightning  strokes. The system consists of: b  the capture device: the lightning protection system;    b  down-conductors designed to convey the lightning current to earth;   b  "crow's foot" earth leads connected together;   b  links between all metallic frames (equipotential bonding) and the earth leads. When the lightning current flows in a conductor, if potential differences appear  between it and the frames connected to earth that are located in the vicinity, the  latter can cause destructive flashovers. The system for protecting a building against the  effects of lightning must include: b   protection of structures against direct lightning  strokes;  b   protection of electrical installations against  direct and indirect lightning strokes. 2.2.1  The 3 types of lightning protection system Three types of building protection are used: b  The lightning rod (simple rod or with triggering system) The lightning rod is a metallic capture tip placed at the top of the building. It is  earthed by one or more conductors (often copper strips) (see  Fig. J12 ). Fig. J12  : Lightning rod (simple rod or with triggering system) Earth  down-conductor (copper strip) Check  terminal "Crow's foot" earth lead Simple  lightning rod

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J8 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.2.2  Consequences of building protection for the electrical  installation's equipment 50% of the lightning current discharged by the building protection system rises back  into the earthing networks of the electrical installation (see  Fig. J15 ): the potential  rise of the frames very frequently exceeds the insulation withstand capability of the  conductors in the various networks (LV, telecommunications, video cable, etc.).  Moreover, the flow of current through the down-conductors generates induced  overvoltages in the electrical installation. Electrical installation Installation earth lead I i Fig. J15  : Direct lightning back current b  The lightning rod with taut wires These wires are stretched above the structure to be protected. They are used  to protect special structures: rocket launching areas, military applications and  protection of high-voltage overhead lines (see  Fig. J13 ). b  The lightning conductor with meshed cage (Faraday cage) This protection involves placing numerous down conductors/tapes symmetrically all  around the building. (see  Fig. J14 ).  This type of lightning protection system is used for highly exposed buildings housing  very sensitive installations such as computer rooms. Fig. J13  : Taut wires Tin plated copper 25 mm 2 h d 0.1 h Metal post Frame grounded earth belt Fig. J14  : Meshed cage (Faraday cage) As a consequence, the building protection  system does not protect the electrical  installation: it is therefore compulsory to provide  for an electrical installation protection system.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J9 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved SPD SPD If L  10m Underground MV supply  MV supply  Fig. J16  : Example of protection of a large-scale electrical installation  2.3  Electrical installation protection system The main objective of the electrical installation protection system is to limit  overvoltages to values that are acceptable for the equipment. The electrical installation protection system consists of: b  one or more SPDs depending on the building configuration;  b  the equipotential bonding: metallic mesh of exposed conductive parts. 2.3.1  Implementation  The procedure to protect the electrical and electronic systems of a building is as  follows.  Search for information b  Identify all sensitive loads and their location in the building. b  Identify the electrical and electronic systems and their respective points of entry  into the building. b  Check whether a lightning protection system is present on the building or in the  vicinity. b  Become acquainted with the regulations applicable to the building's location. b  Assess the risk of lightning strike according to the geographic location, type of  power supply, lightning strike density, etc. Solution implementation b  Install bonding conductors on frames by a mesh. b  Install a SPD in the LV incoming switchboard. b  Install an additional SPD in each subdistribution board located in the vicinity of  sensitive equipment (see  Fig. J16 ). If L  10m Underground MV supply  SPD SPD SPD SPD SPD MV supply  2  Principle of lightning protection

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J10 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2.4  The Surge Protection Device (SPD) The Surge Protection Device (SPD) is a component of the electrical installation  protection system. This device is connected in parallel on the power supply circuit of the loads that it  has to protect (see  Fig. J17 ). It can also be used at all levels of the power supply  network.  This is the most commonly used and most efficient type of overvoltage protection.  Principle SPD is designed to limit transient overvoltages of atmospheric origin and divert  current waves to earth, so as to limit the amplitude of this overvoltage to a value that  is not hazardous for the electrical installation and electric switchgear and controlgear. SPD eliminates overvoltages: b  in common mode, between phase and neutral or earth; b  in differential mode, between phase and neutral. In the event of an overvoltage exceeding the operating threshold, the SPD  b  conducts the energy to earth, in common mode; b  distributes the energy to the other live conductors, in differential mode.  The three types of SPD: b  Type 1 SPD The Type 1 SPD is recommended in the specific case of service-sector and industrial  buildings, protected by a lightning protection system or a meshed cage. It protects electrical installations against direct lightning strokes. It can discharge  the back-current from lightning spreading from the earth conductor to the network  conductors. Type 1 SPD is characterized by a 10/350 µs current wave. b  Type 2 SPD  The Type 2 SPD is the main protection system for all low voltage electrical  installations. Installed in each electrical switchboard, it prevents the spread of  overvoltages in the electrical installations and protects the loads.  Type 2 SPD is characterized by an 8/20 µs current wave. b  Type 3 SPD  These SPDs have a low discharge capacity. They must therefore mandatorily be  installed as a supplement to Type 2 SPD and in the vicinity of sensitive loads. Type 3 SPD is characterized by a combination of voltage waves (1.2/50 μs) and  current waves (8/20 μs). Incoming  circuit breaker SPD Lightning current Sensitive loads Fig. J17  : Principle of protection system in parallel Surge Protection Devices (SPD) are used for  electric power supply networks, telephone  networks, and communication and automatic  control buses. SPD connected in parallel has a high impedance.  Once the transient overvoltage appears in the  system, the impedance of the device decreases  so surge current is driven through the SPD,  bypassing the sensitive equipment.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J11 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved b  Type 1 SPD v   Iimp: Impulse current This is the peak value of a current of 10/350 µs waveform that the SPD is capable of  discharging 5 times. v   Ifi: Autoextinguish follow current  Applicable only to the spark gap technology. This is the current (50 Hz) that the SPD is capable of interrupting by itself after  flashover. This current must always be greater than the prospective short-circuit  current at the point of installation. b  Type 2 SPD v   Imax: Maximum discharge current This is the peak value of a current of 8/20 µs waveform that the SPD is capable of  discharging once.  b  Type 3 SPD v  Uoc: Open-circuit voltage applied during class III (Type 3) tests. 2.4.1  Characteristics of SPD   International standard IEC 61643-11 Edition 1.0 (03/2011) defines the characteristics  and tests for SPD connected to low voltage distribution systems (see  Fig. J19 ).  b  Common characteristics v  Uc: Maximum continuous operating voltage This is the A.C. or D.C. voltage above which the SPD becomes active. This value is  chosen according to the rated voltage and the system earthing arrangement. v   Up: Voltage protection level (at In) This is the maximum voltage across the terminals of the SPD when it is active. This  voltage is reached when the current flowing in the SPD is equal to In. The voltage  protection level chosen must be below the overvoltage withstand capability of the  loads (see section 3.2). In the event of lightning strokes, the voltage across the  terminals of the SPD generally remains less than Up.  v  In: Nominal discharge current  This is the peak value of a current of 8/20 µs waveform that the SPD is capable of  discharging minimum 20 times. Direct lightning stroke Indirect lightning stroke IEC 61643-1 Class I test Class II test Class III test IEC 61643-11/2011 Type 1:   T1 Type 2 :   T2 Type 3 :   T3 EN/IEC 61643-11 Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Former VDE 0675v B C D Type of test wave 10/350 8/20 1.2/50 + 8/20 Note 1: There exist  T1  +  T2   SPD (or Type 1 + 2 SPD) combining protection of loads against direct and indirect lightning strokes.   Note 2: some  T2   SPD can also be declared as   T3 . Fig. J18  : SPD standard definition  I n I max 1 mA I U Up Uc Fig. J19  : Time/current characteristic of a SPD with varistor In green, the guaranteed operating range of the SPD. 2  Principle of lightning protection b   SPD normative definition Why is I n  important? I n  corresponds to a nominal discharge current that a  SPD can withstand at least 20 times: a higher value  of In means a longer life for the SPD, so it is strongly  recommended to chose higher values than the  minimum imposed value of 5 kA. Why is I imp  important? IEC 62305 standard requires a maximum impulse  current value of 25 kA per pole for three-phase  system. This means that for a 3P+N network the SPD  should be able to withstand a total maximum impulse  current of 100kA coming from the earth bonding. Why is I max  important? If you compare 2 SPDs with the same In, but with  different Imax : the SPD with higher Imax value has  a higher "safety margin" and can withstand higher  surge current without being damaged.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J12 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 2  Principle of lightning protection 2.4.2  Main applications b  Low Voltage SPD Very different devices, from both a technological and usage viewpoint, are  designated by this term. Low voltage SPDs are modular to be easily installed inside  LV switchboards.  There are also SPDs adaptable to power sockets, but these devices have a low  discharge capacity. b  SPD for communication networks These devices protect telephon networks, switched networks and automatic control  networks (bus) against overvoltages coming from outside (lightning) and those  internal to the power supply network (polluting equipment, switchgear operation,  etc.). Such SPDs are also installed in RJ11, RJ45, ... connectors or integrated into loads.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J13 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system 3.1  Design rules For a power distribution system, the main characteristics used to define the lightning  protection system and select a SPD to protect an electrical installation in a building  are: b  SPD v  quantity of SPD;  v  type; v  level of exposure to define the SPD's maximum discharge current Imax. b  Short circuit protection device v  maximum discharge current Imax; v  short-circuit current Isc at the point of installation. The logic diagram in the  Figure J20  below illustrates this design rule. Isc  at the installation point ? Is there a lightning rodon the building or within50 metres of the building ? Type 1 + Type2 or  Type 1+2 SPD Risks level ? Type2 SPD Surge Protective Device (SPD) Short CircuitProtection Device (SCPD) No Yes Low 20 kA Medium 40 kA High 65 kA I max 25 kA 12,5 kA mini. I imp Risks  level ? Fig. J20  : Logic diagram for selection of a protection system The other characteristics for selection of a SPD are predefined for an electrical  installation. b  number of poles in SPD;  b  voltage protection level Up; b  operating voltage Uc. This sub-section J3 describes in greater detail the criteria for selection of the  protection system according to the characteristics of the installation, the equipment  to be protected and the environment. To protect an electrical installation in a building,  simple rules apply for the choice of  b   SPD(s); b   its protection system. J - Overvoltage protection

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J14 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection 3.2  Elements of the protection system 3.2.1  Location and type of SPD  The type of SPD to be installed at the origin of the installation depends on whether  or not a lightning protection system is present. If the building is fitted with a lightning  protection system (as per IEC 62305), a Type 1 SPD should be installed. For SPD installed at the incoming end of the installation, the IEC 60364 installation  standards lay down minimum values for the following 2 characteristics:  b  Nominal discharge current   I n = 5 kA (8/20) µs ; b  Voltage protection level   Up (at  I n) 2.5 kV.  The number of additional SPDs to be installed is determined by:   b  the size of the site and the difficulty of installing bonding conductors. On large  sites, it is essential to install a SPD at the incoming end of each subdistribution  enclosure. b  the distance separating sensitive loads to be protected from the incoming-end  protection device. When the loads are located more than 30 meters away from  the incoming-end protection device, it is necessary to provide for additional fine  protection as close as possible to sensitive loads. The phenomena of wave reflection  is increasing from 10 meters (see chapter 6.5) b   the risk of exposure. In the case of a very exposed site, the incoming-end SPD  cannot ensure both a high flow of lightning current and a sufficiently low voltage  protection level. In particular, a Type 1 SPD is generally accompanied by a Type 2 SPD.The table in  Figure J21  below shows the quantity and type of SPD to be set up on  the basis of the two factors defined above. Fig. J21  : The 4 cases of SPD implementation   Note : The Type 1 SPD is installed in the electrical switchboard connected to the earth lead of the lightning protection system. A SPD must always be installed at the origin of  the electrical installation. D D Is there a lightning rod on the building or within 50 metres of the building ? No Yes Incoming circuit breaker Type 2 SPD Type 3 SPD one Type 2 SPD in main switchboard one Type 2/Type 3 SPD in the enclosure close to sensitive equipment Incoming circuit breaker Type 1 +  Type 2 SPD Type 3 SPD one Type 1 and one Type 2 SPD  (or one Type 1+2 SPD) in the main switchboard one Type 2/Type 3 SPD in the enclosure close to sensitive equipment Incoming circuit breaker Type 1 + Type 2 SPD one Type 1 and one Type 2 SPD  (or one Type 1+2 SPD) in the main switchboard Incoming circuit breaker Type 2 SPD one Type 2 SPD in the main switchboard D 10 m D 10 m Distance (D) separating sensitive equipment from   lightning protection system installed  in main switchboard   D D

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J15 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3.2.2  Protection distributed levels Several protection levels of SPD allows the energy to be distributed among several  SPDs, as shown in  Figure J22  in which the three types of SPD are provided for: b  Type 1: when the building is fitted with a lightning protection system and located at  the incoming end of the installation, it absorbs a very large quantity of energy; b  Type 2: absorbs residual overvoltages; b  Type 3: provides "fine" protection if necessary for the most sensitive equipment  located very close to the loads. 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system Type 1 SPD Main LVSwitchboard (incoming protection) SubdistributionBoard Fine ProtectionEnclosure Type 2 SPD Discharge Capacity (%) Type 3 SPD 90 % 9 % 1 % Sensitive Equipment Fig. J22  : Fine protection architecture   Note: The Type 1 and 2 SPD can be combined in a single SPD 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J16 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection The most common values of Uc chosen according to the system earthing  arrangement. TT, TN:   260, 320, 340, 350 V IT:    440, 460 V 3.3.2  Voltage protection level Up (at  I n) The 443-4 section of IEC 60364 standard, “Selection of equipment in the  installation”, helps with the choice of the protection level Up for the SPD in function  of the loads to be protected. The table of  Figure J24  indicates the impulse withstand  capability of each kind of equipment. SPDs connected  between System configuration of distribution network TT TN-C TN-S IT with  distributed  neutral IT without  distributed  neutral Line conductor and  neutral conductor 1.1 Uo NA 1.1 Uo 1.1 Uo NA Each line conductor and  PE conductor 1.1 Uo NA 1.1 Uo 3 Uo Vo Neutral conductor and PE  conductor Uo NA Uo Uo NA Each line conductor and  PEN conductor NA 1.1 Uo NA NA NA NA: not applicableNOTE 1: Uo is the line-to-neutral voltage, Vo is the line-to-line voltage of the low voltage system.NOTE 2: This table is based on IEC 61643-1 amendment 1. Fig. J23  : Stipulated minimum value of Uc for SPDs depending on the system earthing  arrangement (based on Table 53C of the IEC 60364-5-53 standard) (1) As per IEC 60038.(2) In Canada and the United States, for voltages exceeding 300 V relative to earth, the impulse  withstand voltage corresponding to the immediately higher voltage in the column is applicable.(3) This impulse withstand voltage is applicable between live conductors and the PE conductor Nominal voltage of  Required impulse withstand voltage for  the installation (1)  V kV Three-phase  Single-phase  Equipment at   Equipment of   Appliances  Specially   systems (2)   systems with  the origin of  distribution and    protected     middle point  the installation  final circuits    equipment       (impulse  (impulse  (impulse  (impulse       withstand  withstand  withstand  withstand       category IV)  category III)  category II)  category I)   120-240   4   2.5   1.5   0.8  230/400 (2)   -  6   4   2.5   1.5    277/480 (2) 400/690  -  8   6   4   2.5  1,000   -  Values subject to system engineers  Fig. J24  : Equipment impulse withstand category for an installation in conformity with IEC 60364  (Table 44B). 3.3  Common characteristics of SPDs according to the installation characteristics  3.3.1  Operating voltage Uc  Depending on the system earthing arrangement, the maximum continuous operating  voltage Uc of SPD must be equal to or greater than the values shown in the table in  Figure J23.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J17 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system b  Equipment of overvoltage category I is  only suitable for use in the fixed installation of  buildings where protective means are applied  outside the equipment – to limit transient  overvoltages to the specified level.Examples of such equipment are those  containing electronic circuits like computers,  appliances with electronic programmes, etc. b  Equipment of overvoltage category II is  suitable for connection to the fixed electrical  installation, providing a normal degree of  availability normally required for current-using  equipment.Examples of such equipment are household  appliances and similar loads. b  Equipment of overvoltage category III is for use in the fixed installation downstream of,  and including the main distribution board,  providing a high degree of availability.Examples of such equipment are distribution  boards, circuit-breakers, wiring systems   including cables, bus-bars, junction boxes,  switches, socket-outlets) in the fixed  installation, and equipment for industrial use  and some other equipment, e.g. stationary  motors with permanent connection to the  fixed installation. b  Equipment of overvoltage category IV is  suitable for use at, or in the proximity of,  the origin of the installation, for example  upstream of the main distribution board.Examples of such equipment are electricity  meters, primary overcurrent protection  devices and ripple control units. Fig. J25  : Overvoltage category of equipment The "installed" Up performance should be compared with the impulse withstand  capability of the loads.SPD has a voltage protection level Up that is intrinsic, i.e. defined and tested  independently of its installation. In practice, for the choice of Up performance of a  SPD, a safety margin must be taken to allow for the overvoltages inherent in the  installation of the SPD (see Fig. J26 and §4.1). Fig. J26  : "Installed" Up = Up + U1 + U2 Up Installed Up Loads to be  protected U1 U2 The "installed" voltage protection level Up generally adopted to protect sensitive  equipment in 230/400 V electrical installations is 2.5 kV (overvoltage category II,see  Fig. J27 ). Note: If the stipulated voltage protection level cannot be achieved  by the incoming-end SPD or if sensitive equipment items are  remote (see section 3.2.1), additional coordinated SPD must  be installed to achieve the required protection level.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J18 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection 3.3.3  Number of poles   b   Depending on the system earthing arrangement, it is necessary to provide for a SPD  architecture ensuring protection in common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM). Fig. J27  : Protection need according to the system earthing arrangement TT TN-C TN-S IT Phase-to-neutral (DM) Recommended 1 - Recommended Not useful Phase-to-earth (PE or PEN) (CM) Yes Yes Yes Yes Neutral-to-earth (PE) (CM) Yes - Yes Yes 2 Note:  b  Common-mode overvoltage  A basic form of protection is to install a SPD in common mode between phases and  the PE (or PEN) conductor, whatever the type of system earthing arrangement used. b  Differential-mode overvoltage  In the TT and TN-S systems, earthing of the neutral results in an asymmetry due to  earth impedances which leads to the appearance of differential-mode voltages, even  though the overvoltage induced by a lightning stroke is common-mode. 2P, 3P and 4P SPDs (see Fig. J28) b  These are adapted to the IT, TN-C, TN-C-S systems.   b  They provide protection merely against common-mode overvoltages. Fig. J28  : 1P, 2P, 3P, 4P SPDs 1P + N, 3P + N SPDs (see Fig. J29) b  These are adapted to the TT and TN-S systems.   b  They provide protection against common-mode and differential-mode overvoltages. Fig. J29  : 1P + N, 3P + N SPDs 1  The protection between phase and neutral can either be incorporated in the SPD placed at the origin of the  installation, or be remoted close to the equipment to be protected 2  If neutal distributed

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J19 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system 3.4  Selection of a Type 1 SPD  3.4.1  Impulse current  I imp  b  Where there are no national regulations or specific regulations for the type of  building to be protected: the impulse current Iimp shall be at least 12.5 kA (10/350 µs wave) per branch in  accordance with IEC 60364-5-534. b  Where regulations exist:   standard IEC 62305-2 defines 4 levels: I, II, III and IV   The table in  Figure J31  shows the different levels of Iimp in the regulatory case. Fig. J31  : Table of Iimp values according to the building's voltage protection level (based on IEC/ EN 62305-2) Protection level as per EN 62305-2 External lightning protection system designed to handle direct  flash of: Minimum required Iimp for Type 1 SPD for line-neutral network I 200 kA 25 kA/pole II 150 kA 18.75 kA/pole  III / IV 100 kA 12.5 kA/pole 3.4.2  Autoextinguish follow current  Ifi This characteristic is applicable only for SPDs with spark gap technology. The  autoextinguish follow current Ifi must always be greater than the prospective short- circuit current Isc at the point of installation. 3.5  Selection of a Type 2 SPD 3.5.1  Maximum discharge current Imax  The maximum discharge current Imax is defined according to the estimated  exposure level relative to the building's location.The value of the maximum discharge current (Imax) is determined by a risk analysis  (see table in  Figure J32 ).  Fig. J32  : Recommended maximum discharge current Imax according to the exposure level Exposure level Low Medium High Building environment Building located in an urban  or suburban area of grouped  housing Building located in a plain Building where there is a  specific risk: pylon, tree,  mountainous region, wet  area or pond, etc. Recommended Imax  value (kÂ) 20 40 65 Electrical installation I Iph= I/2 4 I/2 I/2 Fig. J30  : Basic example of balanced I imp  current distribution in  3 phase system

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J20 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection 3.6  Selection of external Short Circuit Protection Device (SCPD) 3.6.1  Risks to be avoided at end of life of the SPDs b  Due to ageing In the case of natural end of life due to ageing, protection is of the thermal type. SPD  with varistors must have an internal disconnector which disables the SPD. Note: End of life through thermal runaway does not concern SPD with gas discharge  tube or encapsulated spark gap. b  Due to a fault  The causes of end of life due to a short-circuit fault are: v  Maximum discharge capacity exceeded.   This fault results in a strong short circuit. v  A fault due to the distribution system (neutral/phase switchover, neutral  disconnection). v  Gradual deterioration of the varistor. The latter two faults result in an impedant short circuit.The installation must be protected from damage resulting from these types of fault:  the internal (thermal) disconnector defined above does not have time to warm up,  hence to operate.    A special device called "external Short Circuit Protection Device (external SCPD) ",  capable of eliminating the short circuit, should be installed. It can be implemented by  a circuit breaker or fuse device. 3.6.2  Characteristics of the external SCPD The external SCPD should be coordinated with the SPD. It is designed to meet the  following two constraints: Lightning current withstand  The lightning current withstand is an essential characteristic of the SPD's external  Short Circuit Protection Device.   The external SCPD must not trip upon 15 successive impulse currents at In. Short-circuit current withstand  b  The breaking capacity  is determined by the installation rules (IEC 60364 standard):    The external SCPD should have a breaking capacity equal to or greater than the  prospective short-circuit current Isc at the installation point (in accordance with the  IEC 60364 standard). b  Protection of the installation against short circuits  In particular, the impedant short circuit dissipates a lot of energy and should be  eliminated very quickly to prevent damage to the installation and to the SPD. The right association between a SPD and its external SCPD must be given by the  manufacturer. The protection devices (thermal and short  circuit) must be coordinated with the SPD to  ensure reliable operation, i.e.   b   ensure continuity of service:   v   withstand lightning current waves;   v   not generate excessive residual voltage. b   ensure effective protection against all types  of overcurrent:   v   overload following thermal runaway of the  varistor;  v   short circuit of low intensity (impedant);   v   short circuit of high intensity.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J21 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system 3.6.3  Installation mode for the external SCPD b  Device "in series" The SCPD is described as "in series" (see  Fig. J33 ) when the protection is  performed by the general protection device of the network to be protected (for  example, connection circuit breaker upstream of an installation).  b  Device "in parallel" The SCPD is described as "in parallel" (see  Fig. J34 ) when the protection is  performed specifically by a protection device associated with the SPD. Fig. J33  : SCPD "in series" b  The external SCPD  is called a "disconnecting circuit breaker" if the function is  performed by a circuit breaker. b  The disconnecting circuit breaker may or may not be integrated into the SPD. Note: In the case of a SPD with gas discharge tube or encapsulated spark gap, the SCPD  allows the current to be cut immediately after use. Fig. J34  : SCPD "in parallel"

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J22 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved J - Overvoltage protection 3.6.5  Summary of external SCPDs characteristics A detailed analysis of the characteristics is given in section 6.4. The table in  Figure J36  shows, on an example, a summary of the characteristics  according to the various types of external SCPD. Fig. J35  : SPDs with external SCPD, non-integrated (iC60N + iPRD 40r) and integrated (iQuick  PRD 40r) 3.7  SPD and protection device coordination table  The table in  Figure J37  below shows the coordination of disconnecting circuit  breakers (external SCPD) for Type 1 and 2 SPDs of the Schneider Electric brand for  all levels of short-circuit currents. Coordination between SPD and its disconnecting circuit breakers, indicated and  guaranteed by Schneider Electric, ensures reliable protection (lightning wave  withstand, reinforced protection of impedant short-circuit currents, etc.) Installation mode for the external SCPD In series In parallel Fuse protection  associated Circuit breaker protection associated Circuit breaker protection integrated    Surge protection of equipment = = = = SPDs protect the equipment satisfactorily whatever the kind of associated external SCPD Protection of installation at end of life - = + + + No guarantee of protection  possible Manufacturer's guarantee Full guarantee Protection from impedant short  circuits not well ensured Protection from short circuits perfectly ensured Continuity of service at end of life - - + + + The complete installation is  shut down Only the SPD circuit is shut down Maintenance at end of life - - = + + Shutdown of the installation  required Change of fuses Immediate resetting Fig. J36  : Characteristics of end-of-life protection of a Type 2 SPD according to the external SCPDs  3.6.4  Guarantee of protection The external SCPD should be coordinated with the SPD, and tested and guaranteed  by the SPD manufacturer in accordance with the recommendations of the IEC  61643-11 standard. It should also be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's  recommendations. As an example, see the Schneider Electric SCPD+SPD  coordination tables. When this device is integrated, conformity with product standard IEC 61643-11  naturally ensures protection.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J23 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 3  Design of the electricalinstallation protection system 3.7.1  Coordination with upstream protection devices Coordination with overcurrent protection devices In an electrical installation, the external SCPD is an apparatus identical to the  protection apparatus: this makes it possible to apply  discrimination and cascading  techniques for technical and economic optimization of the protection plan. Coordination with residual current devices If the SPD is installed downstream of an earth leakage protection device, the latter  should be of the "si" or selective type with an immunity to pulse currents of at least 3  kA (8/20 μs current wave). Fig. J37  : Coordination table between SPDs and their disconnecting circuit breakers of the Schneider Electric brand All circuit breakers are C curve   ( ) Compact NSX in this case is for lightning impulse current withstand . Type 1 Type 3 6  10 15 25 36 50 Isc (kA) Imax /  Iimp Low risk Medium risk High risk Maximum risk 40 kA   65 kA   Type 2 20 kA   iQuick PRD 8r iQuick PRD 20r iQuick PRD 40r iQuick PF 10 iC60L  C10 A iC60H  C10 A iC60N  C10 A iK60N  C20 A iK60N  C40 A iK60N  C50 A iC60N  C20 A iC60H  C20 A iC60H  C50 A iC60H  C50 A iC60L  C20 A NG125H  C63 A NG125H  C63 A NG125H  C63 A NG125N  C40 A NG125N  C50 A NG125L  C63 A NG125L  C63 A NG125L  C63 A 12.5 kA 25 kA 35 kA 8 kA 10 kA 2.5 kA 5 kA 5 kA 15 kA 20 kA 25 kA 25 kA 50 kA In iPRD 8r iPF K 20 iPRD 20r iPF K 40 iPRD 40r iPF K 65 iPRD 65r iPRF1 12.5r PRD1 25r PRD1 Master PRF1 Master Compact NSX 100N    100 A Compact NSX  100N 100 A Compact NSX 160N    160 A Compact NSX 100F    100 A Compact NSX 160F    160 A Compact NSX 100B    100 A Compact NSX 100B    100 A Compact NSX 160B    160 A NG125L    C80 A /  Compact NSX  100F 100 A Compact NSX  100B 100 A Compact NSX  100B 100 A Compact NSX  100B 100 A      NG125N   C80 A /       NG125H   C80 A /       C120H    C80 A /       C120N    C80 A /      Surge protective device Disconnecto r iC60N  C40 A iC60N  C50 A Secondary distribution boards Final distribution boards Electrical control panels Lighting control panels Main distribution boards Power control centers Motor control centre Outdoor distribution boards Final distribu- tion board  feeding  sensitive  equipment  when incoming  side protected  by Type 2

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J24 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Installation of SPDs 4.1  Connection One of the essential characteristics for the protection of equipment is the maximum voltage protection level (installed Up) that the equipment can withstand at its terminals. Accordingly, a SPD should be chosen with a voltage protection level Up adapted to protection of the equipment (see Fig. J38). The total length of the connection conductors is L = L1+L2+L3. For high-frequency currents, the impedance per unit length of this connection is approximately 1 µH/m. Hence, applying Lenz's law to this connection: ΔU = L di/dtThe normalized 8/20 µs current wave, with a current amplitude of 8 kA, accordingly creates a voltage rise of 1000 V per metre of cable.ΔU =1 x 10 -6  x 8 x 10 3  /8 x 10 -6  = 1000 V Fig. J38  : Connections of a SPD L  50 cm U equipment disconnection circuit-breaker load to be protected U2 Up U1 SPD L3 L2 L1 L = L1 + L2 + L3 50 cm As a result the voltage across the equipment terminals, installed Up, is: installed Up = Up + U1 + U2If L1+L2+L3 = 50 cm, and the wave is 8/20 µs with an amplitude of 8 kÂ, the voltage across the equipment terminals will be Up + 500 V. 4.1.1  Connection in plastic enclosure Figure J39a below shows how to connect a SPD in plastic enclosure.  Fig. J39a  : Example of connection in plastic enclosure  L 1 L 2 L 3 SPD Earth distribution  block to load Circuit breaker Earth auxiliairy block Connections of a SPD to the loads should be as  short as possible in order to reduce the value of  the voltage protection level (installed Up) on the  terminals of the protected equipment.  The total length of SPD connections to the  network and the earth terminal block should not  exceed 50 cm.

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J25 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.1.2  Connection in metallic enclosure In the case of a switchgear assembly in a metallic enclosure, it may be wise to connect the SPD directly to the metallic enclosure, with the enclosure being used as a protective conductor (see Fig. J39b). This arrangement complies with standard IEC 61439-2 and the Assembly manufacturer must make sure that the characteristics of the enclosure make this use possible. 4.1.3  Conductor cross section The recommended minimum conductor cross section takes into account: b  The normal service to be provided: Flow of the lightning current wave under a  maximum voltage drop (50 cm rule). Note: Unlike applications at 50 Hz, the phenomenon of lightning being high-frequency, the increase in the conductor cross section does not greatly reduce its high-frequency impedance. b  The conductors' withstand to short-circuit currents: The conductor must resist a  short-circuit current during the maximum protection system cutoff time.IEC 60364 recommends at the installation incoming end a minimum cross section of: v  4 mm² (Cu) for connection of Type 2 SPD; v  16 mm² (Cu) for connection of Type 1 SPD (presence of lightning protection  system). 4.1.4  Examples of good and bad SPD installations Fig. J39b  : Example of connection in metallic enclosure L 1 L 2 L 3 to load SPDEarth distribution  block Circuit breaker 4  Installation of SPDs Example 1:Equipment installation design should bedone in accordance to installation rules:cables length shall be less than 50 cm. Example 2:Positioning of devices should be linked toinstallation rules: reduce length of  cables 50 cm and keep the loop area rule of reducing impact of magnetic fields created by lightning current. Fig. J39c  : Examples of good and bad SPD installations 50 cm 50 cm MC B SPD SPD 50 cm 50 cm MC B SPD

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J26 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4.2  Cabling rules b  Rule 1: The first rule to comply with is that the length of the SPD connections between the network (via the external SCPD) and the earthing terminal block should not exceed 50 cm.Figure J40 shows the two possibilities for connection of a SPD. Fig. J40  : SPD with separate or integrated external SCPD Imax : 65k A (8/ 20) In: 20kA   (8/2 0) Up: 1,5k V Uc: 340V a d1 d2 d3 d1 + d2 + d3  50 cm      SCPD SPD d1 d3 d1 + d3 35 cm SPD Quick PR D b  Rule 2: The conductors of protected outgoing feeders:  b  should be connected to the terminals of the external SCPD or the SPD;  b  should be separated physically from the polluted incoming conductors.  They are located to the right of the terminals of the SPD and the SCPD (see Fig. J41). Fig. J41  : The connections of protected outgoing feeders are to the right of the SPD terminals iQuick PRDxx Protected feeders Power supply

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J27 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 4  Installation of SPDs b  Rule 3: The incoming feeder phase, neutral and protection (PE) conductors should run one beside another in order to reduce the loop surface (see Fig. J42). b  Rule 4: The incoming conductors of the SPD should be remote from the protected outgoing conductors to avoid polluting them by coupling (see Fig. J42). b  Rule 5: The cables should be pinned against the metallic parts of the enclosure (if any) in order to minimize the surface of the frame loop and hence benefit from a shielding effect against EM disturbances. In all cases, it must be checked that the frames of switchboards and enclosures are earthed via very short connections.Finally, if shielded cables are used, big lengths should be avoided, because they reduce the efficiency of shielding (see Fig. J42). Fig. J42  : Example of improvement of EMC by a reduction in the loop surfaces and common  impedance in an electric enclosure Large frame loop surface Main earth terminal Intermediate earth terminal Clean cables are polluted by neightbouring polluted cables Small frame loop surface Clean cables paths separated from polluted cable paths Protected outgoing feeders

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J28 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Application 5.1  Installation examples Fig. J43  : Application example: supermarket iC6040 A iPRD40 kA iC6020 A iPRD8 kA iC6020 A iPRD8 kA ID"si" ID"si" 160 kVA Solutions and schematic diagram b  The surge arrester selection guide has made it possible to determine the precise  value of the surge arrester at the incoming end of the installation and that of the  associated disconnection circuit breaker. b  As the sensitive devices (Uimp 1.5 kV) are located more than 10 m from the  incoming protection device, the fine protection surge arresters must be installed as  close as possible to the loads.  b  To ensure better continuity of service for cold room areas: v "si" type residual current circuit breakers will be used to avoid nuisance tripping  caused by the rise in earth potential as the lightning wave passes through. b  For protection against atmospheric overvoltages:  v  install a surge arrester in the main switchboard v  install a fine protection surge arrester in each switchboard (1 and 2) supplying the  sensitive devices situated more than 10 m from the incoming surge arrester v  install a surge arrester on the telecommunications network to protect the devices  supplied, for example fire alarms, modems, telephones, faxes. Cabling recommendations b  Ensure the equipotentiality of the earth terminations of the building. b  Reduce the looped power supply cable areas.  Installation recommendations b  Install a surge arrester,  I max = 40 kA (8/20 µs) and a iC60 disconnection circuit  breaker rated at 40 A. b  Install fine protection surge arresters,  I max = 8 kA (8/20 µs) and the associated  iC60 disconnection circuit breakers rated at 10 A.  Fig. J44  : Telecommunications network MV/LV transformer Main  switchboard Switchboard 1  Switchboard 2   Heating Lighting Freezer Refrigerator Storeroom lighting Power outlets Fire-fighting system Alarm IT system Checkout

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J29 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Application Fig. J45  : SPD DC choice 5.2 SPD for Photovoltaic application Overvoltage may occur in electrical installations for various reasons. It may be  caused by: b  The distribution network as a result of lightning or any work carried out. b  Lightning strikes (nearby or on buildings and PV installations, or on lightning  conductors). b  Variations in the electrical field due to lightning. Like all outdoor structures, PV installations are exposed to the risk of lightning which  varies from region to region. Preventive and arrest systems and devices should be  in place. 5.2.1. Protection by equipotential bonding The first safeguard to put in place is a medium (conductor) that ensures equipotential  bonding between all the conductive parts of a PV installation. The aim is to bond all grounded conductors and metal parts and so create equal  potential at all points in the installed system. 5.2.2. Protection by surge protection devices (SPDs) SPDs are particularly important to protect sensitive electrical equipments like AC/DC  Inverter, monitoring devices and PV modules, but also other sensitive equipments  powered by the 230 VAC electrical distribution network. The following method of risk  assessment is based on the evaluation of the critical length L crit  and its comparison  with L the cumulative length of the d.c. lines. SPD protection is required if L ≥ L crit . L crit  depends on the type of PV installation and is calculated as the following table  ( Fig.J45 ) sets out: Type of installation Individual residential  premises Terrestrial production  plant Service/Industrial/ Agricultural/Buildings L crit  (in m) 115/Ng 200/Ng 450/Ng L  ≥  L crit Surge protective device(s) compulsory on DC side L  L crit Surge protective device(s) not compulsory on DC side L is the sum of: b  the sum of distances between the inverter(s) and the junction box(es), taking into account that the lengths of cable located in the same conduit are counted only once, and b  the sum of distances between the junction box and the connection points of the photovoltaic modules forming the string, taking into account that the lengths of cable located in the same conduit are counted only once. Ng  is arc lightning density (number of strikes/km²/year).

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J30 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved Installing an SPD The number and location of SPDs on the DC side depend on the length of the cables between the solar panels and inverter. The SPD should be installed in the vicinity of the inverter if the length is less than 10 metres. If it is greater than 10 metres, a second SPD is necessary and should be located in the box close to the solar panel, the first one is located in the inverter area. To be efficient, SPD connection cables to the L+ / L- network and between the SPD’s earth terminal block and ground busbar must be as short as possible – less than 2.5 metres (d1+d2 50 cm). SPD Protection Location PV modules or  Array boxes Inverter DC side Inverter AC side Main board L DC L AC Lightning rod Criteria 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m Yes No Type of  SPD No  need "SPD 1"Type 2 "SPD 2"Type 2 No need "SPD 3"Type 2 "SPD 4"Type 1 "SPD 4"Type 2 if  Ng   2,5 &  overhead  line  Type 1  separation distance according to EN 62305 is not observed. Fig. J46b  : SPD selection SPD 1 Array box Generator box AC box Main LV switch board SPD 2 L DC SPD 3 SPD 4 L AC Fig. J46a  : SPD choice

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J31 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 5  Application Safe and reliable photovoltaic energy generation Depending on the distance between the "generator" part and the "conversion" part, it may be necessary to install two surge arresters or more, to ensure protection of  each of the two parts. Fig. J47  : SPD location - + - + - + - + - + 4 mm 2 d1 + d2 50 cm d3 d2 d1 d1 + d3 50 cm d2 + d3 50 cm N L d y 10 m   - + - + - + - + - + d3 d2 d1 N L d  10 m   d3 iPRD-DC 2 d2 d1 iPRD-DC 1 iPRD-DC 1

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J32 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.1  Lightning protection standards The IEC 62305 standard parts 1 to 4 (NF EN 62305 parts 1 to 4) reorganizes and  updates the standard publications IEC 61024 (series), IEC 61312 (series) and IEC  61663 (series) on lightning protection systems.  b  Part 1 - General principles: This part presents general information on lightning and its characteristics and  general data, and introduces the other documents. b  Part 2 - Risk management: This part presents the analysis making it possible to calculate the risk for a structure  and to determine the various protection scenarios in order to permit technical and  economic optimization. b  Part 3 - Physical damage to structures and life hazard: This part describes protection from direct lightning strokes, including the lightning  protection system, down-conductor, earth lead, equipotentiality and hence SPD with  equipotential bonding (Type 1 SPD). b  Part 4 - Electrical and electronic systems within structures: This part describes protection from the induced effects of lightning, including the  protection system by SPD (Types 2 and 3), cable shielding, rules for installation of  SPD, etc. This series of standards is supplemented by:  b  the IEC 61643 series of standards for the definition of surge protection products  (see sub-section 2); b  the IEC 60364-4 and -5 series of standards for application of the products in LV  electrical installations (see sub-section 3). 6.2  The components of a SPD The SPD chiefly consists of (see  Fig. J48 ): 1) one or more nonlinear components: the live part (varistor, gas discharge tube,  etc.); 2) a thermal protective device (internal disconnector) which protects it from thermal  runaway at end of life (SPD with varistor); 3) an indicator which indicates end of life of the SPD; Some SPDs allow remote reporting of this indication; 4) an external SCPD which provides protection against short circuits (this device can  be integrated into the SPD). 1 2 3 4 Fig. J48  : Diagram of a SPD 6  Technical supplements

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J33 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.2.1  Technology of the live part Several technologies are available to implement the live part. They each have  advantages and disadvantages: b  Zener diodes; b  The gas discharge tube (controlled or not controlled); b  The varistor (zinc oxide varistor). The table below shows the characteristics and the arrangements of 3 commonly  used technologies. Component Gas Discharge Tube  (GDT) Encapsulated spark gap Zinc oxide varistor GDT and varistor in series Encapsulated spark gap and varistor in parallel Characteristics Operating mode Voltage switching Voltage switching Voltage limiting Voltage-switching and  -limiting in series Voltage-switching and  -limiting in parallel Operating curves u I u I Application b  Telecom network b  LV network  (associated with  varistor) LV network LV network LV network LV network Type Type 2 Type 1 Type 1 or Type 2 Type 1+ Type 2 Type 1+ Type 2 Fig. J49  : Summary performance table Note:  Two technologies can be installed in the same SPD (see  Fig. J50 ) Fig. J50  : The Schneider Electric brand iPRD SPD incorporates a gas discharge tube between  neutral and earth and varistors between phase and neutral 6  Technical supplements N L1 L3 L2

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J34 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.3  End-of-life indication  End-of-life indicators are associated with the internal disconnector and the external  SCPD of the SPD to informs the user that the equipment is no longer protected  against overvoltages of atmospheric origin. Local indication This function is generally required by the installation codes. The end-of-life indication is given by an indicator (luminous or mechanical) to the  internal disconnector and/or the external SCPD.  When the external SCPD is implemented by a fuse device, it is necessary to provide  for a fuse with a striker and a base equipped with a tripping system to ensure this  function. Integrated disconnecting circuit breaker The mechanical indicator and the position of the control handle allow natural end-of- life indication.  6.3.1  Local indication and remote reporting  iQuick PRD SPD of the Schneider Electric brand is of the "ready to wire" type with an   integrated disconnecting circuit breaker. Local indication iQuick PRD SPD (see  Fig. J51 ) is fitted with local mechanical status indicators: b  the (red) mechanical indicator and the position of the disconnecting circuit breaker  handle indicate shutdown of the SPD; b  the (red) mechanical indicator on each cartridge indicates cartridge end of life. Remote reporting (see Fig. J52a) iQuick PRD SPD is fitted with an indication contact which allows remote reporting of: b  cartridge end of life; b  a missing cartridge, and when it has been put back in place; b  a fault on the network (short circuit, disconnection of neutral, phase/neutral  reversal); b  local manual switching. As a result, remote monitoring of the operating condition of the installed SPDs  makes it possible to ensure that these protective devices in standby state are always  ready to operate. 6.3.2  Maintenance at end of life When the end-of-life indicator indicates shutdown, the SPD (or the cartridge in  question) must be replaced.  In the case of the iQuick PRD SPD, maintenance is facilitated: b  The cartridge at end of life (to be replaced) is easily identifiable by the  Maintenance Department. b  The cartridge at end of life can be replaced in complete safety, because a safety  device prohibits closing of the disconnecting circuit breaker if a cartridge is missing. 6.4  Detailed characteristics of the external SCPD 6.4.1  Current wave withstand The current wave withstand tests on external SCPDs show as follows: b  For a given rating and technology (NH or cylindrical fuse), the current wave  withstand capability is better with an aM type fuse (motor protection) than with a gG  type fuse (general use).  b  For a given rating, the current wave withstand capability is better with a circuit  breaker than with a fuse device.  Figure J53  below shows the results of the voltage wave withstand tests:  b  to protect a SPD defined for Imax = 20 kA, the external SCPD to be chosen is  either a MCB 16 A or a Fuse aM 63 A, Note: in this case, a Fuse gG 63 A is not suitable.  b  to protect a SPD defined for Imax = 40 kA, the external SCPD to be chosen is  either a MCB 40 A or a Fuse aM 125 A, Fig. J51  :  iQuick PRD 3P +N SPD of the Schneider  Electric brand Fig. J52a  :  Installation of indicator light with a iQuick PRD  SPD Fig. J52b  :  Remote indication of SPD status using  Smartlink 14 11 iPRD  iSD  N  L 91 11 14 94 1 iQuick PRD  Acti 9 Smartlink

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J35 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6  Technical supplements 6.4.2  Installed Up voltage protection level In general: b  The voltage drop across the terminals of a circuit breaker is higher than that across  the terminals of a fuse device. This is because the impedance of the circuit-breaker  components (thermal and magnetic tripping devices) is higher than that of a fuse.  However: b  The difference between the voltage drops remains slight for current waves not  exceeding 10 kA (95% of cases);  b  The installed Up voltage protection level also takes into account the cabling  impedance. This can be high in the case of a fuse technology (protection device  remote from the SPD) and low in the case of a circuit-breaker technology (circuit  breaker close to, and even integrated into the SPD). Note: The installed Up voltage protection level is the sum of the voltage drops: v  in the SPD; v  in the external SCPD; v  in the equipment cabling. 6.4.3  Protection from impedant short circuits An impedant short circuit dissipates a lot of energy and should be eliminated very  quickly to prevent damage to the installation and to the SPD. Figure J54  compares the response time and the energy limitation of a protection  system by a 63 A aM fuse and a 25 A circuit breaker. These two protection systems have the same 8/20 µs current wave withstand  capability (27 kA and 30 kA respectively). Fig. J53  :  Comparison of SCPDs voltage wave withstand capabilities for Imax = 20 kA and Imax = 40 kA 0,01 2 s 350 2000 A 350 2000 A A²s 10 4 MCB 25 A Fuse aM 63 A Fig. J54  :  Comparison of time/current and energy limitations curves for a circuit  breaker and a fuse having the same 8/20 µs current wave withstand capability  In green colour,   the impedant   short circuit area MCB 16 A Fuse aM 63 AFuse gG 63 A 10 30 50 I  kA  (8/20) µs 20 40 Fuse gG 125 A MCB 63 AMCB 40 A Withstand Melting or tripping

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J - Overvoltage protection J36 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6.5  Propagation of a lightning wave Electrical networks are low-frequency and, as a result, propagation of the voltage  wave is instantaneous relative to the frequency of the phenomenon: at any point of a  conductor, the instantaneous voltage is the same. The lightning wave is a high-frequency phenomenon (several hundred kHz to a MHz):  b  The lightning wave is propagated along a conductor at a certain speed relative to  the frequency of the phenomenon. As a result, at any given time, the voltage does  not have the same value at all points on the medium (see  Fig. J55 ).  Fig. J55  :  Propagation of a lightning wave in a conductor Cable Voltage wave b  A change of medium creates a phenomenon of propagation and/or reflection of the  wave depending on:  v  the difference of impedance between the two media; v  the frequency of the progressive wave (steepness of the rise time in the case of a  pulse); v  the length of the medium. In the case of total reflection in particular, the voltage value may double. Example: case of protection by a SPD Modelling of the phenomenon applied to a lightning wave and tests in laboratory  showed that a load powered by 30 m of cable protected upstream by a SPD at  voltage Up sustains, due to reflection phenomena, a maximum voltage of 2 x Up   (see  Fig. J56 ). This voltage wave is not energetic. Fig. J56  :  Reflection of a lightning wave at the termination of a cable Ui Uo 2000 0 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cable Ui  = Voltage at SPD level Uo = Voltage at cable termination Ui Uo V µs Corrective action  Of the three factors (difference of impedance, frequency, distance), the only one that  can really be controlled is the length of cable between the SPD and the load to be  protected. The greater this length, the greater the reflection. Generally for the overvoltage fronts faced in a building, reflection phenomena are  significant from 10 m and can double the voltage from 30 m (see  Fig. J57 ).  It is necessary to install a second SPD in fine protection if the cable length exceeds  10 m between the incoming-end SPD and the equipment to be protected. 

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 J37 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 6  Technical supplements Fig. J57  :  Maximum voltage at the extremity of the cable according to its length to a  front of incident voltage =4kV/us 1 2 0 10 m 20 m 30 m 40 m 50 m 0 Up 6.6  Example of lightning current in TT system Common mode SPD between phase and PE or phase and PEN is installed whatever  type of system earthing arrangement (see  Fig. J58 ). The neutral earthing resistor R1 used for the pylons has a lower resistance than the  earthing resistor R2 used for the installation.  The lightning current will flow through circuit ABCD to earth via the easiest path. It  will pass through varistors V1 and V2 in series, causing a differential voltage equal to  twice the Up voltage of the SPD (Up1 + Up2) to appear at the terminals of A and C at  the entrance to the installation in extreme cases. To protect the loads between Ph and N effectively, the differential mode voltage  (between A and C) must be reduced. Another SPD architecture is therefore used (see  Fig. J59 ) The lightning current flows through circuit ABH which has a lower impedance than  circuit ABCD, as the impedance of the component used between B and H is null (gas  filled spark gap). In this case, the differential voltage is equal to the residual voltage  of the SPD (Up2). Fig. J58  :  Common protection only I I I I SPD Fig. J59  :  Common and differential protection SPD I I I

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 K1 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved   Contents     Energy Efficiency in brief   K2     Energy efficiency and electricity   K3   2.1  An international appetite for regulation  K3   2.2  Energy Efficiency standards  K4   2.3  IEC 60364-8-1 standard  K7   2.4  Practical considerations  K9   Diagnostics through electrical measurement   K10   3.1  Electrical measurements  K10   3.2  How to select relevant measuring instruments  K10   Energy saving opportunities   K13   4.1  Motor-related savings opportunities  K13   4.2  Lighting  K16   4.3  Power factor correction and harmonic filtering  K18   4.4  Load management   K19   4.5  Communication and information systems  K21   4.6  Smart panels  K23   How to evaluate energy savings   K29   5.1  IPMVP and EVO procedures  K29   5.2  Achieving sustainable performance  K31 Chapter K Energy efficiency in electrical distribution 3    4    5    2    1   

Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2016 K - Energy efficiency in electrical distribution K2 © Schneider Electric - all rights reserved 1 Energy Efficiency in brief  World energy consumption continues to grow with no perspective of slowing down  in the near future. This trend is driven by different factors, both economical and  sociological: b  An increase in the world population, particularly in countries where the energy  use per person is expected to grow in the future. For example, today, over one billion  people have no access to electricity, and around 40% of the world’s population  is living under water stress. This means that the energy needs will increase in  the future, in order to allow people to benefit from a better standard of living. This  additional energy need is globally not compensated by a decrease of energy  consumption in developed countries. According to the International Energy Agency,  the average energy use per person increased by 10% between 1990 and 2008. b  Urbanization and industrialization, particularly in developing countries. This  means that more energy will be needed for construction, manufacturing, and  transportation of people and goods The